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December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 9 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies—I 


Botany, History, and Evolution of the Gladiolus 
Alvin C. Beal 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 9 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies—I 


Botany, History, and Evolution of the Gladiolus 
Alvin C. Beal 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


vin 


Tt 


3 


- 
PREFACE 


The American Gladiolus Society was organized at Boston, Massachu- 
setts, on the 27th of May, rgro, and the first meeting was held at Roch- 
ester, New York, in August of the same year. Among the objects of the 
society were the following: “to establish a standard nomenclature; to 
test out new varieties and give them the recognition they deserve; and 
to disseminate information relating to this flower.”’ 

Through a cooperative arrangement between the society and Professor 
L. B. Judson, representing the Department of Horticulture at Cornell 
University, the trial grounds of the society were located at Ithaca, New 
York. On the resignation of Professor Judson, who was in charge of the 
trials, the direction of the tests devolved on Professor John Craig, who 
placed George J. Burt in charge of the detail work. Mr. Burt made the 
notes in the field during 1ro911, and in the greenhouse in the winter of 
tgt1-12. Since March, 1912, A. C. Hottes has had charge of the trials, 
at first under the direction of Professor Craig and later under the super- 
vision of the writer. On October 1, 1913, the Department of Floriculture 
at Cornell University was organized, and the gladiolus trials were con- 
tinued as a part of the investigative work of the department. 

All the varieties included in these studies have been tested for more 
than one season, and thus a more satisfactory estimate of the merits of 
each variety has been obtained than would otherwise have been possible. 
If the work has seemed prolonged, it is due in part to the unusual and 
unavoidable changes in its supervision, but in larger measure to the 
difficulty encountered in procuring stock of varieties suspected of being 
synonymous with the varieties already known. 

The thanks of the American Gladiolus Society and of the Department 
of Floriculture at Cornell are due to all who have assisted in the work 
either by the donation of corms or by furnishing information. Those 
connected with the trials are indebted also to the present and the former 
officers of the society for their cooperation and support. 

The present bulletin is intended to trace the development of the gladi- 
olus up to the present time. Succeeding bulletins will treat of its culture 
and of the varieties that have been tested in the Craig gardens of the 
New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University. 

Atvin C. BEAL, 
Professor of Floricultural Investigations, Cornell University. 
Chairman Nomenclature Comnuttee, American Gladiolus 
Society. 


CONTENTS 
PAGE 
Botany ofthe gladiolus... “12.40.20... dewes. - oe on eee 94 
History of the genus <5 Dy .ne2l2s <2 fdan 0. ee 95 
Evokition of the.vladiolus. 20047... 2 = eee . See 121 
History of garden species... 00. 5s. 75) eps. See 137 
Pyprid etadiolt 2:4 elo.) Se, ie ‘v5 aa 
History of gladiotus m America... . 2... kh s12.< Pe ee 154 
Bibliography. of the gladiolus <. 23)... . Spc3.3.4.2. 163 
Oratieel- Works; |< 7 = 1 eae een Wk. Ge 163 
Specinl-works <0) Ay 2 oe eS. UL a 166 
History and development... 022... + 5 ee 168 
Color plates. and figures; 2)... Sawcgi 4 Ae 171 
Gladiolus ‘species: .< rien Aca 9s Ae ee 171 
Hybrid gladioli 22: 2 i.e 28 for 175 
Horticultural: varieties... 72S es See 176 
Tndexii fe. Sc LAST ae ee 183 
Species. och Sse. oy Nn AS Bie ae ete eee 183 
Groups of varieties... .... 00.2559. Ss igs | 187 
Horticultural types... 9.2.06. . ob. el, 00 187 
Growers mentioned. 0.-. 0.5.05. 04 be ee wale ne 187 


GLADIOLUS GANDAVENSIS 


ADAPTED FROM VAN HOUTTE'S FLORE DES SERRES ET 
DES JARDINS DE L’EUROPE 


** 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES—I 


BOTANY, HISTORY, AND EVOLUTION OF THE 
GLADIOLUS 


Atvin C. BEAL 


And the small wild pinks from tender 
Feather-grasses peep at us 

While above them burns on slender 
Stems the red gladiolus.— Lord Lytton. 

Among the summer garden flowers, few, if any, have made more rapid 
progress in popular favor in recent years than the gladiolus. The showy 
character of the tall spikes of flowers, their long period of bloom and com- 
parative ease of culture, render them popular garden subjects. Popular 
as they now are, they deserve to be better known until they are found 
in every garden or dooryard where flowers are grown. 

Although gladiolus blossoms have been sold on some markets for many 
years, it appears that only during the last fifteen years have the merits 
of this plant as a summer cut flower come to be known and appreciated 
by florists and the flower-buying public. At the present time, gladioli 
rank among the first of the summer cut flowers for market, their keeping 
qualities rendering them very satisfactory for table and other decorations. 

The name gladiolus is variously pronounced and from time to time 
during the last fifty years its pronunciation has occasioned some contro- 
versy in the horticultural press. The word is a Latin diminutive of gladius 
(a sword) and means little sword. If the pronunciation follows the Latin 
rule, according to which derivative endings in olus have a short penulti- 
mate syllable, the o is short. Furthermore, according to the rule for Latin 
pronunciation, a vowel is regularly short before another. vowel, which 
makes the z short. Latin dictionaries give the first vowel in gladius and 
gladiolus as short. The word should therefore be marked thus: gladidlus.! 
The rule for accent is as follows: “ Words of more than two syllables 
are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, 
otherwise upon the antepenult (second from the last).’’? Gladiolus, having 
a short penult syllable, 0, would have the accent on the 7, or antepenult 
syllable, thus: gla-di’-6-lus. The plural is properly gladioli, although the 
English sometimes write it gladioluses. 


1 Latin pronunciation English pronunciation 
a as in Cuba a as in fat 
i as in cigar i asin pin 
6 as in obey 6 as in nol 


2? Bennett, C. E. A Latin grammar. Revised edition, page 5. 1908. 
93 


94 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


BOTANY OF THE GLADIOLUS 


The gladioli are cormaceous plants belonging to the family Iridaceae, 
which embraces more than thirty genera of ornamental plants in American 
culture, including Crocus, Ixia, Freesia, and Iris. Crocus and Iris are 
distinguished at once from Gladiolus, Ixia, and Freesia by the fact that 
they normally have more than one flower toa spathe. Ixia has equilateral . 
stamens and a regular perianth, while in Freesia, Lapeyrousia, and 
Watsonia the style branches 
are bifid and the stamens uni- 
lateral. Botanists have had 
some difficulty in determining 
whether various plants of this 
section of the iris family belong 
to the genus Gladiolus, Lapey- 
rousia, Babiana, or Antholyza. 
Babiana is distinguished by 
its very hairy, plaited leaves, 
while Antholyza has the tube 
suddenly dilated at the middle 
instead of gradually widening 
‘as in the genus Gladiolus. 

The corms of the different 
species of Gladiolus vary con- 
siderably in size, shape, and 
color. Usually the body of 
the corm is white, yellowish,. 
or red, and it is covered with 
a brown skin. The height of 
the plants varies considerably, 
ranging from a few inches to 
four feet or more. The leaves, 
which contribute so much to 
the beauty of the plant, vary 
in length, breadth, and color, 
and also in number, some of the species having only two leaves while others 
have from four to six. The leaves are graceful, often bending backward 
toward their points as if to give greater prominence to the stem which 
arises out of them as they recurve from either side. The flowers form a 
spike on the summit of the stem, in some species arranged on one side of 
the stem only, in others on opposite sides. In the more modern cultivated 
varieties the flowers open so widely as to form a spike of matchless beauty. 


Fic. 3. GLADIOLUS SEGETUM 


GLabDIoLus StupiEs — I 95 


HISTORY OF THE GENUS 


The botanists and herbalists of the sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries, dealing only with the plants of Europe, did not give much 
attention to gladioli. Therefore little is found concerning this plant in 
the writings of Cordus, Clusius, the Bauhins, Dodoens, Caesalpinus, and 
Lobelius, and it is not until after 1750 that one finds numerous addi- 
tions to the number of 
gladioli. The history 
of the plant is as 
follows: 

Gerarde (1597) 
mentions the follow- 
ing: 

G. Narbonensis, French 
corn flag. Flowers purple 
and arranged on both sides 
of the stalk. 

G. Italicus, Italian corn 
flag. Flowers purple, sim- 
ilar in form to the preced- 
ing but arranged on one 
side of the stalk. A variety 
of this has pale-colored 
flowers. 

The other forms 
mentioned —G. Lacus- 
tris, water sword-flag 
(mentioned in second 
edition, page 105), and 
G. palustris, water 
gladiole—were plants 
belonging to different 
genera. 

Gerarde says fur- 
ther: 


These kinds of corne Fic. 4. FLOWER OF GLADIOLUS SEGETUM 
flags growe in medowes, 


and in eareable grounds among corne in many places of Italy, as also in the parts of 
Fraunce bordering thereunto. Neither are the fields of Austria and Moravia without 
them, as Cordus writeth. We have great plentie of them in our London gardens, 
especially for the garnishing and decking them up, with their seemely flowers.‘ 


The gladiolus flowered from May to the end of June. 
Bradley (1728) describes six forms of gladioli: 


G. Narbonensis, French corn flag. Flowers reddish purple and arranged on one 
side of the spike. 
3 Dates in parenthesis refer to bibliography, page 163. 


* It may be noted that Gerarde, in giving the various names of this plant, says that “ Valerius Cordus 
calleth corne flag Victortalis femina; others Victorialis rotunda: In the Germanic toong, Seigwurts.” 


96 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


G. flore rubente, Blush corn flag. Resembles the French corn-flag except that it has 
pale red flowers. 

G. flore albo, white corn flag. Similar to the last except that the flowers are white. 

G. purpureus minor, small purple corn flag. Has smaller leaves, stalk, and flowers 
than the French corn-flag, which it otherwise resembles. The flowers are arranged 
on one side of the spike. . 

G. Italicus, Italian corn flag. Flowers a little darker than those of the French corn- - 
flag, and arranged on both sides of the spike. : 

G. Byzantinus, corn flag of Constantinople. Flowers deeper red in color and larger, 
and with larger roots and leaves, than the French corn flag, and arranged on one side 
of the spike. Blooms after the other species are past. Plant more tender than the 
preceding. 


Breyne (1739b) describes Gladiolus tristem, G. angustem, G. plicatum, 
and G. puniceum Lam. The last-named is considered a synonym of 
G. villosus Ker. G. angustus was described in Hortus Cliffortianus under 
the name G. folizs linearibus. 

Linneus, in his Hortus Cliffortianus (1737), describes the following 
species and gives references to the names of these in the writings of other 
botanists: 


1. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major. Bauh. pin. 41. 

Gladiolus sive Xyphion. Bauh. hist. 2. p. 701. 

Victorialis rotunda. Besl. eyst. 66. f. 2. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major & procerior, flore purpureo- 
rubente. Tournef. inst. 365, Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 365. 

Gladiolus. Riv. mon. 163. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major & procerior, flore candicante. 
Tournef. inst. 365. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, minor & humilior. Tournef. inst. 365. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, minor. Tournef. inst. 366. 

Gladiolus carnei coloris. Tournef.-inst. 365. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 

Gladiolus utrinque floridus. Bauh. pin. 41. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 126. 

Gladiolus utrinque floriferus. Dod. pempt. 209. 

Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore rubro. Tournef. inst. 366. 

Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore albo. Tournef. inst. 366. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 

(Native of Italy and around Monspelium.) 

2. Gladiolus foliis linearibus. Vid. Tab. 

Gladiolus africanus, folio gramineo, floribus carneis, macula rhomboidea purpurea 
inscriptis, uno versu positis. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 

(Native of Africa.) 


In Species Plantarum, Linnzeus (1753 b) describes the following species: 


communis, 1. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, floribus distantibus. 
Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus. Hort. cliff. 20... Hort. ups. 16. 
Gladiolus caule simplicissimo, foliis ensiformibus. Roy. lwgdb. 19. 
Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis. Bauh. pin. 41. 
Habitat in Europa australi. 
imbricatus. 2. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, floribus imbricatis. 
Habitat in Russia citertore. 
Flores parvi versus unum latus tmbricatt. 
spicatus. [Not at present included in the genus Gladiolus. Is Watsonia spicata.] 
angustus. 4. Gladiolus foliis linearibus, floribus distantibus, corollarum tubo 
limbis longiore. 
Gladiolus caule simplcissimo, foliis linearibus, floribus alternis. 
Roy. lugdb. 19. 
Gladiolus foliis linearibus. Hort. cliff. 20. *t. 6. 
Habitat in Africa. 


GLaDIOLus StupIEs — I z 07 


ramosus. [Not at present included in genus Gladiolus. Is Melasphaerula 
graminea.| 
capitatus. {Not at present included in genus Gladiolus. Is Aristea capitata.] 


The second edition (1762) includes in addition to the above: 


alatus. 4. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, petalis lateralibus latissimis. Amen. 
acad. 6 afric 2.* 
Sisyrinchium viperarum. Pluk. phyt. 224. f. 8. 
Habitat ad Cap. b. spei. 
plicatus. [Now included in genus Babiana as B. stricta.] 
tristis. 6. Gladiolus foliis lineari-cruciatis, corollis campanulatis. 
Gladiolus bifolius & biflorus, foliis quadrangulis. Trew. ehret. t. 39. 
Halntai in Athiopia. : 


alopecuroides. {Now known as Watsonia plantaginea.] 


In the Encyclopédie Botanique (Lamarck, 1786) twenty-six species are _ 
described, but in addition to the species of Linnzeus only the following are 
now recognized: G. bimaculatus |=involutus]; G. puniceus [=villosus (?)); 
G. luteus Lam.; G. montanus Linn; andG. recurvus. The other species are 
now included in Babiana, Ixia, Lapeyrousia, Melasphaerula, and Watsonia. 

John Bellenden Gawler (who later changed his name to Ker, also given 
“in the bibliography) was the most prominent investigator working on 
the order Iridaceae during the first thirty or forty years of the nineteenth 
century. He published (Gawler, 1805) a complete synopsis of all the 
twenty-six genera, with a list of the two hundred and twenty-five species 
then known. In this paper many genera now recognized were for the 
- first time named and fully characterized. Among these are Anomatheca, 
Aristea, Babiana, Geissorhiza, Hesperantha, Marica, Melasphaerula, 
Morphixia, Pardanthus, Sparaxis, and Tritonia. The following list of 
species of Gladiolus is given:® 


Cunonia (Antholyza) B. M. t. 343. 

Watsonius, B. M. t. 450. 

Quadrangularis, B. M. t. 567 [Baker places this in Antholyza]. 

Namaquensis, B. M. t. 592 [Baker gives this as a variety of G. alatus]. 

Alatus, B. M. t. 586. 

Viridis, Hort. Kew. 3 p. 481 [Ker later places this in Tritonial]. 

Viperatus, B. M. t. 688 [Baker gives this as a synonym of G. orchidiflorus Andr.]. 

Permeabilis, De la Roche Diss. 27. 

Versicolor, B. M. t. 556 [Baker places this under G. grandis Thunb.]. 

Tristis, B. M. t. 272. 

Hyalinus, Jacq. Ic. var. 2. t. 242. 

Tenellus, ‘Jacq. Ic. var. 2. t. 248. coll. 4. t. 3. f. 1. 

Setifolius, Thunb. Diss. de Glad. 18. 

Gracilis, B. M. t. 562. 

Carinatus, B. M. t. 578 [Baker places this under G. recurvus Linn.]. 

Hirsutus [B. M. plates cited are not figures of this species]. 

Flexuosus, Thunb. Diss. de Glad. t. 1. f. 1 [Baker places this species in the genus 
Acidanthera]. 


5 Citations to plates that were not later confirmed by Baker have been omitted, so that persons 
desiring to look up the species of Gladiolus known one hundred years ago may do so without error. The 
comments in brackets after some of the species, except in the first case, were added by the writer from 
an examination of later works on the subject. 


98 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Carneus, B. M. t. 591 [Baker regards this as a synonym of var. ventricosus Lam. 
of G. cuspidatus Jacq.}. ; 

Cuspidatus, B. M. t. 582. 

Blandus, B. M. t. 625, 645, 648. 

Angustus, B. M. t. 602. 

Undulatus, B. M. t. 647. 

Floribundus, B. M. t. 610. 

Milleri, B. M. t. 632. 

Cardinalis, B. M. t. 135. 

Byzantinus, B. M. tab. nondum evulgata (347). 

Communis, B. M. t. 86. 

Segetum, B. M. t. 719. 

For many years Ker added to the knowledge of Iridaceae through his 
contributions to Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. Later he joined Sydenham 
Edwards in establishing the Botanical Register. He published separately 
at Brussels in 1827 a paper entitled Genera Iridearum, in which he gives 
a synoptic list of a little over three hundred species classified in thirty 
genera. Under Gladiolus he recognizes the following in addition to those 
named above: speciosus Thunb. ; merianellus Thunb. ; villosus Ker; aphyllus 
Ker; brevifolius Jacq.; laevis Thunb.; Breynianus Ker; suaveolens Ker; 
elongatus Thunb.; trichonemifolius Ker; inflatus Thunb.; recurvus Linn.; 
trimaculatus Lam.; vomerculus Ker; involutus De la Roche; edulis Ker; 
imbricatus Linn.; luteus Lam. Altogether he gives a synoptic list of 
forty-six species of Gladiolus, with a list of eight additional names of 
species doubtfully placed. With the publication of this paper the labors 
of this botanist on the order appear to have ceased. 

After the death of Dean Herbert in 1847 there was no recognized 
authority on the Iridaceae for about thirty years. Dr. F. W. Klatt, 
of Hamburg, between 1863 and 1895 published several papers which 
collectively give a fairly good synopsis of the order. 

In 1878 John Gilbert Baker published his Systema Iridacearum in the 
Journal of the Linnean Society, in which he classified about seven hundred 
species in sixty-five genera. His Handbook of the Iridee appeared in 1892, 
and in this are fully described nine hundred and twenty-six species 
belonging to fifty-seven genera. The following generic description and 
list of subgenera of Gladiolus are taken from thé latter work. No key 
is given to the one hundred and thirty-two species described, but the 
number of species included under each subgenus is given. 


GLADIOLUS Linn. 


Perianth-tube usually funnel-shaped; segments of the limb more or less unequal 
in shape and direction, oblong, spathulate or unguiculate, the upper of the outer row 
generally the largest. Stamens inserted at the throat of the perianth-tube, contiguous 
and arching; filaments short, free; anthers linear, -basifixed. Ovary 3-celled; ovules 
many, superposed; style long, arcuate; stigmas cuneate, entire. Capsule oblong, loculi- 
cidally _3-celled. Seeds globose or discoid, sometimes distinctly winged.— Rootstock 
a tunicated corm. Produced leaves distichous, superposed on the stem, generally linear 
or ensiform. Inflorescence spicate; flowers 1 to a spathe, sessile; spathe-valves linear 
or lanceolate. Flowers very various in size and colour. ; 


GiapDIoLus Stupies — I 99 


Subgenus EvuGLap1oLus.— Perianth-tube funnel-shaped; segments not distinctly 
_unguiculate. 


’ Species of Europe and Western Asia. 
h LEAF 5s copy Nis aS ai iin An ee Sekt ce i a Sp. 1-5. 
Sapna Sn, SR CR ph ee che Bre ee ad pf t ic aie cars ns Sp. 6-8. 
. Seas METAR INNA Ra ot eS, pe ere EE CU he 2 n Serer Sp. 9-15. 
Species of the Cape and Tropical Africa. 
P Leaves subterete or linear. 
aegis MRE cee RN ERS CR TIEA oe SM NS S/n og hn ered? nine ce A'S 3 a's Sp. 16-31. 
eae aide eetieritS QUbEIGSe: Sons Se Pele ale eee clang hs ate akg pw ee De Sp. 32-72. 
MMR TMECESISAL «Shame rs, Hae Se Baits cn he O' Nps hha S/n HEB OL oe ala Sp. 73-109. 
Subgenus II. HersBea.— Perianth-tube short; segments distinctly unguiculate. 
RET MO LSE as, Now can ae Ny She REE aS wit ya thaiets & anlar Bee 0 Sp. 110-124. 
Subgenus III. ScHWEIGGERA.— Flowers small; segments distinctly unguiculate. 
RRC M ES Ne once ots, Oi satak ACs pn tee Sa Pea Pius, fee wee Sp. 125-126. 
Subgenus IV. HomocGLossum.— Perianth-tube like that of a Watsonia; segments 
A eet Ce ane Oey Seeing Ieee hooker Bs Pp eae | ee a Sp. 127-132. 


The following key to eighty-one of the Cape species appears in Flora 
Capensis (Baker, 1896-97). The European, Asiatic, and central African 
species are of course not included. 


_ Subgenus I. EvGiapioLus. Spathe-valves large, green, 
lanceolate; perianth-segments not distinctly unguiculate. 


A. Leaves terete or linear: 
Perianth-segments acute: 
Perianth—-tube 13-2 in. long: 
Leaves subterete: 
Perianth-segments long and gradually pointed. (1) grandis. 
Perianth-segments shortly pointed: 
Perianth pale or slightly flushed with dark 


Rye eg os A nse ong Pe ea aE SIT (2) tristis. 
Perianth dark ine. } 22a 5 Lee tek & (3) recurvus. 
Leaves linear: 
Segments with a short cusp................. (4) angustus. 
Segments with a long cusp.................. (5) cuspidatus. 


Perianth-tube about an inch long: 
Leaves subterete: 
Flowers horizontal: 


Soe see Pe a ek Waits See Cok (6) hastatus. 
rece siee MASE IRE ly Ee mona welt mie (7) gracilis. 
lowers yellowishs 2-0 thei, tae Des (8) tenellus. 
WEES MSIDELeGh « eo0e 3 a1 cls Ot Siena Selb (9) trichonemifolius. 
Leaves linear: 
Biawers Hide ees se era ea et ee ei Ree dic (10) vomerculus. 
Blowerscvellowisiren2 Seer enti oS oe kt (11) strictus. 
Whole flower not above an inch long: 
Leaf with scarcely any free point.............. (12) pubescens. 
Went slendemisubterete..0 25 te on ee (13) Lambda. 
Hee hl VTLS Teel i clea SE Sas ee Eo Bie: ey ae ee (14) rachidiflorus. 


Perianth-segments obtuse or obscurely cuspidate: 
/ Stem-leaves with only very short, free points: 
Sheaths glabrous: 
Flowers pink or lilac: 
Perianth-tube half as long as the segments.. (15) microphyllus. 


Perianth-tube as long as the segments...... (16) brevifolius. 
Perianth-tube longer than the segments..... (17) tabularis. 
Flower-segments white with a red keel........ (18) inandensis 


RSMEANS Pa ce tes wa ae ew 4 eee (19) Woodii. 


100 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Stem-leaves with long, free points: 
Leaves subulate or very narrow: 
Flowers erect or suberect: 


Segments shorter than the tube............ (20) tenuis. 
Segments equalling the tube............... (21) debilis. 
Segments rather longer than the tube....... (22) Bolusii. 
Segments 2-3 times the length of the tube: 
Plowersybreitrlilace ca, cee ee (23) biflorus. 
Flowers pale yellow 7 i.42)-.o0 02 kas (24) erectiflorus. 


Flowers horizontal with a curved tube: 
Flowers 1-4 in a spike: 


Upper segments 3-3 in. broad: 


Flowers white = Ssees se ee tees (25) cochleatus. 
Blowers bright redv 235 4s5 0.5 oa ok (26) Rogersii. 
(Plowerg pilots eek terete te: ko ede. (27) Pappei. 
Upper segments 3—? in. broad: 
Corm-tunics of fine fibres............. (28) inflatus. 
Corm-tunics of wiry-strands........... (29) spathaceus. 
Flowers. many-in’a spikes. .. 222 (30) involutus. 


Leaves linear: 
Leaf-sheaths glabrous: 


Perianth-tube 12in. long... .. 2.0. ee (31) hyalinus. 
Penanth-tube tan lone. 2) cb. Ne arenes (32) vittatus. 
Perianth=tabe sin lOng. pe cae apie nate (33) striatus. 
Perianth tube 4—3 in. long: 
Segments half as long as the tube........ (34) paludosus. 
Segments twice the length of the tube: 
Prodiced leaves 22ey4. seen ete ee ee (35) niveni. 
Produced leaves 3-4: ? 
Stamens half as long as limb........ (36) punctatus. 
Stamens as long as the lower segments (37) brachyscyphus. 


eat-sheaths hainyaie oa, sarin cre mite ae ae ee (38) villosus. 


B. Leaves ensiform. 
Parviflori. Perianth-tube under an inch long. 
_ Spikes equilateral; flowers very numerous: 
Flowers red: 
Perianth-tibels it Mon per.ccaco ee ane oe ee eee (39) crassifolius. 
Penianth-tube= in. long» os. oso sone te eee (40) Elliotii. 
Flowers yellow: 


Seen pUDEscenba 6s ciies ive = te teou he Oe mR ee (41) Ludwigii. 


ShembavilllOSGk easys Sree cilels Socese tee mal ote be eee ee (42) sericeo-villosus. 
Spikes secund; flowers fewer: 
BB WEIS VCUGW oot. 2cnn x out lal tees So oe eee (43) ochroleucus 
Flowers red: 
Upper segments 3 in. broad 
Penanth=tube-+ in. long. 59s. oo: co eee (44) Kirkii. 
Perianth-tube2rin= longs. 24 0 ae eee (45) Eckloni. 
3 


Upper segments } in. broad; two inner lower with a 
large dark blotch: 


Plowers :yellow?.. =). 2 ecs oe tee ee ee (46) purpureo-auratus. 
Flowers purple: 

Outer spathe-valve 1-1} in. long.....°.......... (47) Papilio. 

Outer spathe-valve 13-2 in. long... . 922.05... (48) Rehmanni. 


Blandi. Perianth-tube 1-2 in. long; flowers white or pale red. 
Segments obovate, obscurely pointed: 
Sheaths and leaves hairy: 


Sepments as-long as the tubes.) 2%. 5 ses ee (49) hirsutus. 

Segments shorter than‘the tube. . 2. / 2. J roe ee nae (50) salmoneus. 
Sheaths and leaves glabrous: 

Perianth-tubeil—t pms lone.) sae een eee (51) scaphochlamys. 


Perianth-tubeda—oun. longs i. nase ee eee (52) floribundus. 


\ 


GLADIOLUS: STUDIES — I IOI 


Segments oblong, distinctly pointed: Ms 
Perianth-tube curved: 


SE MS a eae (53) oppositiflorus. 

Peeeiness = 0 Sa -MTRE o ss 88S oS Sea ee (54) blandus. 
Perianth-tube nearly straight: 

Segments nearly concolorous. ................-...-- (55) Milleri. 

Segments with a bright red central band............. (56) undulatus. 


Cardinales. Flowers large, bright red, with a nearly 
straight tube, and upper segments not distinctly hooded. 


Segments subequal, shorter than the tube................ (57) Macowani. 
Upper segments as long as the tube................... (58) Adlami. 
Segments unequal, longer than the tube: 
tener sepments +—s:m-. broad. ..."......-.2-2.2.5.% (59) cardinalis. 
Upper segments obovate, I-13 in. broad: 
Mewes HACLS 8. —9 in IONE oe so en se ee a ee (60) splendens. 
Mower bracts 3-61: lone s* }. . 2 2 Cee (61) cruentus. 


Dracocephali. Flowers large, with a much-curved tube 
and upper segments hooded. 
Flowers dull-coloured: 


etre SATE ere So. oh She 5. ee SOR (62) dracocephalus. 

ae CARMI gS oa es ee ss Oecd are ees (63) platyphyllus. 
Flowers bright red: 

Pemeramrus tnan the tubes.<. 22... . feiss. toe. (Q4) psittacinus. 

Limb as long as the tube: 

Pies fear si sthy USN ee) a) oe Gee ie eee (65) Leichtlinii. 

eta id i a py (66) Tysoni. 

tea iouper than the iube. :... 2... 27. ee (67) Saundersii. 
erertae eth VOUOW 22.0% ,.50% 0%. oS. aes ee ee ee (68) aurantiacus. 


Subgenus II. Hepes. Spathe-valves large, green, ob- 
long-lanceolate. Perianth-segments all with a narrow claw. 
Side-segments about 3 in. broad: 

Flowers red: 


Leaves with many close equal ribs.................. (69) alatus. 
Leaves with only a thickened midrib and edge........ (70) spathulatus. 
Flowers greenish-yellow... ......-.--..2-.-.20..000.05. (71) orchidiflorus. 
Side-segments about } in. broad: 
ema ated EERE SIICTISN I ONS ee en Tes wg Pe gc omens (72) pulchellus. 
EME gE CMESISIESE oo 58 oak Fs oar Nt aS ore ge a (73) bicolor. 
Side-segments about } in. broad: 
Stems stout; flowers few to a spike........:..-...0..¢. (74) arcuatus. 


_ Stems slender; flowers many to a spike: 
Segments cuspidate: 


Upper segments F1 in. lonup..2.. 2... 2... See oa (75) formosus. 
Upper segments 2-1 in. long: 
‘Tunics of fine parallel fibres. ...............4.... (76) edulis. 
‘Tunics-lacerated:from the base. ..:. 2.2. ....-: . ... (77) Scullyi. 
Segments not cuspidate: 
Claw of upper segments very narrow.............. (78) Dregei. 
Claw of upper segments not very narrow........... (79) permeabilis. 


Subgenus III. ScHWEIGGERA. Spathe-valves small, 
brown, rigid. Segments all with a distinct slender claw and 


small blade. 
Perianth-limb 3-3? in. long. (80) arenarius. 
Peel Bushy, bes LONE ne 2 a Sen a Tie one oe te gee os 9 oc (81) montanus. 


Of the Cape species included in the foregoing key, Gladiolus erectiflorus, 


-G. tnflatus, and G. platyphyllus are new species and were not described 


in Baker’s Handbook of the Iridee. 
Many species from other parts of the world are described in the last- 
named work. The fifteen European and Asiatic species are named on 


102 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


pages 199 to 202. The following are from tropical Africa: andongensts 
Welw. ex Baker; angolensis Welw. ex Baker; atropurpureus Baker; 
benguellensis Baker; brachyandrus Baker; brevicaulis Baker; Buchanant 


Baker; Buettnert Pax; coerulescens Baker; corneus Oliv.; decoratus Baker; 


Grantiit Baker; gregarius Welw.; Hanningtoni Baker; kilimandscharicus 
Pax; laxiflorus Baker; 
luridus Welw.; Melleri 
Baker; micranthus Baker; 
multiflorus Baker; newit 
Baker; Oatesu Rolfe; 
pauciflorus Baker; prim- 


anus A. Rich.; splendens 
Baker; sulphureus Baker; 
Thomsoni Baker; ungut- 
culatus Baker; Welwitschit 
Baker; zambesiacus Baker. 
From central Madagascar 
are reported G. Garmtert 
Klatt and G. luteus Lam. 
Further study has resulted 
in the discovery that G. 
andongensts Welw. ex 
Baker, G. angolensis Welw. 
ex Baker, G. kilimand- 
scharicus Pax, G. newt 
Baker, G. primulinus 
Baker, and G. Welwitschi 
Baker, are really syn- 
onyms of G. Quartinianus 
A. Rich. 

Since the publication of 
the Handbook of the Iridee 
and the Flora Capensis, 
a number of species of 
Gladiolus from tropical 
Africa and elsewhere have been described. Some of these have been 
published by Mr. Baker and are therefore new species. Others have 
been described by persons who have not made any monographic studies 
on the genus. It is not improbable that some of them are forms of the 
apparently very variable G. Ouartinianus A. Rich or of other known 
species. A few new specific names have appeared among the European 


FIG. 5. GLADIOLUS LEICHTLINII BAKER 


ulinus Baker; Quartini-. 


, = 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 103 


species, but it is not probable that the supposed new species of Jordan 
are more than varietal forms of species already known. 
The following is a complete list of the supposed new species from 


Europe and Africa: 


affinis De Wild. 
antunesit Baker, 1897 
aphanophyllus Baker, 1898 
Arnoldianus De Wild. 
arvaticus Jord. 
atrorubens Brown, 1914 
Bakeri Klatt, 1893 
Baum Harms 

bellus Wright, 1906 
brachylimbus Baker 
brevispathus Klatt, 1893 
calothyrsus Vaupel, 1912 
carmineus Wright, 1906 
Carsoni Baker, 1895 
caudatus Baker, 1895 
Conrathi Baker 
cyclocarpus Jord. 
cymbarinus Baker 
decipiens Vaupel, 1912 
densiflorus Baker 
elegans Vaupel, 1912 
Elloni Baker, 1890 
Flanagani Baker 
flexuosus Baker, 1894 
fusco-viridis Baker 
gallacensis Vaupel, 1912 
garuanus Vaupel, 1912 
Gawleri Jord. 

gazensis Rendle 
germanicus Jord. 
glaucus Heldr., 1896 
Goetzei Harms, 1900 
gracillimus Baker, 1895 
Hanru Jord. 
Harmsianus Vaupel, 1912 
heterolobus Vaupel, 1912 
inconspicuus Baker 
Johnstont Baker, 1897 
junodi Baker 
karendensis Baker 
kubangensis Harms 
Lannesit Jord. 
linearifolius Vaupel, 1912 
littoralis Jord. 

longanus Harms 
Mackindert Hook. 


macrophlebius Baker, 1898 
malangensis Baker 
Masoniorum Wright, 1910 
massont Klatt, 1893 
masukuensis Baker, 1897 
micranthus Baker 
microsiphon Baker 

mirus Vaupel, 1912 
morrumbalaensis De Wild. 
mosambicensis Baker 
Miuingzneri Vaupel, 1912 
numidicus Jord. 

nytkensis Baker, 1897 
oliganthus Baker, 1898 
oligophlebius Baker 
oreocharis Schltr., 1896 
pallidus Baker, 1898 
platyphyllus Baker, 1893 
porrigeus Jord. 

pretorius Kuntze 
prismatosiphon Schitr., 1899 
puberuius Vaupel, 1912 
pubescens Pax 

punctatus Dam., 1889 
quilimanensis Baker, 1898 
reductus Baker 
remorifolius Baker 
rigescens Jord. 

rigidifolius Baker 

rupicola Vaupel, 1912 
ruricola Jord. 

Schlechtert Baker 
spectabilis Baker 

Staudtit Vaupel, 1912 
stenophyllus Baker, 1897 
subaphyllus Brown, 1909 
subulatus Baker, 1898 
Taubertianus Schlitr., 1899 
trichostachys Baker 
tritoniaeformis Kuntze 
tritonoides Baker, 1895 
uhehensis Harms, 1900 
venulosus Baker, 1897 
Verdickii De Wild. 
vexillare Martelli 

Whytet Baker, 1897 


The reader is reminded that plants of these species, as well as of the 
majority of the species that have been known longer, are not offered by 
dealers in plants—are not procurable even from botanical gardens; 
and that the specimens of these species are to be found in European 
herbaria which the writer has not had the opportunity to examine. The ; 
writer, therefore, cannot vouch for the authenticity of any of these 


104 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


names as distinct species, nor can a complete key be made of all the spe- 
cies. It is desired, however, to call attention to the present status of 
the subject, and it is hoped that some person favorably located may carry 
forward the work so ably begun by Mr. Baker and Dr. Klatt. 

The following list of synonyms is as complete as present knowledge of 
the genus will admit: 


affinis Pers.= cuspidatus Jacq. 

alatus Jacq.= orchidiflorus 

albidus Jacq.—a variety of blandus 
aleppicus Boiss.= atroviolaceus 

algoensis Sweet = alatus Linn. . 
alpigenus C. Koch, 1848 = tllyricus 
ambiguus Roem. & Schult. hirsutus 
andongensis Welw. ex Baker = Quartinianus 
Andrewsit Klatt = brevifolius Jacq. 
angolensis Welw. ex Baker = Quartinianus 
angustifolius Salisb.—= angustus Linn. 
angustus Herb. Linn.= blandus, undulatus 
angustus Jacq..ex. Thunb.= hastatus 
angustus Thunb. undulatus 

aphyllus Ker-Gawl., 1827 = brevifolius 


biflorus Roem. & Schult. hirsutus 
bimaculatus Lam.= involutus De la Roche 
binervis Sweet = grandis 

Bornett Ardoino = segetum 

Boucheanus Schlecht., 1832 = palustris 
brevicollis Klatt = brevifolius Jacq. 
Breynianus Ker-Gawl., 1827 = recurvuts 
byzantinus Bieb.= segetum 

byzantinus Coss ex. Ball, 1878 = tlyricus 


calvatus Baker = a variety of Ludwigii 
campanulatus Andr.= var. carneus of G. blandus 
carinatus (Soland.) Ait.== recurvus 

carneus Andr.= brevtfolius 

carneus De la Roche = var. carneus of G. blandus 
carneus Herb. Banks = hirsutus 

carneus Jacg.— var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus 
carneus Klatt = Ecklont 

caucasicus Herb., 1842 = segetum 

citrinus Klatt = trichonemifolius 

cochleatus Baker, 1876 = ungutculatus 

collinus Salisb.—= communis 

communis Cay.= tlyricus 

communis Linn. in part = segetum 

communis Thunb.— carneus 

commumts Vahl. in part = byzantinus 
commutatis Bouché = segetum . 

concolor Salisb.= var. concolor of G. tristus 
Cooperi Baker = var. Coopert of G. psittacinus 
cordatus Thunb. angustus 

crispiflorus Herb., 1842 = imbricatus 

cuspidatus Andr.= var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus 


dalmaticus Tausch = segetum 

dichotomus Thunb.— permeabilis De la Roche 
dubius Guss.= tllyricus 

dubius Parl. spathaceus 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 


elaius Balb.= byzantinus 

elongatus Thunb.— grandis 

ensifolius Baker = cuspidatus Jacq. 

equitans Thunb.— var. namaquensis of G. alatus 
excelsus Ker-Gaw1.= blandus 


fasciatus Roem. & Schult.= vittatus 

festivus Herb., 1844 — brevifolius 

flabellifer Tausch, 1836 = oppositiflorus 

floribundus Hort. Batav. ex. Tausch = oppositiflorus 
formosus Pers.— striatus 


galeatus Burn.— alatus 

galiciensts Bess = imbricatus 

Gawleri Klatt = a variety of Watsonius Thunb. 
gracilis Licht.— scaber 

grandifiorus Andr.— floribundus 

Gueinzit Hunze, 1847 = blandus 

Guepini Koch, 1840 = segetum 


hastatus Ker = vomerculus Ker 

hirsutus Ker = vtllosus 

hirtus Steud. hirsutus 

hygrophtlus Boiss. ex. Baker, 1877 = imbricatus 


tnarimensis Guss.—= segetum 
infestus Bianca — segetum 
ttalicus Miller = communis 


kilimandscharicus Pax = Quartinianus 


laccatus Thunb.— villosus 

laevis Thunb.= grandis 

Lamarckit Roem. & Schult.— villosus 
Lemonta Pourr. ex Steud. blandus 
leucanthus Bouché = segetum _ 

libanoticus Boiss. — a variety of imbricatus 
liltaceus Houtt.—= angustus, gracilis, etc. 
Ludoviciae Jan.— segetum 

luridus Hornem.=— trichonemifolius 

luteus Klatt in part = bicolor 


Macowantensis Klatt, 1885 — angusius 
maculatus Sweet = recurvus Linn. 

Marchallii Poir = imbricaius 

monostachyus Roem. & Schult.= hastatus, etc. 
Mortonianus Steud.— blandus 

Mortonius Herb.— blandus 

mucronatus Lam.= hirsutus 


namaquensis Ker-Gawl= var. namaguensis of G. alatus 
narbonensts Bub.— illyricus 

natalensis Reinw.—= psittacinus 

neglectus Schult —= palustris 

newtt Baker = Quartinianus 

notarisit Parl. communis 


odorus Salisb.—= recurvus 

opposttifolius Hort., 1893 = oppositiflorus 
“orchidifiorus Pers. non Andr.— arenarius 

ornatus Klatt, 1885 — inflatus 

orobranche Red. Lil.—= brevifolius Jaca. 


105 


106 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


papilionaceus Lichtst.= alatus Linn. 
parviflorus Jacq.—= montanus Linn. 
pauciflorus Berdaw = imbricatus 
petraeus Boiss.— atroviolaceus 

pictus Sweet = blandus 

pilosus Eckl.—= villosus 

pratensis Dietr.= palustris 

primulinus Baker, 1890 = Quartinianus 
pterophyllus Pers.= gracilis Jacq. 
punctatus Jacq.= recurvus Linn. 
punctulatus Schrank, 1822 — villosus (?) 
puniceus Lam.— villosus Ker 


Raddeanus Trantv., 187 5 = imbricatus 
ramosus Baker =a variety of montanus Linn. 
Reuteri Boiss.—= var. Reuteri of G. ilyricus 
ringens Andr.—= recurvus 

ringens var. undulatus Andr.— nivent Baker 
ringens Eckl. inflatus 

roseus Andr.= hirsutus 

rossicus Pers.—= imbricatus 

rubromarginatus Schrad.— hirsutus 


sagittifer Salisb.—= blandus (?) 

saltatorum Baker, 1875 = Quartinianus 
schimperianus Steud. ex Baker, 1877 = Quartinianus 
segetalis St. Lag.= segetum 

serotinus Welw.= var. Reuteri of G. ill yricus 
serotinus Willd.= illyricus 

setifolius Eckl.—= gracilis 

Spathaceus Parl. segetum 

Spectosus Eckl.— cardinalis 

Speciosus Thunb.— alatus 

spilanthus Klatt in part = brevifolius Jacq. 
spilanthus Klatt in part = hastatus Thunb. 
spilanthus Spreng. ex Baker, 1877 = gracilis 
spiralis Pers.— tristis 

splendens Welw. ex Baker = Quartinianus 
striatus Andr.—= undulatus 

strictus Jacq.—= hyalinus 

suaveolens Ker. = recurvus 

subbiflorus Boiss.—= imbricatus 


> sulcatus Lam. mollis 


tabularis Pers.= montanus Linn. 
Taylorianus Rendle = Quartinianus 

telifer Stokes = angustus 

Templemanii Klatt, 1885 = bicolor Baker 
tenusflorus C. Koch, 1848 = illyricus 

tenuis Bieb.= imbricatus 

tenuis Salzm.= palustris 

Thunbergit Eckl.— hastatus 

tigrinus Eckl. ex Baker, 1877 = vomerculus Ker. 
trimaculatus Lam.—= angustus 

triphyllus Bertol—= palustris 

tristis Herb. Linn. ex Baker, 1877 = grandis 
tristis Thunb.— tenellus 


undulatus Linn. in part = cuspidatus Jacq. 
undulatus Scheev.= vittatus 
uniflorus Klatt, 1882 = alatus 


~ 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — I 107 


veniricosus Lam.— var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus. 
versicolor Andr.— grandis 

villostusculus Soland. ex Baker = villosus 

vinulus Klatt, 1885 — vtttatus 

violaceus Pers.—= recurvus 

viperatus Ker-Gawl.= orchidiftorus 

virescens Thunb.— orchidtflorus 

viltatus Zuccag.— undulatus Jacq. 


Welwtischit Baker, 1878 = Quartinianus 


The following species have been described as gladioli, but belong to other 
_ genera: 


abbrematus Andr.— Antholyza quadrangularis 
Gequtnoctialis Herb., 1842 — Acidanthera aequinoctialts 
‘aletroides Vahl — Watsonia aletroides 

alopecureides Linn.— Watsonia plantaginea 
alopecuroides Linn. Watsonta spicata 

amabilis Salisb.— Lapeyrousta juncea 

amoenus Roem. & Schult. Tritonta rosea 

amoenus Salisb.— Watsonia meriana 

anceps Linn. in part — Lapeyrausta compressa 
anceps Linn. ex. Baker, 1877 = Lapeyrousta Fabricit 
angustifolius Lam=— Babiana tubiflora 

antholyza Poir— Antholysa nervosa 


bicolor Thunb.— Synnotia bicolor 

biflorus Thunb. Salemoneus biflorus 
bracteatus Thunb. Lapeyrousia fissifolia 
bracteolatus Lam. Watsonta punctata 
Burmanni Schrank, 1822 = Ixta Burmannt 


capttatus Linn.— Aristea ca pitata 
caryophyllaceus Poir— Waitsonia humilis 
caryophylieus Houtt—= Watsonta brevifolia 
coccineus Schrank, 1822 — Ixia speciosa 
crispus Linn.—= Tritonia crispa 

crocatus Pers Tritonia crocaia 

cunonta Gaert.— Aniholysa cunonia 


denticulaius Lam.— Lapeyrousia Fabricii 
distichus Roem. & Schult. Babiana distichia 


elongatus Salisb— Babiana tubiflora 
exctsus Jacq.— Lapeyrousia juncea 
exscapus Thunb. Actdanthera tubulosa 


Fabrictt Thunb. Lapeyrousia Fabrictt 
falcaius Linn = Lapeyrousia Fabrictt 
fisstfolius Jacq.— Lapeyrousia fissifolia 
fistulosus Jacq. Watsonia spicata 

flavus Soland.— Tritonta flava 

flexuosus Linn.— A cidanthera tubulosa 
flexuosus Thunb.— Acidanthera flexuosa 
fragrans Jacq. Babiana plicata ° 


galeatus Jacq.— Synnotia galatea 
Garntertt Klatt (in Decken, Reis. Bot. 3:73) = Antholyza Watsontotdes 
glumaceus Thunb.— Watsonia rosea 

* gramineus Linn. Melasphaerula graminea 


108 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


inclinatus Red. Lil.= Babiana tubiflora 

indicus Miller = Ferraria undulata 

infundibuliformis Schrank, 1822 = Watsonia meriana 
iridifolius Jacq.— Watsonia meriana 

ixioides Thunb. Tritonia paniculata 


junceus Burm.= Lapeyrousia juncea 


laccatus Jacq.== Watsonta humilis 

laceratus Burm.= Tritonia crispa 

latifolius Lam. Babiana obtusifolia 

laxus Thunb. Meristostigma laxa 

lineatus Salisb.—= Tritonia lineata 

lomenia J. F. Gmel.= Lomenia borbonica 
longicollis Baker, 1876 = Acidanthera platyphylla 
longiflorus Andr.— Babiana tubata 

longiflorus Herb. Linn. ex Baker, 1877 = Acidanthera tubulosa 
longiflorus Jacq. Tritonia pallida 

longiflorus Linn. Suppl.— Ixia paniculata 

lucidor Baker = Homoglossum lucidor Bakcr 


marginatus Linn. Watsonia marginata 
marmoratus Lam. Lapeyrousia juncea 

merianellus Thunb. Antholyza mertanella 
merianus Thunb. Antholvyza aletroides 

minor Baker = Antholyza Watsonioides 
minutiflorus Schrank, 1822 = Watsonia plantaginea 
mucronatus Jacq.—= Babiana mucronata 

mucronatus Red. Lil.= Babiana stricta 


nanus Andr.— Babiana rosea 
nervosus Baker = Antholyza nervosa Thunb. 
nervosus Lam. Babiana stricta 


odorus Schrank = Ixia fragrans 


paniculatus Pers. Lapeyrousia juncea 
papilionaceus Vahl.—= Watsonia Lamarckit 
pectinatus Soland. ex Baker, 1877 = Tritonia crispu 
plantagineus Pers.= Watsonia plantaginea 
plicatus Jacq. Babiana distichia 

plicatus Linn. Babiana stricta 

plicatus Thunb. Babiana plicata 

polystachyus Andr.— Lapeyrousia juncea 
polystachyus Thunb. Babiana plicata 

Potts:i McNab = Tritonia Pottsit 

praecox Andr.= Antholyza revoluta 

punctatus Roem. & Schult. Watsonia punctata 
puniceus Vahl.—= Babiana stricta 

purpureus Vahl.— Babiana villosa 

pygameus Roem. & Schult.== Babiana sulphurea 
pyramidalis Andr.—= Watsonia rosea 

pyramidalis Lam. Watsonia iridiflora 


quadrangularis Ker-Gawl.== Antholyza quadrangularis 


ramosus Linn. Melasphaerula graminea 
ramosus Murr. Moraea ramosa 
recurvus Houtt.—= Antholyza revoluta 
recurvus Thunb. Hesperantha radiata 
reflexus Lichtst.—= Babiana plicata 
refractus Jacq.—= Freesia refracta 


a oe oe 


- GLapIoLus Stupres — I 


resubspinatus Pers.—= Freesia refracia 


ringens Thunb.— Babiana coronata 
roseo-albus Jacq.— Watsonia inertanus 
roseus Jacq.— Tritonta rosea 

roseus Willd.— Ixia amoena 

rubens Vahl.— Watsonta punctata 


_ rubrocyanus Vahl.— Bahtana stricta 


secundus Thunb.— Babiana secunda 

securiger Soland— Tritonta securiger 
settfolius Linn.— Lapeyrousta juncea 
silenoides Jacq.— Lapeyrousta silenoides - 
sparmannt Thunb.— Freesia refracta 
Spatheceus Linn. Babiana spathacea 

spicatus Lam. Watsonta Lamarckit 

spicatus Linn.— Watsonta spicata 

Splendens Herb., 1843 — Antholysa caffra 
Sprengelianus Schult.— Watsonta stricta 
stenophyllus Schrank, 1822 — Babiana plicata 
stoloniferous Salisb.— Antholyza aethiopica 
striatus Herb. Banks — Watsonta rosea 
striatus Soland. ex Baker, 1876 = Tritenia Bakeri 
strictiflorus Delile — Watsonta humilis 
Strictus Soland.— Babiana stricta 

subulatus Vahl.— Watsonia punctaia 
sulphureus Jacq.— Babiana stricta 


testaceus Vahl.— Watsonia brevifolia 
Thunbergit F. G. Diet.—= Acidanthera tubulosa 
triticeus Thunb.— Watsonta plantaginea 
tubatus Jacgq.— Babiana tubata 

tubtflorus Linn.— Babiana tubtfiora 

tubulosus Burm.— Watsenta spicata 

tubulosus Jacq.— Watsonta aletroides 


venosus Willd. Tritonta lineata 
villosulus Roem. & Schult. Babiana stricta 
villosus Burm.—= Synnotia bicolor 

villosus Vahl. Babiana stricta 

viridis Aiton = Tritonia viridis 


Watsontoides Baker = Antholyza Watsonioides 
Watsonius Thunb.— Antholyza revoluta 


xanthospilus Red. Lil. Freesta refracta 


109 


Brief descriptions of some species of Gladiolus are given in the following 


table: 


CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


1p WO} 


asor YstMoyTod yystIg | FI oe 
J9]U90 UMOP OUT 9zTyM 
e YIM sjyuousos Jomo, ‘ojdind yaeq | Auepy tz-gI 
uMOIq pojzods Ajognutu ‘MoTjOA | “ot 9t—be 
per aeq | 8-9 gI-zI 
yeoryy Ut syreur ystd 
-ind yjIM sjuoWIss JOMOT ‘OVTIT IO YUIg | cI-b bc-Z1 
gjdind yareq, | 1-9 8-9 
OV] WSL, | 9-<Z bz-g1 
OPM YStppoy | O1-g cI 
yuid yystg | tc tz-g1 
por posury ‘oy | g—b QI-ZI 
oT] WSU | t—<c 8-9 
mo} TNC] | &—<c 6-9 
punois Mojo 
v uo ojdind popyjour yeoryy ‘por yysig | z1-9 ZI 
OI-8 gI-SI 
MOTOA JYSUG | 7-1 zI-9 
pot 
posury sowrjouios ‘MoyjoA a8ue10 yYSsug | cI gt 
ojdind yaeq | g—b gI-zl 
pot yreq | 6-1 bz-g1 
a{dind yrep yysig | 6-9 ZI 
poeqods-yojor, | $—b C1 
MOT[OA JO pat yusIIg | “cst gi-z1 
aqn} Ysiuseis v YIM ‘YsTyUIg | 9-z 9 
ayy | ccc z1-9 
aid 0) | aT a tz-g1 
sjods ojd.md 
JYSIIq YIM syuouIsos JOMOT 9oIYY ‘OJ | 9-c gt—bz 
por qysiig | So zI-9 
yyeqs & 
SIOMOP JO 1OTOD a SIOMOY weeran » 
WsIOH 
jo laquiny 
Sa1oads 


poonp 
-O1JUT 


SN TOIdV TL) 


"* BOLI yseq uUvUTIOL 


** UOISO1 UROURLIOVIpoy 
oT .0) Pip, Nl elke On iee ‘purjoso,,, 
“*  spuryysrpy izoquiez 


a pirat ip aetive’ ss. wie Auojod odeg 
Pr ge ake i OSU0Z) IOMO'T 
“++ - purpenbrry 4seq 
“*  SpuRlysryy izoquiez 


“ULeFUNOTA] YOOYIOFUT 


‘Auojog odeg 
DBS otic yee Auojod odeg 
2 Sire ATO}O>, ober) 


m Rathore wee is, semedac ewe a ejosuy 
: “PONTY [erjue Ystp eg 
ch ‘Auojog odeg 


even 
ea o eee te ounso[ed 


TOMSUPI 
“--  spur[ysrpy tzoquiez 
ais) Sls) ta Moyle m euisris) As tiatle BBUL{eY 
etek PATIO OW) odeg 
“> puvjenbewenN oq] 
“-BOLAFY [eau Ysyg 
afnrelreltsesa)(ejis' ie (a's ‘elie eyjosuy 
*} is. wo) 6) e.8 . * kuojod odeg 
Paes wees puvyjenbeurr Ny 
© (oie) (mis) leis) edalre AuojoD odeg 


yeuIqe Hy 


cS Al se ZI6I ¢ jodne A snsrAyyoreo 


Pi ne JOY (Uryneg) snuryuezhq 
ph Ho AT el ZTOgI “*xeg wouqjong 
Sy? Caio can z6gI ‘ioyeg rueuryong 


iF Fey’ vo ur Sea: fe eo felelle. a. 8) 6: borvf SUI[OFLAIIG 
Ri Llet ‘1oyeg stjnvorasrq 
“****cOgt ‘toyeg snydAosAyoriq 
ease oreo Joyeg snipuevdyoriq 
Pee ye Peo erdepon Mier itp esyalorsy 
eT Gaal e203 6gZ1 ‘uojyIY snpuUR[q 
pants Cae QLgI ‘Ioxeg IOTOOI 
Sree LLet ‘1ayeg sisuoyjensueq 
aa fajfal af at etus site) afié 9061 ‘QU sti snyjeq 
>) elke.) 9: (6, .e|J8i.6 1e) 9) ¢ L6Og1 ‘Toye snoine 


SOLO et ao. 0 Logit UBS | SnoerpURIMe 
Bree £Cer “SSIOg Shoov[OTAosye 
ww eee eee FI6I ‘UMOIG sueqniolje 
“+++ + ger ‘rayeg snoindindolye 
hog "1061 “DITM 9d SHUPIP[OULY 
pant --QlQI ‘Toye sniieuoie 

“TQQI ‘Ve SnYeNOIe 
RS g6gi ‘1oxeg snyAydouryde 
Se Geene arcade Q6RI ‘Toye g Tisounj}ue 


erst elantullede. eieceite (ste keen uUryT snjsnsur 


“"* Joy stsuonbeuwvu “iva snyrye 
Bs viene REAR, 5.0 PRS oie uUry snqype 


sotoeds 


EDT 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — I 


punoss Ystuoo138 
uMOIG-jarv[o podiuys Ajeynuryy 
etdind oAnvut yy sig 
asury xyurd @ YIM ‘oq 
MOTOA FUSE 
aidand {pnp posury ‘oq AA 
UOSUULIO FUSE 
adind yys1q paysny pur pouroda ‘oz A 
pat JID 
lage 4 
OVI] OV 
pos-o,dand poqyods 


eve Uo 


Ajoynurut =pur Aysnoidoo ‘pad yysiag 
ordang 

a[dand-qorr[o 

pourris Ajoynurur ‘Uooedd  YstMo[j[o x 


MOTIOA YY BLAET 


Yyoqo[q ayed odin] AoA 
v YIM szuouses Jomo ‘atdand 4ysiug 
ASOY 

yeoryy UL YOYO[G pod youvypo 410 
OVI] V YIIM syUoUsos JOUUT OM4 ‘AZT AA 


viNed 
yoyorq oydand v yyim 
syustudes Jomoy ‘yurd oped 40 oy 
qeoryy UL 
sjods pal yyIM pure ‘Yyojo]q op M os] 
v YUM syuoudesS JOMO] ‘YoIvos 4Ysg 
poet 4usiig 
poso[oo-u10 fp] 
J9VU99 UMOP OUT, OVI 
v YPM sjuoulses Jomo, ‘odand 4ysiug 
afdand yjnq 
yeoryy Ut yeu oydand yy ‘oqry MA 
ul 
Jopioq Joyxiep ve Aq popunosins 40 Ke 
Jojed @ JIM soqoy, s9uUT OM ‘ouTULIES 
yeolyy UL oFTYM poyoqolq “oprwos qysug 


O1-9 
sno.oun \) 


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of 


QI-ZI 


Oct-91 


o¢—bz 


9¢—bz 
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bz 


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gI-zI 


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9081 


een OLE TMOG 
le OAUOTOS OCR) 
{= S KUOTOR). OCs) 
oes ely UNOS 
 POLyy [Byueg Yysyug 
et eS) Oe ONT ae Gt 
POLY [Ryueg Yysyug 
SL eo ay RETIRE Ti 
“**  puppessvé Ny 

‘s+ **Kuojog odeg 


res AUOTOS Odes) 


 puryenbeurenyy apy] 


ES TC 


“DOLLY JSeVay UPUTOL) 


pee ee STO UBIO 
Loe NW vee ee eee BULLY 


Poe aoe Marine *Auojod odeg 
@ agave aus eke ‘Auojod odeg 
Cer OM OR it 0) *Auojod odeg 


a AUTO aces 


Sn ee Cece oe a regaagng 


Perens eee eee es srpag ng 
cores -estAUBBUB YT, ON] 


‘+++ 9domnq yeryuesy 
eae 3) (oF fh ey 
LS Se giichah oy nCoy fp Yuko) da 


ROMY [R4yueg Ysyag 


* BOLATY Yyhog 
vee ce te Kyoto adery 


‘LOI ‘19xVE SIPLIIA-Oosny 
“* * YOST ‘4yRPyy SnsoULoy 
sreees +s Dowel snpunquoy 

Lo61 “privy, oviques0y 
'''  P6gt ‘1oxVE snsoNxey 


‘'  LO6gr ‘toyvg wueseuryyy 


‘ 


' OORT ‘toxVE_ snaopyryoor19 
“'*"**T6Qr ‘oye MOI A 


‘'****2161 ‘edne,A suvdojo 


“*9OTgT “Young, stjnpa 


"gar “uo topo 


g igetb ete “Coat ‘4° 1oBo1C] 


“"* TZ9r “ys ‘yooyyT snyeydoooovap 
nda Bn NS RC ATA hi ‘ToyvE 


shoimydns ‘) 9ysi\, soporoep 


' oZgt ‘loyeg snye10o9p 
“--e16r ‘jodne,A suordwop 


nti tere iva ‘Szer ‘OY SI[Iqop 


‘UIv’] SNSOOLIUAA “IBA snyepidsno 
‘JoyvE snrpoyrsue ‘zea snyepridsno 


sereses “Doel snzeprdsno 


"9981 ‘a100yJ. snyuonso 
* OLR ‘oye snipoyissvaso 
sre OZLeT ‘I9ATCQ shausoo 


sees s ss WUT STUNUTUOD 
‘LLg1 ‘1ayeg sudosaTn1000 
“ERT ‘ooMs snyro[yooo 
‘+ COgr ‘ioxeg snyepneo 


‘-Qo61 ‘Vy 8taj\\ SnourUeo 
‘* "1621 ‘q1ng sipeurpavo 


; UMOIG Ystppai paqyyody 
S]UDWIB0S IOMO] JO J0ZU90 UMOP 

our, afdind soyiep ‘ojdaind-jojora yueq 

peyjodsun ‘yurd oyeg 

por qystig 
yeoryy 

‘yuid yysuig 

Utd 

OpIs]No Joo pol B YIM ‘OUTYM 

atdind yreq 

adind yysiig 

Pol YIM OpIsUt pozjOp ‘MOTIIA, 


Ur soyoyoyq ofdind yy 


Pol UJI XPIsUL p9zOP ‘MOTI A 
aSOl JY SIG 
Bi heal 

SSUIPeYsS pol JYStiq YIM ‘oY MA. 
ojdind yaeq 


dSOY 

JVOIY} UL SYIVUI JO[OTA OM} YPM ‘MOTIOA 

YSPAOTP A 
uMmoiq-o[dind 

‘OUYM YSTMOTOA 

SET =P 

ONIG-OvI] avg 

pot poyjop ‘MOTO A 

asor ysttding 
yeoryy ut sodi1ys suru 

-1eD PeOIG YIM OUIULIVD pozjOp ‘MOTIOA 

poet WYysig 

pol Ty] 


posuty ssf 10 o70W 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


SIOMO]Y JO 10TOD 


“1 He 
Nn 


co 
| 
o 


Teas © 
uo SIOMOy 
jo Joquiny 


Pe hg Besoin teh ey suey] Sisuesurqny 


Ae St mo Sgr “Sslog snuvAqos}oyy 
moststvils, > "0681 ‘Jo VE WWD 
Aa eer L6gt ‘soyeg woysuyof 


SoA et aid a unt, snyegut 
“*Z6gI ‘Ioyeg SIsuopueur 
vist sree, Sheets uur shyrorquit 
Sve fay lt) ele usta eiaite wos betel ie Yyooyy snoAqt 
Nath ew ipl seis ves ledtaiare/ te: .aiipe's bovf snureAy 
SO (Ce Oatueietach PO Cger ‘jde4S STpruuny, 
Bake ee sap M6 ea xetlelie ye) (a6 boef snqynsity, 
“ss -er6r ‘oadne, snqojposeyoy 
Redivarssittard Pretest qunyy, snyrysey 
“-** e161 ‘jadne, snuviswmiepy 


+9446 760n ‘saxeg Tuo} SUIUUP TY 
Reward e tOke eCer “sslog snprydoyey 
iss Not “MTOM sniivso13 
pica) aaNet Remrcetyia Me ZOgI ‘Toye IIVUBIL) 


EOE ete ete CH ey 4og! “qunyL stpuris 
OT Ms O ert S6gI ‘royeg snunypoRis 
‘borf stproeis 
Sea tal, ofle Leahy Oobr ‘SULIv]T T9ZJOOL) 
ayia) iui asin, te, Seu wie. ZIOL ‘QTPUDYT sisuozes 


‘cir Sepia eet Ca 2 Raa vjosuy 
$z-ZI1 Oman tf tt ngias TE ee | 
Cee ih Ores "UMOL SWeTIIM SUT 
OMe Me crsiae the earns “vou peryuas YSTTE 
Qt © ae wisi e” liao wee wre) Mintle Auojod odeg 
Sh, cera spe a= femme et POLY YMog 
er reyeny foc 
gI-zI o fay tate, aes epe | hire Meh a en eters ke vISV ‘odoin 
QI-ZI 6 aande Phen.” ile) nie) Cuele, e010 ee bbe odoin 
CA cd, Meee ee CS. CEO tyteere etna *AuOlod, odeg 
g-9 ete Oh At ieee | OWIUrie at ha Cee tee vriureyodoseyyy 
£2) Nee reabesaehaaagea Pee Teor ok # Ruel) olen glace atye *AUOTOD odeg 
Deri oe Tg Se ree ape unIoWey YON 
RCo CARR eh ene |r ce as Auojog odeg 
Cd hv ancl aide See [lo case wie) Wile fl sachin! be wiv Ne (uhe elosuy yqnos 
Boe etien, toyhl eae tia |S ipa ne dye a voy 
peordo1z jo sureyunoyy 
6-9 eee el tepis ee |ihelasfes\n: (ml atfer nlatanl.s IOUTTT vIsy 
(oats heaped | wes ace tr al OR Nea or rjosuy 
OE SIONS tied | Brora seein Ke ae De eyrAuvsuvy, oye] 
Vz—ZI DiN@e Masha By believe to- on wad! ce Vp vive Auojog odeg 
(oh fa oie Re Cee ““ROLIPY Teyueg yYysywg 
tz-zI A Bo, Re | ROE arias Auojog adeg Ata rE ete el erat Lgl 1! 
Pre een NM a eN| acc F OS, coro eie can ayouy 
O I =) APO Gite ome Nes es oh.b) s.6 10's mista puelezer) 
OCaml coi opal a ae unJoWIey YION 
gf-g1 POTN PEG Will ted ioeclC acai E Iposesepe pl 
9¢ e hLe a es CP ha OWT) oC et purlyooyryye+) 
(soyout) poonp 
1YSIOY -O1]UT yeyiqryy soroedg 


LIE, 


(panuyuor) SAIDAdS SA TOIGVID 


Pe 


GLADIOLUs STUDIEs — I 


podiiysun ‘aed 
[Ure] 
yuid aed 


MO][OA YSTuMa.y 
Sy. 
yuid oped 
OVUM 
MOTIOA AtUvALS 
UMOIG Ystuoo1s posury ‘OT MA 
suid 
pesur pur por pourra ‘orm Aurearg 
VTL WBA 
ented 
odand qysiig 
pod o[vq 
edLys pod-poojq YW ysoy Asor yuu 
-30a8 O[Ppilu AOMOT ‘por pooyq syuoursos 
Opis 1aMo] ‘ysoy Asor sqyuourdos ssdd¢q 
Osta TTP 
pol o[eq 
qojora-a[dang 
oydand yy si.¢g 
por qysiig 
rho hag 
yweoryy MO]OA oped YIM ‘uUIvAIS 
JOJOLA 
pos dood 
qoLtvos yy siuig 
{OPV 
mole A 
YSTMoT[e A: 
ofdand qn] 
MOTOA OTC 
opty doo] 
sjods aynurur yim ‘Moped dry 
OY} 4e ‘par syuouZos JMO] ‘par qYysg 
a(dind-asoyy 
asrq ye soyozoTq 
ajdind om yyIM syuoUses JOMOT ‘ATTY 


. \ 


Moy] 
9-1 
ob-of 


MO] 


Auvy 
z1-O1 
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s—¢ 


8-9 
9-b 


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‘e*** SHINey WBIOIIZ 
UIRyUNOPY equ, 
vires Kuotog odes 
"****Kuojog ode 
“ROLY ISvAT UPULIOL) 
“VOLIY JSvAT UPULIOL) 
eT coe 


POLY [eyuag Ysag 


“ROLY [RyUAD Ys 
SSeS eaNOTOe aay 
reresee es snuarass@.c i 
er alee cea aera} oF. 105 
"+++ Auojog odva 


“UN FOLUB Sy YYNOS 
Pe ee NIOTOS, cle) 
“*  purvyenbiiry ysvqy 
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veneers’ pUBTeUEnoo 
“ Spuv[srpy require, 
ROLY [Bjueg Ysryig 
ESS ohogehyate ha lap 
See EES FRED SSS NETS CONT 
4 ALOE BOS UN 


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“"stuasyy JUNOT 
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ve -esuBye sy 


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‘* CORT ‘toyvg sniqepydostijo 
Tee's" 9681 ‘royxevEg snyjuvstjo 
sess OLer ‘axegE snonejory9o 
reer sree seers onions tigaqRG 


‘rs *ssss /691 ‘Ioxeg sisuoyxtAU 
Meigs haan is “ZOQ1 LOPE] TuOATU 
‘es * “eT6r ‘jadne, mouzunyy 
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SS rT SHE O UL 


sees ss e761 edne, sn 
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vee ss Oger dey snyyuesor 
sreereeeee ss Toya SnU}UBIOTU 
‘''*  OLer ‘oxvg WoW 

‘co "*JOg1 ‘toyee? sisuonynseu 
O16L YYstIAA WUNIOTUOSR 
sheers ece ss * OMB SISUaSUBTBUL 
“SORT ‘toyeg, sniqo;ydorovur 
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“COOL “YOOTT MopuLpovyy 
Feber eee eee es) steer snoqny 
cs qaBisy snpoozn] 
rrr L297 “MA SHPLNy 
rereeee ess 7691 ‘oddeg ustmpiy] 


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‘'"' Soar ‘\qeVpy epquiry] 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


114 


se) nel 
so aaa else al 

jeOIY UT JopVOS YIM 

poyods ‘azIYM Jo YoOTG 4ywors ev YAM 
sjuows0s JOMO]T 9914} “JopIeos yYysug 
por uoWTeS 
ped 
qeoly} UT YOoOTG ynoyyWM ‘por yysug 
pol qysiuig 

queisely AlOA ‘OR ]IT 
yep YIM poysny yonur ‘9x7. YStMoy[o A, 
Ustpped 
yurd qysiig 
pel yystiq 10 MOTPA JUS 


jrory} 7B YOJOTG UMOIG-pat YIM 
sjusus9s JoUUT OM} ‘MoOTJOA osOTWTIg 
MOT[OA YStusoI4) 
por o[eq 
yuid oped 
pos-Jo]OL A, 


MO][oA puv pol syUstUses 
JAMO] ‘UOsUITIO Yep sqyuowses soddq 
sjop ojdind yyim ‘esor oped 
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SOUT] pot oUY YAM ‘MorTOA doacy 
aidind 9ayvg 
ovpt] 10 yurd ojeg 
JoyUu90 
ye poyoJOTG JOU sJUSLUSOS JOMOT ‘OPT 
aSOY 


SIOMOP JO 1OJOD 


Se 
uO SIOMOY, 
jo Joquiny 


(soyout) 
WYsIOH 


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*- Auojod adeg 
Be BIVQUIPS() 1SO\\ 
SPO eh Serica Auojod adeg 
ace MRT yee jeeasursy, 


Dene ATLO|O@) sO Cea) 
GO ee + TeyeAY Og 
‘ROLIFY JSeq oSsonsnyz10g 
a bile Rist Jelieto-e%e) (exe iis BOLIY 


<i eaeha uth jiwillal Joye Ja Invey pita (@s [PION 
ee Dues pices 


DoH OER GEEE).G ufo) (ory slat 


Fires On nincohe voLpYy yyNog 


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Ser ei ofgi ‘Yoox, snutorzyisd 
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Ses LLet ‘1ayeg sniogioned 
so telleMvifeecieudue Taaisiva, a Ke IyJyOS snjnared 


soredg 


(panuyuor) SAIDAMS SATOIAVI 


Ww 
bt 
be 


GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — I 


SUIDA JOLOIA YM ‘MOTLOA 04 alba Wd 

opdand-jornpo pouroa ‘opty 

oidang 

POO pol V YIM ‘OUI M YILPA 

SRT], YIM poprys ‘oq A 

pod Vuysiig 

ovyprp oped 40 surg 

OTM 
quvIseIy, [Hox UO Yyouyc, 

-ojdind poysny Ap ysis ‘oy M YStMor][oA 
soyoqorq oydand Yara O71 

s]Uotusoes Jomoy ‘ordand syuoudos sodd yy 


yeoryy ur oydand 
pool spUOUrsos sOMOT 9OIYY ‘MOTO A 
pot oye 


yuid oye 
qworyy ur poyods tonur syueut 

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JO[OIA 9] 

uid jo osury VB YALA ‘OUT 

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suid yuydisg 

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po. 
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Porm 


por suruiyg 
UOSUILIO JUS 
JPY AOMOT Ysnoayy foo oped v yyIM 
SJUMUIBOS JOMOT 991] “JoLvos AYsta¢g 
opdand yysiai¢g 
pot ][AC 
ule] 
JO[OIA YALC] 
MOTA WYSE 
OUI, [RAVUO9 OPT 


v YM syuoudos Jomoy ‘ofdand 4ysiu¢g 


<2 = 
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116 


The following described species are those concerned in the development 
-- of the cultivated gladiolus. The majority of them, if not all, are still 
offered in the catalogs of European dealers. Except as otherwise noted, 
the descriptions are from Flora Capensts (Baker, 1896-97). 


G. alatus (Linn. Sp. Plant. edit. 2, 53); corm small, globose; tunics brown, mem- 
branous;- basal leaves 3-4, linear, rigid in texture, the lowest the longest, 3-1 ft. long, 
=-+ in. broad, closely and strongly mbbed; stem 3-1 ft. long including the inflorescence; 
spike usually simple, few-flowered, very lax, with a very flexuose axis; spathe-valves 
broad, green, oblong-navicular, the outer 1-1} in. long; perianth pink; tube 3 in. long, 
fumnel-shaped at the top; upper segment cucullate, obovate, cuneate, with a short 

' claw, 13-13 in. long, }- in. broad; side ones shorter, suborbicular, not unguiculate; 
3 lower deflexed, with a small obovate blade and a Jong distinct claw; stamens reaching 
nearly to the tip of the upper segments; anthers lanceolate, 3 in. long. Thunb. Diss. 
Ne. 15, ex parte; Anér. Bot. Rep. t. 8; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 586; Gen. Irid. 132; Baker, 
Handb. Irid. 223. G. speciosus, Thunb. Fl. Cap. i. 196. G. papilionaceus, Lichien. in 
Roem. et Schult. Syst. Veg. i. 408. Hebea galeata, Eckl. Top. Verz. 41. 

Var. 6, G. namaquensis (Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 592); more robust, with lanceolate leaves 
sometimes 13-2 in. Froad, 9-10 flowers, and upper perianth-segments an inch broad. 
Ker, Gen. Irid. 132. ©. equitans, Thunb. Fi. Cap. 192. G. galeatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. i. 122. 


G. atroviolaceus Boiss. Diagn. xiii. 14. [Description from Baker, 1892.] G. aleppicus 
and pelreus Boiss.— Corm ovoid, }—-} in. diam.; tunics of matted fibres, reticulated 
upwards. Leaves 3, firm, linear, closely nbbed, 3-1 ft. long, }4in. broad. Stem slender, 
1-13 ft. long. Flowers 4-8 in a lax secund spike; outer spathe-valve lanceolate, green, 
#1 in. long. Perianth-tube curved, narrowly funnel-shaped, } in. long; limb dark purple, 
about an inch long; segments obovate, obtuse; upper 3 in. broad; lateral shorter; 3 lower 
as long as the upper, with a claw as long as the blade. Anthers as long as the filaments, 
mucronate. Capsule oblong, torulose, } in. long. Seeds globose, not winged. 


: : GiapDIoLus Stupies — I 17 
q 
: 


G. blandus (Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 64); corm globose, middle-sized; tunics of parallel 
strands of matted fibres; produced subbasal leaves 4, ensiform, firm in texture, glabrous, 
the-outer 3-1 ft. long, }-? in. broad; stem 1-2 ft. long including inflorescence, some- 
times branched; flowers white with a tinge of red, 4-8 in a lax distichous spike, all 
ascending; outer spathe-valves green, lanceolate, 1}-2 in. long; perianth-tube about 
12 in. long, much dilated and curved at the top; limb rather Jonger than the tube, 
segments oblong-spathulate, narrowed to a point, the top one about ? in. and the 
others about 3 in. broad at the middle; stamens reaching more than halfway up the 
limb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 625; Gen. Irid. 140; Baker, Handb. Irid. 217. G. angustus, 
Linn. herb. ex parte! : 

Var. §, G. albidus (Jacq. Ic. t. 256); flower pure white. G. blandus, Andr. Bet. 
Rep. t. 99. -G. blandus, var. niveus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 648. 

Var. ¥, G. Mortonius (Herb. in Bot. Mag. t. 3680); flowers suberect; segments 
white, with copious, faint, vertical, pink streaks. 

Var. S, G. excelsus (Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit: 2, 501); taller than the type, with longer 
leaves and a perianth-tube 2 in. long. 

Var. €, G. carneus (Delaroche, Descr. 30, t. 4); more robust than the type, with 
more numerous, more spreading pink flowers, with broader, less acute segments. G. cam- 
panulaius, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 188. G. blandus, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 645. 

Var. Hibbertitz, Hort., has pink flowers with very distinct, red, spade-shaped marks 
on the three lower segments. 


G. byzantinus (Bankin), Miller, Dict. ed. vii..No. 3; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 874; Reich. 

Ic. Crit., t. 643. [Description from Baker, 1892.] G. elatus Balb.— Corm globose, 2 in. 

diam.; tunics brown, membranous. Leaves generally 3, ensiform, about a foot long, 

3-2 in. broad, laxly ribbed. Stem 1}-2 ft. long. Spike lax, many-flowered, 6-9 in. 

_ long; outer spathe-valve lanceolate, I-13 im. long. Perianth-tube slightly curved, 

3-3 in. long; segments dark purple, 1-1 in. long, about equal in length; 3 upper slightly 

imbricated in fully expanded flower, }-} in. broad; 3 lower with a claw as long as the 

blade, and a white line down the centre. Anthers 3 in. long, exceeding the filaments. 
Capsule turbinate, } in. long. Seeds turgid, with a distinct membranous wing. 


118 CoRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 9 


G. cardinalis (Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 135); corm large, globose; stem 3-4 ft. long; pro- 
duced leaves 4-6, ensiform, rather thin in texture, glaucous green, reaching 2 ft. or 
more in length, {-1 in. broad; flowers 12-20 in a spike 3-1 ft. long, all more or less 
ascending; spathe-valves green, thin in texture, lanceolate, acute, 13-3 in. long; perianth 
bright scarlet; tube nearly straight, 1} in. long, funnel-shaped in the upper half; upper 
segments oblong-spathulate, acute, concolorous, 2 in. long, #-1 in. broad; 3 lower 
shorter and narrower, conspicuously mottled with white at the throat; stamens reaching 
more than halfway up the limb; anthers lanceolate, 4 the length of the filaments. 
Schneev. Ic. t. 27; Red. Lil. t=. 112; Ker, Gen.-Irid. 143; Baker, Handb. Irid. 219. G. spe- 
ctosus, Eckl. Top. Verz. 41, non Thunb. 


G. communis Linn. Sp. Plant. 52, ex parte; Curt. in Bot. Mag. t. 86; Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 1575; Red. Lil. t. 267; Reich. Ic. Crit. tab.-598; Fl. Germ. tab. 349, fig. 777. 
[Description from Baker, 1892.]— Corm # in. diam.; tunics of matted parallel fibres, 
reticulated upwards. Leaves 3-4, ensiform, 3-1 ft. long, }-}-in. broad, laxly nerved. 
Spike lax, secund, 4-8-flowered; outer spathe-valve green, an inch long. Perianth- 
tube curved, funnel-shaped, {-} in. long; segments bright purple, an inch long, about 
equal in length, all connivent when fully expanded; 3 lower with a long claw and white 
central line. Anthers 4 in. Jong, equalling the filaments. Capsule turbinate, } in. 
long. Seeds broadly winged. 


G. cruentus (Moore in Gard. Chron. 1868, 1138); corm large, globose; stem 2-3 ft. 
long; producéd leaves about 4, ensiform, dark glaucous green, 13-2 ft. long, $1 in. 
broad; spike rather dense, distichous, 6-10-flowered; bracts very large, lanceolate, 
the lower sometimes 3-6 in. long; perianth bright scarlet; tube 13-2 in. long, nearly 
straight, funnel-shaped in the upper half; upper segments concolorous, obovate-spathu- 
late, obscurely cuspidate, 2-23 in. long, 1{-13 in. broad; 3 lower about 14 in. long, I in. 
broad, with a large white blotch at the throat with small red spots; anthers lanceolate, 
reaching halfway up the limb. Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5810; Baker, Handb. Irid. 219. 


G. cuspidatus (Jacq. Ic. t. 257); corm globose; tunics of fine, parallel strands of 
matted fibres; stems simple, 2-3 ft. long; leaves 3-4, linear, rigid in texture, glabrous, 
the lowest 13-2 ft. long, about 3 in. broad; flowers 4-8, in a lax secund spike; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, outer 2-3 in. long; perianth white or pale pink; tube slightly 
curved, 2-3 in. long, clavate in the upper third; segments oblong, 13 in. long, 3-3 in. 
broad, narrowed into a long, wavy point, the three lower with a spade-shaped purple 
blotch; stamens reaching halfway up the limb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 582; Gen. Irid. 
139; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 219; Red. Lil. t. 136; Baker, Handb. Irid. 205. G. undulatus, 
Linn. Mant. 27; Thundb. Fl. Cap. i. 206, ex parte. G. affinis, Pers. Syn. i. 45. 

Var. §, G. ventricosus (Lam. Encyc. ii. 727); flowers pink; point of the segments 
shorter and less wavy. G. cuspidatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 147; Red. Lil. t. 36. G. carneus, 
Jacq. Ic. t. 255; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 591, non Delaroche. 

Var. y, ensifolius (Baker); whole plant under a foot long; leaves short, rigid, ensiform. 


G. dracocephalus (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5884); corm large, depresso-globose; 
stem simple, about 2 ft. long; produced leaves ensiform, 1-13 ft. long, ¢-1 in. broad, 
moderately firm in texture; flowers few, arranged in a very lax secund spike; outer 
spathe-valve lanceolate, green, 2-3 in. long; perianth-tube much-curved, greenish, 
13-2 in. long; limb 13 in. long, yellowish-green, minutely grained and spotted with 
dull purple; upper segments obovate, permanently hooded, {-1 in. broad; lower lanceo- 
late, reflexing; stamens reaching near to the top of the segments; anthers lanceolate, 
less than half as long as the filaments. Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 176; Handb. 
Irid. 220. 


G. floribundus (Jacq. Ic. t. 254); corm globose; tunics of matted fibres; produced 
leaves 3-4, ensiform, 1-2 ft. long; stems 13-2 ft. or more long including the inflorescence, 
branched when at all luxuriant; flowers white with a pink tinge, 4-12 in a very lax 
distichous spike, all ascending; outer spathe-valve oblong-lanceolate, 12-2 in. long; 
perianth-tube nearly straight, 13-2 in. long, funnel-shaped 1n the upper third; segments 
as long as the tube, obovate-spathulate, deltoid at the tip, the upper 7-1 in. broad; 
stamens reaching } or 3-way up the limb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 610; Gen. Irid. 143; Baker, 
Handb. Irid. 218. G. grandiflorus, Andr. Bot. Rep., t. 118. 


G. grandis (Thunb. Fl. Cap. 
i. 186); corm globose; tunics 
of thick, parallel, wiry fibres; 
stem slender, terete, I-2 ft. 
long; leaves 3, superposed, o ¥ 
terete, strongly ribbed, firm y & 
in texture, the lowest 1-13 ft. fj 


GrLaDIoLus Stuptes — I 119 


ee 


long; flowers fragrant, 2-6 ina 
very lax secund spike; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, the 7, 
outer 2-23 in. long; perianth 
23-3 in. long, with a curved 
tube funnel-shaped in the 
_ upper third; segments yellow- 
ish-white, more or less tinged 
with purplish-brown, espe- 
cially on the keel, obiong, 3-3? 
in. broad, narrowed into a 
long point; stamens reaching 
halfway up the limb; capsule 
oblong, membranous, 13 in. 
long. Klatt in Linnea xxxii. 
714; Baker, Handb. Irid. 202. 
G. tristis, Linn. herb.! G. tris- 
tus, var. grandis, Thunb. Diss. 
No. 8. G. versicolor, Andr. 
Bot. Red. t. 19; Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 1042; Gen. Irid. 135. 


G. hirsutus Jacq. Ic. t. 250; 
Red. Lil. t. 278. [Description 
from Baker, 1892.] G. roseus 
Andr. Bot. Rep. .t. 11. G. 
hirsutus var. roseus Ker in 
Bot. Mag. t. 574.— Corm 
middle-sized, globose, crowned 
with a ring cf bristles. Leaves 
4-5, superposed, ensiform, 
strongly ribbed, both the 
sheath and short blade finely 
hairy. Stem 1-13 ft. long. 
Flowers 3-6 in a very lax 
secund spike; spathe-valves 
lanceolate, green, lower outer 
13-2 in. long. Perianth bright 
red, with a curved tube 13 in. 
long; segments obovate, cus- 
pidate, as long as the tube, 
the upper 2 in., the lower 3 in. 
broad. Stamens more than 
half as long as the segments. 


G. oppositiflorus (Herb. in 
Bot. Reg. 1842, Misc. 86); 
corm large, globose; tunics 
of matted fibres; produced 
basal leaves about 4, ensi- 
form, firm in texture, 1-13 ft. 

long, 2-1 in. broad; stem 3-4 
ft. long including the inflores- 
cence, often branched; flowers 
up to 30 or 40, arranged ina 
distichous spike often a foot Fic. 6. GLADIOLUS PAPILIO 


120 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


long; spathe-valves green, lanceolate, acute, thin in texture, 1-13 in. long; perianth 
white; tube curved, 1-1} in. long, slender up to the top; limb horizontal, 13 in. long, 
with oblong- spathulate acute segments not more than 3—} in. broad at the middle; 
stamens half as long as the limb. Baker, Handb. Irid. 218; Bot. Mag. t. 7292. 


G. Papilio (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5565); corm middle-sized, globose; tunics of 
parallel strands of fine matted fibres; produced subbasal leaves about 4, ensiform, 
glabrous, rigid in texture, 1-1} ft. long, }-1 in. broad at the middle; stem 2-3 ft. long 
including the inflorescence; flowers pale purple, 6-12 in a lax spike; spathe-valves 
oblong-navicular, cuspidate, the outer 1-13 in. long; perianth horizontal; tube curved, 
4 in. long, broadly funnel-shaped in the upper half; limb 14-13 in. long; 3 upper seg- 
ments obovate-spathulate, }-{ in. broad, upper not reflexing; 3 lower oblong-unguicu- 
late, with a large reddish spade-shaped blotch edged with yellow at the throat; stamens 
reaching halfway up the limb. Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 175; Hand. Irid. 216. 


G. primulinus Baker in Gard. Chron. 1890, ii. 122. [Description from Baker, 1892.] 


—Corm large, globose. Basal leaves 3, ensiform, subcoriaceous, strongly ribbed, — 


the lowest a foot long, } in. broad. Stem 1} ft. long, the upper short and adpressed. 
Spike lax, secund, 4—5-flowered; spathe-valves lanceolate, green, I-13 in. long. Perianth 
uniform primrose-yellow; tube much curved, an inch long; upper segments obtuse, 
much imbricated, 1} in. long; 3 lower smaller. Stamens reaching halfway up the 
segments. 


G. psittacinus (Hook. in Bot. Mag. t. 3032); corm very large, depresso-globose; 
tunics of parallel strands of matted fibres; produced leaves about 4, ensiform, rigid 
in texture, 1-2 ft. long, 1-2 in. broad; stem 3-4 ft. long including the inflorescence; 
spike very lax, reaching a foot or more in length; spathe-valves green, oblong-lanceolate, 
2-3 in. long; perianth-tube curved, 13-2 in. long, sub-cylindrical in the upper half; 
limb about equalling the tube; upper segments obovate, dark crimson, hooded, #1 in. 
broad; lower segments much smaller, reflexing at the top, red and yellow mixed; sta- 
mens reaching nearly to the tip of the segments; anthers } in. long; filaments about 
13 in. long; capsule large, oblong. Bot. Reg. t. 1442; Reich. Exot. t. 116; Baker, Handb. 
Irid. 220. G. natalensis, Reinw. ex Hook. in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3084; Sweet, Brit. Flow. 
Gard. ser. 2, t. 281; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1756. Watsonia natalensis, Eekl. Top. Verz. 34. 

Var. 3, G. Cooperi (Baker in Bot. Mag. t. 6202); perianth-tube 23-3 in. long; 
segments more acute. 


G. purpureo-auratus (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5944); corm large, globose; tunics 
of parallel strands of matted fibres; leaves ensiform, glabrous, rigid in texture, much 
shorter than the stem; stem 3 ft. long including the infloresence; flowers 10-15 in .a 
lax secund spike a foot long; spathe-valves green, oblong-lanceolate, 1-13 in. long; 
perianth primrose-yellow; tube much curved, funnel-shaped, under an inch long; upper 
segments plain, obovate-spathulate, 14-137 in. long, { in. broad; lower obovate-unguicu- 
late, the two inner with a spade-shaped red-brown blotch at the throat; stamens reaching 
halfway up the limb. Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 175; Handb. Trid. 216. 


G. recurvus (Linn. Mant. 28); corm globose, }-1 in. diam.; tunics of parallel wiry 
fibres; stems slender, simple, 1-2 ft. long; leaves 3, firm in texture, terete, strongly ribbed, 
the lowest about a foot long; flowers very fragrant, 2-6, in a very lax secund spike; 
outer spathe-valve green, lanceolate, 13-2 in. long; perianth-tube curved, 13-2 in. 
long, clavate in the upper third; limb 1-14 in. long, yellowish-white, much flushed 
with dark llac; segments oblong, acute, 3 in. broad; stamens reaching more than 
halfway up the limb; capsule oblong, membranous, I-1¢ in. long. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 
578, non Thunb.; Baker, Handb. Irid. 203. G. punctatus, Jacq. Ic. t. 247. G. tristis, 
var. punctatus, Thunb. Diss. No. 8. G. carinatus, Ait. Hort. Kew. 1. 64. G. ringens, 
Andr. Bot. Rep. tt. 27 and 227; Red. Lil. t. 123. G. odorus, Salish. Prodr. 40. G. violaceus, 
Pers. Syn. i. 43. Watsonia recurva, Pers. Syn. 1. 43. G. breynianus, Ker, Gen. Irid. 
135. G. maculatus, Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit. 1, 397; Klatt in Linnea xxxii. 708. 


G. Saundersii (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5873); corm large, depresso-globose; pro- 
duced leaves 4-6, ensiform, rigid in texture, strongly ribbed, 1-2 ft. long, $-1 in. broad; 
stem 2-3 ft. long including #nflorescen*e; spike very lax, 3 ft. long, -6—8-flowered; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, 13-2 in. long; perianth-tube curved, I-13 in. long, broadly 
funnel-shaped in the upper half; limb bright scarlet; 3 upper segments concolorous, 
oblong-spathulate, acute, an inch broad; 3 lower shorter, 2 in. broad, with a great 


x 


2 ie OS 


4 


my 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 121 


- blotch of white spotted with scarlet at the throat; stamens reaching nearly to the tip 
of the segments; anthers 3 in. long, half the length of the filaments. (Baker in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. xvi. 176; Handb. Irid. 220.) 


G. segetum Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 719; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 600; Fl. Germ. tab. 353, fig. 
781. [Description from Baker, 1892.] G. communis Linn. ex parte; Sibth. & Sm. Fl. 
Grec. t. 37. G. infestus Bianea. G. italicus Gaud. G. inarimensis Guss. G. Ludovicie 
Jan. G. caucasicus Herb. Spherospora imbricata Sweet.— Corm globose, 2-1 in. diam.; 
tunics of matted parallel fibres, reticulated upwards. Produced leaves 3-4, ensiform, 
I-13 ft. long, 2-{ in. broad, laxly unequally nerved. Stem 1-13 ft. long. Spike lax, 
6-10-flowered; outer spathe-valve green, lanceolate, 1-1} in. long. Perianth-tube 
curved, ¢~-3 in. long; segments I-13 in. long, bright purple, obovate, obtuse; the upper 
2 in. broad, with a short claw; the lateral shorter; the 3 lower as Jong, with a long narrow 
claw and white line down the keel. Anthers } in. long, exceeding the filaments. Cap- 
sule turbinate, 2 in. long, torulose when mature. Seeds brown, globose. 


G. sericeo-villosus (Hook. in Bot. Mag. t. 5427); corm large, globose; leaves about 
6 in a subbasal distichous rosette, ensiform, glabrous, strongly ribbed, 13-2 ft. long, 
2-I in. broad; stem 3-4 ft. long including the inflorescence, clothed throughout with 
soft, crisped, white, spreading hairs; spike distichous, 20-30-flowered, with a flexuose, 
densely villose axis; outer spathe-valve oblong-lanceolate, villose, scariose in the upper 
half; flower bright yellow; perianth-tube curved, funnel-shaped, }-3 in. long; limb 
rather longer than the tube; upper segments oblong-spathulate, } in. broad; lower 
narrower, unguiculate; stamens reaching halfway up the limb. Baker, Handb. Irid. 215. 


G. tristis (Linn. Sp. Plant. edit. 2, i. 53, ex parte); corm globose, 1 in. diam.; tunics 
of fine parallel strands of matted fibres; stems slender, simple, 1-2 ft. long; leaves 3, 
superposed, terete, with 3-5 much-raised, stramineous ribs, the lower 1-13 ft. long; 
flowers 3-4 in a very lax secund spike, fragrant; spathe-valves green, lanceolate, 14-2 
in. long; perianth-tube curved, 13-2 in. long, funnel-shaped in the upper third; limb 
yellowish-white, slightly flushed on the keel of the segments with purplish-black; 
segments oblong-spathulate, acute, 3-3 in. broad; stamens more than half as long as 
the perianth-limb; capsule oblong, membranous, an inch long. Thunb. Diss. No. 8, 
ex parte; Curt. in Bot. Mag. t. 272; Jacq. Ic. t. 243; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1098; Gen. Irid. 
136; Baker, Handb. Ivid. 203. G. spiralis, Pers. Syn. i. 43; Red. Lil. t. 35. 

Var. 6, G. concolor (Salisb. Parad. t. 8); flowers almost concolorous, and a purer 
white than in the type. G. tristis, Jacq. Ic. t. 245. 


EVOLUTION OF THE GLADIOLUS 


There are fifteen species of Gladiolus in Europe, Asia Minor, and Persia. 
These are, according to Baker: atroviolaceus Boiss.; byzantinus Miller; 
communis Linn.; halophilus Boiss.; humilis Stapf; illyricus Koch; imbri- 
catus Linn.; Kotschyanus Boiss.; micranthus Stapf; palustris Gaud.; per- 
sicus Boiss.; segetum Ker; sintensii Baker; tricolor Stapf; triphyllus Sibth. 
Only a few of these have been cultivated; °G. communis and G. segetum, 
however, have been cultivated for several centuries. It is not improbable 
that the Greeks and the Romans used the flowers of native species, 
gathered from their grain-fields,® in their floral decorations. The plant 
may even have been cultivated by these peoples.’?7 However this may be, 
there is no definite record of the time when the plant came into cultivation. 
The two species just named either grew in Britain or were taken there in 
early times, and, according to Gerarde (1597), were important garden plants. 


G. byzantinus, the Constantinople corn flag, was introduced prior to 1629. 
®* Dioscorides says that a purple-flowered gladiolus (probably G. communis) grew mostly in cultivated 


grounds. 3 
* Atheneus says gladiolus was planted on the graves of virgins. 


122 CoRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 9 


An idea of the garden gladioli of three centuries ago may be obtained 


from Hortus Eystettensis (Besler, 1613), in which six colored figures of 
gladiolus appear. These are as follows: 


Gladiolus Narbonensium 
flore purpureo 


FROM HORTUS EYSTETTENSIS, 1613 


Gladiolus Narbonensis 
flore incarnato 


GARDEN GLADIOLI THREE CENTURIES AGO 


Gladiolus sylvestris 

FIG. 7. 

Folio 10. IE. Gladiolus sylvestris Cordi ( Victorialis rotunda). 
Runde Sigwurz mit rother blumen. 


A small slender plant bearing three flowers on the spike. 
1II. Gladiolus Narbonensium flore pur pureo. 
Schwertelbrauner. 


A spike bearing nine flowers is shown. 


GLapDIoLus StrupiEs — [| 123 


IV. Gladiolus Narbonensis flore incarnato. 
Leibsarb Schwertel. 
A spike bearing six flowers is shown. 
Folio 12 '. Gladiolus Italicus flore rubro. 
Roth Welsch Schwertlilien. 
A five-flowered spike is shown. 


FROM HORTUS EYSTETTENSIS, 1613 
Gladiolus Hispanicus Gladiolus Italicus 


Gladiolus Narbonensis flore in- 
flore albo flore rubro 


carnato, intensiore, seu magis 
TOSe€O 


Fic. 8. GARDEN GLADIOLI THREE CENTURIES AGO 


Il. Gladiolus Hispanicus flore albo. 
Weiss Spanisch Schwertlilien. 
A seven-flowered spike is shown. : 
III. Gladiolus Narbonensis flore incarnato, intensiore, seu magis roseo. 
Leibsarb Narbonische Schwertlilien. 


124 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


The flowers shown in folio to appear to belong to different species. 
Ker identifies Figure m with G. zmbricatus Linn. and Figures m1 and tv 
with G. communis Linn. The plants shown in Figures 1r and ur of 
folio 12 are probably of the same species, possibly G. segetum, while 
Figure 1 belongs to a secund-flowered species. 

Ray (1686-1704) writes of the corn flag as of no great esteem, and only 
consents to admit the plant to the flower garden because the flowers bloom 
at a season — in June and July — when there are not many other flowers. 
He mentions Gladiolus byzantinus, G. flore suave rubente, and G. flore alba, 
and names three other commoner varieties— two French corn flags, 
one with ash-colored and the other with red flowers, and the Italian corn 
flag ‘‘that beareth saddei red flowers on both sides of the stalks.” He 
_says further that G. byzantinus is somewhat tender and should be pro- 
tected, but the others are hardier. 

Miller (1731) describes the following species: 


Lael 


Gladiolus utrinque floridus. C. B. P& Cornflag with Flowers on both Sides 
the Stalks. 
Gladiolus carne coloris. Swert. Flor.? Flesh-colour’d Cornflag. 

. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, major, ficris colore purpureo-rubente. 
C. B. P. Great Cornflag, with reddish-purple Flowers rang’d on one Side 
the Stalk. 

Gladiolus major Byzantinus. C. B. P. Great Cornflag of Constantinople. 
Gladiolus utrinque floridus, floribus albis. H.R. Mons.1®° Cornflag with white 
Flowers rang’d on each side the Stalk. 
6. Gladiolus maximus Indicus. C. B. P. The largest Indian Cornflag. 


ww 


ete 


In a later edition {t754) he adds the following: 


7. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, major and procerior, flore candicante. 


C. B. P. Greater and taller Cornflag, with whitish Flowers rang’d.all on 


one Side. 

8. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, minor and humilior. C. B. P. Smaller 
and lower Cornflag, with Flowers ranged on one Side. ' 

9g. Gladiolus minor, floribus uno versu dispositis incarnatis. H. L. Smaller Corn- 
flag, with flesh-coloured Flowers ranged on one Side. 

10. Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore rubro. C. B. P. Cornflag with red Flowers 
on both Sides. 

11. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, minor. C. B. P. Smaller Cornflag, with 
Flowers ranged on one Side. 


It is probable that among the latter species nos. 7, 8, 9, and 11 are 
varieties of no. 3, and that nos. 5 and 10 are varieties of no. 1, Miller 
says that all these sorts of corn flag are 


propagated by their tuberose Roots, which the first, second, and fifth Sorts produce 
in great Plenty; so that in a few Years, if they are suffer’d to remain unremov’d, they 
will spread very far, and are hardly to be intirely rooted-out, when they. have once 
gotten Possession of the Ground. . . These roots may be taken up 
in July, when their Leaves decay, and may be kept out of the Ground until October. 


8 C. B. P= Casper Bauhin’s Pinax. 
9 Swert. Flor.— Swertius’ Florilegium. 
10H. R. Mons.= Catalogue of Royal Garden at Montpelier. 


‘ 


: 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 125 


- The third and fourth Sorts are the most valuable, producing taller Stalks, and 
fairer Flowers: nor are these so apt to increase; which renders them Atter for the Borders 
of a Flower-garden; so that since these have been introduced, and become common, 
the other Sorts have been rejected, unless in some old Gardens, or for large Wilderness- 
quarters, where they will grow better than the two last-mentioned. 


The Indian Cornflag is tender, and must be preserved in a warm Green-house, or 
a moderate Stove, during the Winter-season. These Roots should be planted. in pots 
filled with a light sandy soil. The best time to transplant them is any time from 
MAN Sp: till September. 


A study of these species —G. communis, G. segetum, and G. byzantinus 
— leads to the conviction that the greatest possible advance had been 
made as early as the time of Parkinson. No further improvement in 
garden gladioli was made for about one hundred and fifty years, when 
other species were introduced. = 

It is not definitely known which of the African species from the Cape 
of Good Hope was first introduced into Europe. The evidence points to 
G. angustus and G. tristis, since they are mentioned by Breyne (1739 b) and 
the former was figured by Linnzus in Hortus Cliffortianus (1737). G. 
tristis was flowered by Miller in 1745, and G. alatus and G. recurvus (the 
latter under the name Breynianus) were also, according to Ker, known 
to Breyne. These were followed by G. Millert, 1751, G. involutus, 1757, 
and G. undulatus, 1760. 

Soon a great many irids from the Cape were described under the genus 
Gladiolus, but later a large proportion, if not the majority, of these were 
transferred to new genera. This, together with the confusion concerning 
the identity of the species, makes it quite impossible to fix with certainty 


- the date of introduction of these older forms. For example, Lamarck’s 


re, 


Encyclopedia (1786) describes thirty-two species, of which only eight — 
alatus Linn., angustus Linn., communis Linn., tmbricatus Linn., luteus 
Lam., montanus Linn., recurvus Linn., and tristts Linn.— are now recog-. 
nized as true species of Gladiolus, most of the others being now included 
in Babiana and Watsonia. 

G. blandus was introduced in 1774, G. cardinalis and G. floribundus in 
1789. These species gave the first impetus to gladiolus improvement. 

The attention of amateurs and gardeners appears to have been directed 
toward the early-flowering species, which yield flowers during the early 
summer when planted in the fall. This was possible because many of the 
species were fairly hardy in England and the Low Countries. Such species 
as cardinalis, communis, blandus, and tristis were especially adapted for 
garden planting. The plants seeded freely, and since cross-fertilization 
is easily accomplished in gladioli it is not surprising to find a number of 
new forms soon appearing in the gardens. 

The first important hybrid appears to have been G. Colvillei, or Colville’s 
corn flag, which was raised in 1823 at Colville’s Nursery, Chelsea, England, 


126 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


from seeds of G. concolor fertilized by the pollen of G. cardinalis. G. con- 
color is now regarded by botanists as a variety of G. tristis. The flowers 
were bright scarlet, with lanceolate blotches of white on the three lower 
segments. The flowers were fragrant, which points to G. tristis as one of 
the parents. This hybrid is still in the market and is, at least in America, 
the most important variety for growing under glass. 

Although the production of G. Colville was the first important achieve- 
ment in the improvement of gladioli, it was not the result of the first 
efforts in this field. The earliest attempts to hybridize gladioli appear 
to have been made by the Honorable William Herbert, Dean of Manchester, 
early in the last century. In 1818 he wrote the Horticultural Society of 
London as follows (Herbert, 1820: 196): 


Having raised two beautiful and hardy species of Gladiolus, by impregnating Cardinalis 
with Blandus and Blandus with Cardinalis, . . . . . . I propose to call one 
Gladiolus Blando-Cardinalis, and the other Gladiolus Cardinali-Blandus. These two 
new species of Gladiolus which have flowered make seed freely. I have also mules 
from Gladiolus tristis impregnated by the large flowering blue Gladiolus recurvus. 


Later, in 1819, in nis classic paper On the Production of Hybrid Vegetables 
(Herbert, 1822a:44-45), he wrote: 


Of Gladioli I possess the following mules: G. blando-cardinalis, G. cardinali-blandus, 
G. angusto-blandus, G. tristi-blandus, G. floribundo-blandus; G. cardinali-angusto- 
blandus; G. tristi-hirsutus; G. ringenti-tristis, and G. versicolore-hirsutus. I have this 
year seeds from further intermixtures, and mules may probably be obtained with endless 
variety of colour. These mules flower most beautifully in the open border, in a mixture 
of sand and peat, in patches amongst the Azaleas. It is perhaps best to take up the 
bulbs, and dry them, when the seed is ripe; but I have left African Gladioli unmoved 
for several years, in the border. I have never seen the least approximation to each 
other in the natural seedlings of G. blandus, G. tristis, G. cardinalis, G. hirsutus, and 
G. recurvus. 


Dean Herbert was an enthusiastic cultivator of gladioli, as well as an 
authority on the Cape bulbs. The following prophecy, written in 1820 
(Herbert, 1822b), will be of interest to all lovers of gladioli: 


I am persuaded that the African Gladioli will become great favorites with florists, 
when their beauty in the open border, the facility of their culture, and the endless 
variety which may be produced from seed by blending the several species, are fully 
known, nor will they be found to yield in beauty to the Tulip and Ranunculus. 


In 1837 he wrote as follows: 


The hybrid Gladioli, of which a large portion are sufficiently hardy, ower about the 
same time as the roses. .... These hardy crosses are between G. Cardinalis, blandus, 
carneus, inflatus, angustus, and tristis, and they vary with every shade of colour from 
white to scarlet, rose, coppery, and blackish purple, and some are exquisitely speckled 
in consequence of the cross with tristis..... The beautiful crosses with hirsutus, 
recurvus, and versicolor are more delicate plants, and do not succeed well in the border. 


Ten years later, in the Journal of the Horticultural Society of London, 


he wrote (Herbert, 1847): 


Forty years ago I first crossed the large and brilliant scarlet and white Gladiolus 
eardinalis with the smaller, but more freely flowering, G. blandus, which sports with 


‘ 
: 
; 
: 


GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — I a” 129 


white, purple, and rose coloured flowers, and (under the name of carneus, which was 
in truth rather a local variety of the same) of a coppery flesh-colour. The result was 
a fertile breed of great beauty, of which the prevailing colour was purplish roseate. 
Crossed again with cardinalis it yielded ficrid plants, scarlet, copper-coloured, rose- 
coloured, white, and purple with endless variation. By a cross of the first mule and 
of cardinalis itself with G. tristis, of which the flower is pale yellow with brown specks, 
deeper tints and rich speckling were introduced, with a difference in the foliage and 
seeds, the seed of G. tristis being smaller and longer, its leaves rigid and quadrangular, 
the transverse section exhibiting a cross. The seeds of cardinalis are like those of 
blandus, but larger. There can scarcely be two species more dissimilar than cardinalis 
and tristis in any genus which has the form of the perianth uniform, the latter having such 
remarkable leaves, narrow, rigid, and erect, a slender stem, with night-smelling flowers, 
and the former very broad semi-recumbent glaucous foliage, and an inclined half- 
recumbent stem with large scarlet and white blossom; yet the produce of these inter- 
mixed is fertile, and where the third species blandus has been also admitted into 
the union, it is fertile in the extreme (incomparably more so than the pure G. cardinalis), 
and by that triple cross the tall strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus of Madagascar has 
also produced offspring, which, though not disposed at present to make seed freely, 
has produced some this year. Again, the first of these mules was fertilized by G. hirsutus 
(known at the Cape by the name roseus), a plant with flowers straighter than usual 
in the genus, and strongly scented, the leaves hairy and margined with red. That 
cross has not as yet proved fertile. The same G. hirsutus was crossed by Mr. Bidwell 
at Sydney, where the Cape bulbs thrive more freely than here, with G. alatus (which 
Ecklon wished to turn off into a genus Hebea), having hard rigidly ribbed leaves, 
a short stem, and orange flowers. The cross-bred plants flowered here last autumn, 
being intermediate in foliage and flower. The only opportunity I have had of crossing 
G. alatus with the first-named mules was defeated, notwithstanding much precaution, 
through the introduction of pollen by the humblebees, which are dangerous marplots 
to such experiments. 


The second important hybrid was G. ramosus, which, according to the 
Revue Horticole for 1838, was obtained at Haarlem from seed of G. blandus, 
or ‘“‘floribunda.”’ It was first flowered in France by M. Rifkogel in 1838. 
Meanwhile (in 1835) it had been introduced into England and a figure 
of it was published in Paxton’s Magazine of Botany (volume 6 [18309], 
pages 99 and 100). The flower was openly funnel-shaped, bright red with 
deep blotches at the base of the three lower segments, and resembled 
G. blandus. The plant was tall, with heavy, broad leaves. Although it 
was not entirely hardy, requiring a heavy mulch for protection, it was 
necessary to plant it in the fall in order to get results. Nevertheless 
the varieties of this type, owing to the fact that they flowered later than 
those of G. blandus and G. cardinalis, formed an important group for at 
least the next twenty years and have not yet entirely disappeared from 
European lists. 

A number of hybrids were obtained by crossing G. floribundus and G. 
ramosus. Some of these, figured by color plates in works of the time, 
were Triomphe de Louvain (Carolus, 1845), Countess Coghen and 
Madame de Vilain (Rosseels, 1847), Leopoldii (Carolus, 1848), and 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie (Truffaut fils, 1848). 

Up to 1840, in spite of the efforts to improve the gladiolus and not- 
withstanding the amount of variation that had resulted from these efforts, 
the plant remained little more than a plant for the attention of interested 


128 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


amateurs. Before that time it does not appear to have received general 
attention or to have been an important plant in the seed or nursery trade. 
In the following table the names of varieties of gladioli are given, with 
their prices, as taken from advertisements of Messrs. T. & C. Lockhart, 
156 Cheapside, London. The table shows the varieties cultivated in 
England prior to the introduction of G. gandavensis. . 


Year 
Species or variety 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 
Per Per Per Per Per Hach 
dozen dozen dozen dozen dozen ee 
Sods s. d. SKS ls; s. d. Sede 
Altice: tase heer eee 4-0 4-0 A=O tl eee I-0 iS euae 
Dy AA neiisien coe e fees eee 2-0 3-0 BO ilies sae 2-6 4) (=a 
cardinalis inflatus.......... 5-0 =O 8S 5 ag ee ree 6-0 0-6 
USI LUCVOLIS Users con esata vai he FoOe ras eee ees 2= Greiner tees 2-0 0-3 
Each Each Each Each Each Each 
SS Sa = ee — 

s. d gs. d Sd Seidl Suds Sil 

(Oar aatliPesle coe hao ected Bieter UR ae ete eee ee ie 2-0 2-0 I-O 
alGpalloybualGlotS aco meeeorcho roe ae 1-4 T=6--0 | LSS Se cle 0-6 1-0 
SAIGAtIS ee ea Paras ee allih osha zens I-O0 2-6 2-0 2-6 1-6 
Pieri see ara A Be oe eines ok coe fii © Seece | eet 2-0 3-6 2-0 
LIRR eS RAT ce ae Na eles 2- 2=6)\2i See 2=6) cee 
PA RUSUDIATIGUIG iwc oe alec tcc a cscs Ges veg leteveas [elie lop eh ah eee ties late tee 1-6 
TS OSITEIRU ERS oy Siete obo re MP EN eA 15-0 15-0 10-0 
Sg ISIC, BS Caer ae Ses aR sae (eS Heerlen ae eerie gh 5-0 5-0 3-6 
PUROCOR atari mye inte ache Mies hena oi] ores Ses I-O 2=6.. 7 |Mete ees 2-6 I-O 
FAG AUIS aan ORE I ORS at CREPES lege errs I-O 2=6: eee es 2-6 1-6 
(ESET ESOS & oo et SNCS 4, on OCS Seek out Matera eaae 1-O T6005 1-6 I-O 
AMMA ELAS eee deta eats = all) aunts ees I-O 2-6 2-0 2-6 I-O 
HENRUO Eee, bis 6208-04 6 Ib tantetl tne tate 20-0 15-0 12-6 5-6 5-0 


At this time came the real starting point of the modern garden gladiolus, 
in G. gandavensis, sent out by Louis van Houtte in 1841. This gladiolus 
originated with M. Beddinghaus, gardener to the Duc d’Aremberg, who 
decided to produce hybrids between G. psittacinus, G. floribundus, G. 
ramosus, and G. cardinalis, all of them tall, showy species. He obtained 
seed in 1837, and in 1839 and 1840 he exhibited his seedlings in flower 
at Enghien. A seedling, a hybrid between G. psittacinus (G. natalensis 
Reinw.) and G. cardinalis, was admired by those who saw it. M. Van 
Houtte purchased it and introduced it through the medium of his catalog. 
Later he published a color plate of it in his Flore des Serres, with the follow- 
ing description by Lemaire (1846b): “ Le Gladiolus gandavensts a le port 
et l'inflorescence du G. natalensis, mais dans des proportions plus grandes, 
le coloris du G. cardinalis, mais plus riche et plus varié.” 


' 


Wile Rea eee eee 
. 


inal 
4 


GiapDIoLus StupiEs — I ea 


This hybrid created a furor in the gladiolus world, and the interest 
in the plant steadily grew after this form was introduced. It was soon 
followed by G. gandavensis var. citrinus, a citron yellow flower having 
a red stripe down the middle of each of the three lower segments. 

Dean Herbert, who at this time had had long experience in hybridizing 
gladioli, doubted the parentage of G. gandavensis as given by M. Van 
Houtte. He said (1837:365): “‘I have not succeeded in obtaining 
any cross, on the correctness of which I can depend, by admixture with 


- Gladiolus psittacinus (Nathalensis), and I do not believe that it will 


breed with any of the above ”’ (referring to G. cardinalts, blandus, carneus, 
inflatus, angustus, tristis, hirsutus, recurvus, and versicolor). 

It appears that in the discussions of the time G. floribundus was con- 
fused, at least in commercial circles, with G. oppositiflorus—a not 
unnatural result when it is considered that the true plants are closely 
allied botanically. Both are allied to-G. blandus. The flowers of the 
two first named are white or only tinged with pink; and considering 


‘the number of flowers produced on a spike, it is reasonable to suppose 


that these species would be used in crossing. In fact there is evidence of 
G. floribundus having been used. Among the first of its hybrids were 
those of Mr. Cole, gardener for Mr. Willmore at Oldford, England, who 
sent out the following varieties in 1850: 

Willmoreanus, a hybrid between G. gandavensis and G. floribundus, 
creamy white, the three upper divisions streaked delicate rosy purple. 

Oldfordiensis, delicate salmon color marked with purple. - Flowers 
large. 

Roseo-purpureus, deep rosy red, marked with deep purple-red. Flowers 
of medium size. Two years later Wellington, a deep orange-red variety, 
was sent out from the same source. 

The record is not clear as to G. oppositiflorus unless the plant used by 
Mr. Cole was really this species. However one may regard the state- 
ments concerning the origin of G. gandavensis, there is no escaping the 
conclusion, after studying present-day varieties of this group, that G. 
oppositifiorus either was one of the parents of the original hybrid or has 
been used in hybridizing with it. Without herbarium specimens of the 
first varieties of gandavensis, it is of course difficult to determine whether 
they exhibit any characteristics of G. oppositiflorus. On examination 
of the colored figures of this form, it would seem as though the distichous 
arrangement of the flowers on the spike was apparent from the beginning. 
Paxton (1844) figures G. gandavensis and gives a botanical description 
wherein he states that it is distichously spicate. Although this is placed 
in that part of the description referring to the genus, the author must 
have known that most of the species of Gladiolus have secund spikes, 


130 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 
- 

among them being G. cardinalis and G. psittacinus, the reputed parents 
_ of G. gandavensis. The evidence is strongly in favor of the idea that G. 
gandavensts is a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. oppositiflorus. 

About this time appeared G. brenchleyensis, raised by Mr. Hooker, 
of Brenchley. The earliest record (1848) of this gladiolus states that it 
is a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. floribundus, but since then it 
has usually been considered as a form of G. gandavensis. Whatever its 
origin, it ranks next to G. Colvillet in being the oldest of existing types 
of gladioli.™ 

Prior to 1850 — except for the work of Dean Herbert, whose breeding 
of gladioli was perhaps more scientific than practical — there had been 
no sustained effort in the improvement of the gladiolus. Every flower 
that has won an important place has had one or more great geniuses 
to develop it and thus make it known to plant lovers. M. Eugéne Souchet, 
gardener for Napoleon III at Fontainebleau, was the greatest of the 
many breeders of gladioli. He began his labors about 1850 and continued 
them until shortly before his death in 1880. It is quite probable that 


he used G. floribundus and G. ramosus in crossing the varieties of G. ganda- _ 


vensts, but such was his ability as a breeder that his varieties took foremost 
rank at once and maintained the lead throughout his life. The work 
was then carried on by his nephews, Messrs. Souillard and Brunelet. 

It must not be inferred that Eugéne Souchet had a clear field as a 
gladiolus breeder, even in France, for others were at work. M. Courant, 
of Poissy, raised and introduced such varieties as Docteur -Marjolin, 
Madame Thibaut, Keteleer, M. Loyre, in 1855, and Claire Courant, 
Keteleeri, Miniatus, in 1858. M. Truffaut fils, who worked much with 
forms of G. ramosus, produced in that section the following varieties: 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie, a famous hybrid between G. ramosus and G. 
floribundus, in 1848; Bernard de Rennes and Madame Bertin, in 1850; 
Madame Vilmorin and Imperatrice Eugénie, in 1855; Comtesse de Saint 
Marsault, Arc-en-ciel, Madame Hardy, President Decaisne, in 1858; and 
Comte de Paris, Marguerite Regaud, Napoleon III, in 1860. Among 
the G. psittacinus x gandavensis hybrids produced by M. Truffaut 
were Madame Souchet, Madame Truffaut, and Charles Rouillard, sent 
out in 1855. M. Domage, of Montrouge, offered Premices de Mont- 
rouge, in 1858, Eugéne Domage, Mademoiselle Marsault, Solferino, 
in 1860, Solfaterre, in 1861, and Madame Domage, in 1862. <A. Malet, 
of Plessis-Picquet, introduced Antiope, Madame Marc Caillard, Madame 
Place, Madame Vilmorin, in 1858, and Anacreon Cardinal, M. Morel, 
Gustave Malet, in 1861. M. Duval, of Petit Bicétre, placed before 
the public Madame Duval, M. Leroy, and Ernest Duval, in 1862. Eugéne 


11 G. ramosus is regarded as a group of which the original form is probably lost. 


SS eee eer Oe 


a © 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — I 131 


Verdier, of Paris, sent out Eugénie Verdier, Madame Eugéne Verdier, 
Olympe Lescuyer, and Victor Verdier, in 1858. 

A few years after M. Souchet began the improvement of gladioli, an 
event occurred which had far-reaching results — if not politically, at least 
in the history of the gladiolus. This was the visit of Queen Victoria 
to Fontainebleau in August, 1855. During her visit the flower borders 
were enlivened with cut spikes of gladioli thrust in vases of water among 
the common border plants. The result is best described in the words 
of a writer of the time (Anonymous reference, 1862): 

Few flowers have made in so short a space of time such rapid progress in public 
favour as the Gandavensis varieties of the gladiolus. . . . . The French were 
beginning to draw our attention to the bulbs, and new varieties were reaching us from 
the other side, when our gracious Sovereign gave a great impulse to their culture by 
taking them under her special patronage. Their being placed on the royal table led 
the frequenters of the Court to follow the example set them, and a demand almost 
unprecedented in the history of flowers has arisen. Fortunately they increase very 
rapidly, and hence they are being generally distributed over the country; and before 


this unhappy war broke out in America were being eagerly sought for there, for one 
Paris firm this time last year was looking out for 30,000 bulbs to supply one order. 


English breeders had not kept pace with their brethren in Belgium 
and France, and with the exception of the achievements of Dean Herbert 
and Mr. Cole there is little to record until about 1859 or 1860, when 
John Standish began to grow seedlings. He continued the work for several 
years. Many of his varieties were figured by color plates in the floral 
magazines of the time, but inasmuch as he was not given full credit for 
his efforts attention should be called to the great number of varieties 
originated by him. Among these were Adam Bede, Adele Souchet, 
Agnes, Alice Gray, *Alice Wilson,” Aurelian, Bacchus, Basil, Beauty of 
Bagshot, Belle of Bagshot, Blair Athol, Brian Boru, Bridesmaid, Carlotta 
Grisy, Carminata, Caroline, Castor, *Charles Davis, Clara, Colleen Bawn, 
Colonel Hood, Cordelia, Daphne, Diana, Dr. Blount, Dr. Hogg, Don- 
ald Beaton, Don Juan, Duchess of Sutherland, Earl Carlisle, Edith 
Dombrain, *Eleanor Norman, Elfin, Etna, Eugéne Domage, Excelsior, 
Garibaldi, General Cabrera, General Leé, Goldfinder, Guido, Harlequin, 
Herr Rosenberg, Ivanhoe, John Leach, *John Standish, Joseph Maston, 
Juliet, Kathleen, Ketterii, *Lady Alice Hill, Lady Caroline Legge, Lady 
Emily Seymour, Lady Marshall, Lady M. Hood, Lady Morgan, Lem- 
onade, Lord Clyde, Lord Kenlis, Lord Shaftesbury, Lucy Neal, Mlle. 
Patti, Minerva, Miss Foster, Miss Glegg, Miss Graham, Miss Howell, 
Miss Ingram, Mr. Duffield, *Mr. J. W. Lane, Mr. Menzies, Mr. Rucker, 
Mrs. Dix, *Mrs. Dombrain, Mrs. E. Nott, Mrs. Hogg, Mrs. Menzies, 
*Mrs. Moore, Mrs. Peach, *Mrs. Reynolds Hole, Mrs. Ridley Hunter, Mrs. 


2 The varieties marked with an asterisk have been figured by color plates in the Florists’ Magazine 
or similar publications. 


132 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 - 


Siddons, *Mrs. Standish, Mowbray More, Norma, Oberon, *Our Little 
Lucy, Poniatowski, Prime Minister, “Randle Jackson, Reine Victoria, 
Reverend Joshua Dix, Robin Hood, Rose of England, Samuel Weymouth, 
Scottish Chief, Senior Jackson, Sir Isaac Newton, *Sir James Clarke, 
Sultane, Susan Ingram, The Caliph, The Cardinal, The Colonel, The 
Dauphin, The Ensign, Thurza, Tom Moore, Viola, Whipper-in, William 
Menzies. | 

These were excellent exhibition varieties, equal if not superior to those 
sent out in France; but it seems that the conditions were not so favorable 
for their multiplication, and thus the varieties were never generally dis- 
tributed and consequently in a few years were lost. Later Mr. Standish 
moved to Ascot, where he again took up the breeding of gladioli, pro- 
ducing some brenchleyensis-cruentus hybrids. 

Meanwhile J. Sladden produced some seedlings of merit — Hector, 
Lord Clyde, Prospero, and Volunteer — which won the first prize of the 
Royal Horticultural Society in 1863. Although the efforts of Standish 
served to promote to a certain extent the popular interest in gladioli 
through exhibitions, there appeared simultaneously with him one who 
may be regarded as the Souchet of England, James Kelway. Kelway, 
establishing himself at Langport under different conditions and with 
a keen judgment of the requirements demanded of new seedlings, was 
successful; and his successors have maintained the high reputation 
of the firm for high-grade gladioli. Kelway sent out his first varieties 
in 1866. | 

The species purpureo-auratus, introduced in 1870, was found to be 
perfectly hardy at Nancy, France. Victor Lemoine discovered after 
a test of two or three years that original corms had multiplied so as to 
form good-sized clumps. The varieties of G. gandavensis had not proved 
successful in the soil at Nancy, and so, very naturally, Lemoine conceived 
the idea of hybridizing the hardy species with the more brilliant-flowered 
garden type. He procured some of the best varieties of G. gandavensis 
and used pollen from them on his G. purpureo-auratus plants in 1875. 
The result was three seedlings, of which two were afterward named and 
the third was suppressed because its colors were not desirable. The hybrids 
proved to be hardy, like the female parent. Lemoine says that the seed- 
lings were identical in habit, hardiness, height, size and form of flowers, 
and size and form of the blotches on the lower segments, which were purple 
bordered with yellow. The named varieties were distinguished’ by the 
general color of the corolla, which in G. Lemotneit was rosy white and in 
Marie Lemoine was straw color. These varieties were put on the market 
in 1880; in 1882 five more varieties were offered, and in autumn of the 
same year seven varieties were added to the list. In 1881 the English 
journal The Garden called attention to a similar hybrid, called G. pur- 


GLADIOLUs StupIEs — I 133 


_ pureo-auratus hybridus Froebeli, which very much resembled the variety 

~ Marie Lemoine. 

Other plant breeders used the Lemoinei varieties to cross with the 
best varieties of G. gandavensis. Among these producers were: Deleuil, of 

' Marseilles; Trefoux, of Auxerre; Torcy-Vaunier, of Melun; Souillard 

and Brunelet, of Fontainebleau; Haage & Schmidt, of Erfurt; and Krelage, 

of Haarlem. 

Although developed: simultaneously with G. Lemotnei, the hybrid 
gandavensis x Saundersit — produced by Herr Leichtlin and known as 
G. Leichtlintat and later as G. Childsii —was not generally distributed 
until after G. nancetanus. When the stock of G. Leichilinit passed into the 
hands of M. Godefroy-Lebeuf, it is said that he sold mixed corms but 
did not name any of the seedlings of this class. Having purchased some 
of the stock and having also some corms from Herr Leichtlin, M. Lemoine 
was aware of the improvement shown in this group and therefore was led ~ 
to undertake the crossing of G. Lemoinet and G. Saundersii which resulted 
F in producing G. nanceianus. G. Childsii (formerly called G. Leichtlinii) 
; seems not to have interested European growers, probably because of their 
1 


+ 


interest in the fine varieties of M. Lemoine. In America, on the other 
hand, the Childsii varieties found favor, and through the efiorts of American 
cultivators the flowers have been improved in substance. M. Froebel, 
of Zurich, in 1889 sent out G. turicensis, a variety produced by crossing 
_ _G. Saundersit with G. gandavensts, which is the same cross as that made by 
_ Herr Leichtlin and therefore has been regarded as the same as G. Childsit. 
5 The purpureo-auratus-gandavensis hybrids, known in_ horticultural 
literature as G. Lemoinei, were crossed on G. Saundersii (introduced in 
' 1872) by M. Lemoine in 1883. The result was four seeds from which 
' the seedlings afterward named President Carnot and Maurice de Vilmorin 
~ were chosen in 1885. These varieties were remarkable for their large 
| flowers and numerous dots of color. The originator claimed that this 
class was also hardy. The first varieties (nine in number) from this 
cross were introduced in 1889, and these with other seedlings were shown 
» at the Universal Exposition in Paris in that year. This group has been 
___ known as G. nanceianus. 
) G. Victortalis was introduced in 1893 by Dammann & Co., of San 
Giovanni a Teduccio, near Naples. This variety was described as a 
hybrid between G. byzantinus and G. cardinalis, or between a European 
and a Cape species, and, if correct, it was the first hybrid of such parentage 
on record. The firm’s catalog for 1893 stated that the variety was hardy 
and belonged to the early-flowering class or group. In habit the plant 
Was intermediate between the parents; the flowers were pink or dark red, 
and the inner segments were striped as in G. cardinalis. The season 
was about the middle of April and the flowers were somewhat scented. 


7 7: oe ——_—-_—- 
ee ’ ~~ er ; 
te : 


134 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


The class was recommended for market and for cutting, and especially 
for hybridizing. Five varieties were offered, as follows: Amathusia, 
Amphitrite, Andromeda, Penelope, Eris. It appears that specimens were 
sent by Mr. Sprenger, of the firm of Dammann & Co. to J. G. Baker, 
who described this new gladiolus in the Gardeners’ Chronicle of May 20, 
1893, but ascribed it to a cross between G. communis and G. cardinalis or 
G. Colvillei.. Endicott (1897) says that G. Victorialis is not so good as G. 
byzantinus, and that he saw no evidence of African blood. Apparently 
the class was of little value, since it seems not to have been cataloged by 
the introducers for more than a year. 

When the above-named specimens were sent by Mr. Sprenger to Mr. 
Baker there was included a papzlio-gandavensis hybrid, which was described. 
Later Mr. Sprenger sent six hybrids, as follows: communis x Colvillez; 
communis x Colvillet albus; communis x cardinalis; ramosus x cardinals ; 
papilio x cardinalis; papilio x angustus. These were not described, and 
the writer could not ascertain whether or not any of them found their 
way into the market. They are of interest to botanists and plant breeders 
in view of Dean Herbert’s opinion regarding the possibility of uniting 
the species of Europe and South Africa. 

Another interesting class of gladioli was the Glaieuls a épi rond, the first 
varieties of which, Triomphe de Paris and Mme. Casimir-Perier, were 
introduced by Cayeux et Le Clerc in 1902. These gladioli with flowers 
all around the stem were a novelty, and the following additional varieties 
were sent out: Eureka (Lem., 1903); Triomphe de Nancy (Lem., 1905); 
Caprice (Lem., 1906); Couronnement (Lem., 1908). They were of passing 
moment, however, and have almost disappeared. 

In 1905 Roger de la Borde exhibited his Giant-flowered Hybrids, which 
he claimed were the result of crossing several species with a very severe 
selection of the seedlings. The flowers were large, some of the varieties 
having flowers twenty-two centimeters in diameter, while the American 
varieties under the same conditions were only thirteen centimeters. The 
colors were delicate. The spikes were furnished with from four to six 
flowers open at one time. 

G. primulinus, which flowered at Kew in 1890, has in recent years been 
used in hybridizing with other races and species of gladioli. This species 
seems to have come into commercial notice in France in 1905, and in the 
United States through Thorburn in 1908. Cayeux et Le Clerc obtained 
a number of seedlings of G. primulinus, using different and more or less 
yellow-flowered varieties of G. Lemoinet, G. nancetanus, and G. gandavensis. 
They also made reciprocal crosses. Crosses with such gandavensts varieties 
as Hohenzollern and Safrano gave the best results. Seventy per cent of 
the seedlings were yellow and hooded, as in the type. The nanceianus 
crosses gave less pure colors, the flowers being striped with shades of 


ee i a ial 


GLaDIOLUs StupIEs — I 135 


- red and in several cases with novel shades of copper or coppery bronze. 


With the Lemoine: variety Henry Lemoine, the seedlings ranged in color 
from almost pure yellow to pure yellow, but retained the pronounced 
hooded upper petal. 

‘These first hybrids were crossed with the largest yellow-flowered ganda- 
vensis varieties. The resulting hybrids, flowering in 1909, had large, 
well-open flowers, in colors ranging from clear yellow to golden yellow. 
In addition, distinct salmon and chamois shades appeared, which offered 
a field for further work in gladiolus development. 

Langprim gladtoli is the name given by Kelway for his strain of primu- 
linus hybrids produced by crossing with varieties of G. Kelwayi and G. 
gandavensis. G. primulinus used on the Kelwayt varieties has thus far 
given the best results. The seedlings show marked primulinus char- 
acters, especially in regard to color and form, giving a series of colors 
ranging from lemon-white to orange, suffused with red. 

Lemoine evidently began experimenting with G. primulinus soon after 
its introduction into Europe, and in the autumn of 10908 he offered G. 
primulinus major, G. primulinus maculatus, and G. primulinus salmoneus. 
In 1910 he sent out G. primulinus concolor and G. primulinus erectus. 

Recent development in the gladiolus is marked by the attempt of the 
French gladiolus breeders to produce a type that will flower in the interval 
between the early dwarf varieties, G. Colvillet, G. communis, and G. 
segetum on the one hand, and G. nancetanus on the other. 

About 1902 M. Porcher-Dionneau, of Ponts-de-Cé, conceived the idea 
of crossing G. nancetanus with G. Colvillet to produce an earlier-flowering 
strain. Each year he selected from the seedlings those that flowered first 
but that retained the rich coloring and large size of G. nanceianus. He 
exhibited his varieties in 1910 and they are figured in the Revue Horticole, 
where it is stated on M. Porcher-Dionneau’s authority that, when planted 
with G. Colvillet in March, the Glaieuls hatifs Ponts-de-Céais flowered at 
the same time, but the flowers measured from sixteen to twenty-two centi- 
meters in diameter and had the rich colors of the nancezanus class. 

Cayeux et Le Clerc, in 1913, introduced G. vitriacensts, a hybrid between 
a Lemoinet variety and some of the early dwarf hybrids known as G. nanus. 
The plant grew one meter high and bore medium-sized flowers having 
the characteristic blotches of the dwarf type. The period of bloom was 
in the interval between the season of the early-flowering varieties and 
the late-flowering group. 

These results indicate that where the dwarf types are hardy it is possible 
to have gladioli in the open ground from April or May until the latest of 
the tall late varieties are over — a period of Six months. 

The parentage of some of the principal hybrid species is shown in the 
following table: 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


136 


' (aieg) 


IOIS[OOX| 
(q22]7 UPA) (eutoula’y) (autouta’T) (aurowa’T) (xnoaAed) (autoure’T) 
sdanuntg Spliqdy en[g sisuaappuns x snupia2udu sptiqdy snjpyds209DAp SISUAIDLALUD sapioup12j0) 


ne ee : 
| Sam | 


(arpa YOI9'T) | | | | | | | | | 


Snuanad X UISPLLYD ordog X 1aui0oWaT IWSdapuNDy X 1auroMaTT 1aUL9WATT X SNIDYG2I0IDAP SNUDU X JaULOWAaT sNjSNIUD X leuLomaT 


\ 


(j9qQ90.,7) (aulouta’T) (moayaq) 
SISUBILAN] 1aulouwa'T SISWatISSDUL 
| | | | | 
SisuanppuUns X LissapUnds sisuaappups X SnIDAND-oaAnd ANG snurvoyisg x Sisuaappund 
oo ——— a 


SNULISSISOMLADL 
(uueutueq) | | (sneysurppog) (ayOOF]) 
$110140992 A 1a7]10J0D SLPDULPADI X SNSOWDA SisuanDpUuDds S1suaka]yIUadq 
ote ara eas (Sallie aera ales 
| | | | | hvereal | | | 
snuyunzhg X SsiypurpaDpa AOJOIUOI S1PSIA} X SIPDUIPADI StDULPADI X SnAOYfYISOgdo xX snutdDIIS snpungisoy x snutapjIsd 


SS es, 


5 re 


aie 


GLADIOLUS StTupIEs — I Re 


_ HISTORY OF GARDEN SPECIES 


- ? 

Gladiolus alatus Linn. (Wing-flowered Gladiolus) is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope and was among the first species introduced into 
Europe. The corm is round, compressed, and small, about the size of 
a small crocus. The leaves are from three to four in number, narrowly . 
sword-shaped, somewhat leathery, without a middle nerve but streaked 
with parallel fine furrows. The stem varies from a few inches to a foot 


in height, and bears from five to ten flowers. The segments are very 


unequal, the uppermost being one-half the width of the two lateral ones 
and the lower segments narrower. The flowers are bright red, and small 
like those of sweetbrier. Ker thinks that presumably the specific name 
was suggested to Linneus by the extended wing-like appearance of the 
upper lateral segments of the corolla, rather than by the somewhat winged 
stems. Although it is one of the so-called hardy species, it endures but 
little cold; yet, on the other hand, it cannot be kept out of the soil except 
for a short period. According to Ker it is propagated very easily by 
seeds and cormels, although it is not so easily brought into flower, which 
he attributes to lack of sufficient heat. 

This species is common in the western coast districts of South Africa, 
where it flowers in the spring. In the south it inhabits the low hills and 
flats; in the north, due to the less amount of rainfall, it is not found on 
the plains, but only on mountains in locations where soil and moisture 
are congenial to it. When the plant is not set deep enough it throws 
out several anchor roots which, according to Marloth, serve, when 
shriveling at the beginning of the dry season, to drag the new corm 
downward until by a series of annual descents the plant has reached its 
proper depth. 

G. angustus Linn. (Narrow-leaved Gladiolus) was one of the first (if 
not the very first) of the African species to be introduced into Europe. 
The leaves are narrow, upright, shorter than the stem, and with a single 
prominent midrib. The stem is from one to two feet high. The flowers 
are from three to five in number, about four inches long, straight, narrow 
funnel-form, one-ranked, and scentless. The three upper segments are 
broad, the middle one being the broadest, the lower ones rather narrower, 
all flat and spreading. The color is usually described as white, and the 
lower segments are marked by a spade-shaped purple blotch. The color 
plate in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine (tab. 602) shows a red blotch with a 
distinct eye of the same color as the segment, and the spot is connected 
with the base by a red line down the center of the petal. The flowers 
appear in June. This species, says Ker, propagates easily by seeds or 


‘cormels. The species was probably first noticed by Breyne, and was 


138 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


described and figured by Linnaeus in Hortus Cliffortianus in 1737. It 
was cultivated by Miller in 1757. ; 

G. atroviolaceus Boiss. was introduced in 1889. It is therefore not 
very well known commercially. The plant grows from one to one and 
one-half feet tall, bearing linear, closely ribbed leaves. The spikes are 
not thicker than a slender pencil and bear from four to eight flowers. 
These are narrow and tube-like, with a small hood, and the colors are 
navy blue, purple, and white. Fuld (1912) reports that corms of this 
species planted in a cold frame in October and covered during the winter 
with sash, were discovered in active growth in March. Later the sash 
were removed, and the plants flowered on May 15. Bulbs planted in 
a greenhouse in December, according to Fuld, were in flower within two 
months. While the stems were not so long as those on the plants grown 
in the cold frame, the flowers were as graceful. If this proves to be the 
general experience, there can be no doubt as to the usefulness of this 
species for growing under glass, and it may prove a foundation for the 
development of a true forcing type. 

G. blandus Ait. (Fairest Gladiolus) has corms of medium size. The 
leaves are sword-shaped, nerved, and shorter than the stem, which is” 
from one to two feet high and bears from three to ten large flowers. The 
segments vary much in size and form in the different varieties; the lower 
segments are the narrower. The perianth is white, tinged with red, the 
lower segments with a reddish blotch at the throat. The flowers appear 
in June and are scentless. The plant blooms freely and propagates 
readily by both seed and cormels. The species was introduced into 
Kew in 1774 by Masson. In the figure of the species in Curits’s Botanical 
Magazine, the plant is shown with conspicuous red lines or markings 
on the spathes. 

G. blandus var. albidus Jacq. (Snow-white Gladiolus) has stems one 
foot long, which bear three flowers. The flowers are almost pure white, 
there being only a very light stain on the backs of the petals before they 
expand. 

G. blandus var. carneus De la Roche (Pale Purple Gladiolus), known 
in the early lists as G. campanulatus Andrews, is a more robust form, 
with larger, lilac or mauve, flowers. The upper segments are broad 
and overlap one another; the lower ones are narrower but overlap, are 
lighter in color than the upper segments, and are marked by a crescent- 
shaped red spot. This form was introduced in 1796. 

G. blandus var. excelsus Sweet is a taller-growing and larger-leaved 
form of the species. 

G. blandus var. Hibbertii Hort. has pink flowers with very distinct 
spade-shaped blotches on the three lower segments. 


—-—.-” 


GLADIOLUs STuDIEs — I 139 


G. blandus var. Mortonius Herb. has stems one and one-half feet long. 
The flowers are white, with copious faint vertical streaks. The variety 
was introduced about 1835. 

G. cardinalits Curt. (Superb Gladiolus), a beautiful Cape species, was 
given its common name because it grows from three to four feet high, 
bearing from twelve to twenty bright scarlet flowers, with the lower 
segments of the perianth marked by a large diamond-shaped white blotch. 
It is figured in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, tab. 135 (1790), where 
the statement is made that the species was introduced into England from 
Holland by Graffer and was first flowered by Lewis & Mackie at Kingsland. 
Aiton says it was introduced by Graffer in 1789. The species flowers in 
July and August. It is just hardy in England, and dampness affects 
the corms—which, however, are intolerant of being out of the ground 
long, and consequently it was the practice of growers to plant this 
species in the fall. Allen says it rarely flowers if planted in the spring. 

This species is one of the parents of G. Colvillet, G. ramosus, G. 
pudibundus, G. candidus, and G. tncarnatus. It is thought by some to 
be a parent of the gawdavensis race, but the plant-breeding evidence, 
and to a certain extent the characters of the early varieties of this type, 
are against this. being a fact. A rose-colored variety called subroseus 
was raised from G. cardinalis by Jacques in 1847 from seed produced in 
1844. According to Marloth, this species is found on the moist cliffs 
and grassy ledges of waterfalls in the Wellington, Paarl, and Frenchhoek 
Mountains, flowering in midsummer (January). The corm is small but 
is provided with numerous long, thin, much-branched roots, which spread 
widely in the boggy soil. The species appears to flourish under conditions 
favorable to Disa uniflora, and sometimes the two may be found flowering 
together. The flowers are bright scarlet and crimson; the uppermost 
petal, the largest and hooded, is somewhat paler; the three lower petals 
and sometimes those adjoining them have a white blotch. The flowers 
are faintly scented like some lilies. In nature the plant hangs from 
cliffs, the stems are from three to four feet long, the leaves are from two 
to three feet long, and there are from five to ten flowers on the hanging 
spike. Whether the spike is hanging downward (as found under natural 


conditions) or is cut and placed in an upright position in water, the 


flowers are always in the normal position — that is, with the hooded 
segment uppermost. This is due to a turn of the tube which enables the 
flowers to adjust themselves to conditions under which the individual 
buds open, and appears to be an adaptation for butterflies and birds, 
which visit the flowers for the nectar in the narrow tube and accomplish 
fertilization of the flowers by brushing against the stamens or the stigmas 
that arch over underneath the hood. 


140 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


G. cruentus Moore (Blood-red, or Bloody, Gladiolus) was introduced 
into England by William Bull, of Chelsea, in 1868. In his catalog for 
1871 he offered the novelty and thus describes it: 

A very beautiful and entirely novel species of this popular genus introduced from 
Natal. It is not only ’a very showy plant, but also one of a very distinct character 
and is an acquisition for the flower garden on account of its vigorous habit of growth 
and large brilliantly coloured flowers. It produces a tall scape, two feet high or upwards, 
furnished with long flag-like glaucous leaves nearly an inch wide, the scape terminating 
in a distichous spike of large, broadly campanulate, subringent flowers of a bright 
blood-red colour, the upper segments uniformly coloured and the lower smaller ones 
crimson at the base and scarlet at the apex. The two lateral segments of the lower 
lip are marbled about halfway down with a white zone dotted with crimson, which 
on the exterior edge runs out into a long point, like the flame of the Florist Tulip. This 
distinct species has been figured both in the Botanical Magazine and in the Florist 
and Pomologist. The price per corm is one guinea. 


The flowers are from six to ten in number and appear late in September. 
_ The spikes possess the valuable quality of developing after being cut and 
placed in water. The corms are distinguished by their bright yellow color, 
globular form, large size, and thin covering. 

This species is very sensitive to soil conditions, but, according to Van 
Fleet, if healthy corms are planted in nearly pure sand with a stratum’ 
of peat for a root run, kept fairly moist, and afforded plenty of sunshine, 
the plants will be strong and leafy with plenty of bloom.. The plants will 
not grow in clay soil and seldom thrive in rich garden loam. 

The first hybridizer to use this species was John Standish, of Ascot, 
England, who in October, 1871, exhibited a brenchleyensis-cruentus hybrid 
before the Royal Horticultural Society. The following year this hybrid 
was named Alice Wilson. A color plate of it appears in the Florist and 
Pomologist for 1873, page 73. T. Moore says it has more the form of a 
lily than that of an irid. The flowers were comparatively small, with a 
white center, a marginal coloration of rosy carmine, and little of the 
flame-like marking on the lower perianth segments, thus rendering the lily- 
like illusion all the more striking. 

G. princeps was originated by Van Fleet from G. cruentus crossed 
with G. Childsit (G. gandavensis x Saundersit). This variety, says 
the originator, almost exactly reproduces the crimson-scarlet coloring 
with white and cream feathering in the lower segments, but the flat, 
circular flower is expanded to six inches in diameter both ways. The 
plant also is doubled in size in all its parts. This hybrid retains the pecu- 
liarity of G. cruentus in producing blunt-appearing spikes with apparently 
few flowers. Growth continues, however, until sometimes as many as 
twenty flowers. are produced. The spikes show something of the same 
tendency when cut and placed in water that is kept fresh by frequent 
changing. 


GLaDIOLUS StuDIEs — I I41 


G. cuspidatus Jacq. (Tall Gladiolus), a 
native of Cape Colony, was introduced 
-- more than a century ago. The corms 
are small, being less than three-fourths 
- ofan inch in diameter. The three leaves 
- are narrow, flat, and rigid. The stem 

is from two to three feet long. The 

flowers vary from four to eight in 

; number. The segments are shorter than 
the tube, and generally waved. The 
- upper segments are broadest; the upper- 
most one is nearly straight, but is 
recurved at the end. The color, accord- 
ing to Baker, is white or pale pink, with 

a spade-shaped blotch on each of the 

three lower segments. The plate in 
| Curtis's Botanical Magazine for 1802 
| (Ker, 1749-1825, tab. 582) shows a 

yellowish white flower, with blotches of 
red, white center, and margins of purple; 
the anthers are shown as blue. The 
flowers appear in May. This species 
was introduced into Europe in 1785. 
G. dracocephalus Hook. f. (Dragon’s 
Head Gladiolus), a Natal species, was 
introduced -by Wilson Saunders and 
: flowered at Reigate, England, in August, 
4 
- 


1870. It was discovered by Cooper in 
> that part of Natal west of the Drach- 
enberg Mountains. The flowers are 
yellow-green closely striped with dull 
purple-red on the upper segments, and 
bright green spotted with purple on the 
lower segments, which are much smaller 
and are recurved. The two outer seg- 
ments are wing-like with recurved tips; 
the upper segment is arched and hooded. 
The stem is one and one-half feet high, 
bearing from five to seven flowers. This 
species has been used in crossing with ee 
G. gandavensis and G. Lemoinez. Fic. 9. GLADIOLUS DRACOCEPHALUS 


142 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9g 


G. grandis Thunb. (Large Brown Afrikander).is found in the western 
part of Cape Colony, where it flowers in the spring. The larger flowers 
are sweet-scented in the evening. The perianth is yellowish, more or 


less tinged with purplish brown. The flowers vary from one to five, on — 


stems from two to two and one-half feet long. The two or three leaves 
are strongly ribbed. The corms are small, from one-half to three-fourths 
inch in diameter. 

Marloth (191s) distinguishes between G. recurvus and G. maculatus 
Sweet (Small Brown Afrikander). The latter, though similar in shape 
and color of flower to G. grandis, is only about half the size, and flowers 
in the autumn (May-June in the South Temperate Zone). The color 
is a deeper brown. Marloth says it is readily known by its extremely 
strong, almost narcotic, scent, which is especially noticeable inthe evening. 
Baker makes G. maculatus Sweet a synonym of G. recurvus, but Marloth 
says G. recurvus has a pleasing fragrance and a different season of flowering, 
as well as a different form of leaves. 

G. oppositiflorus Herb. is found in Transkeian Kaffraria, not, as Herbert 
supposed, in Madagascar; no collector has found it in the latter country. 
The corms are large. The leaves are from three to four in number, some- 
times as many as six, crowded, ensiform, glabrous, and shorter than the 
stem. The whole plant is usually three feet tall, and occasionally five 
feet. The flowers number from thirty to forty in a dense, two-ranked 
spike. The flowers are large, and white with mauve-purple or amethyst 
stripes. Van Fleet says this species is of tall growth, bearing from eighteen 
to twenty-four blooms almost simultaneously, of delicate peach and white 
tints. The species has been looked upon as the parent of the light-colored 
gandavensis forms, and plant breeders have sought to obtain the long- 
desired, meritorious, pure white variety by continued crossing of the best 
white varieties with the purest white seedlings of this species. The results 
indicate that such pure whites as have been obtained are of low vitality 
and reproducing power. 

This species was described by Dean Herbert (1842), but had already 
been noted by him in his work on the Amaryllidaceae in 1837. Herbert 
called attention to the fact that the species was sold by Dutch nurserymen 
under the name of G. floribundus, an old name for a different plant — 
G. floribundus Jacq. The same plant was known as G. flabellifer Tausch, 
and Tausch (1836) states that G. floribundus Hort. Holland (non Jacq.) 
is a synonym. The citation of the same synonym seems to leave little 
doubt that the same species was under consideration, especially when 
there is nothing contrary in the descriptions. 

The reference just given indicates some of the difficulty of determining 
what species were used in hybridizing. An illustration of G. oppositiflorus 


— 


eee ee 


Se. ii ee eee ee i 


GiaDIoLus Stupres — I 143 


F 7 was published in Curtis’s Botaxical Magazine from specimens collected more 


recently, but it is there stated that the plant was identical with herbarium 
specimens left by Herbert. 

G. primulinus Baker is from Usagara Mountains, in Africa, and was 
first flowered at Kew in 18go from corms sent by J. F. Last, who discovered 
it in 1887. It was reintroduced by Francis Fox, who procured some plants 
from Rain Forest, Victoria Falls, and flowered them at Wimbledon, Eng- 


- land. C. E. Allen says it grows in “one of the wettest spots near the Falls 
’ in a perpetual deluge.’’ When this species was introduced it was regarded 


as a distinct species, but later it was referred to G. Quartintanus A. Rich., 


which was introduced into cultivation by Sir John Kirk in 1884. The clear, 


uniform primrose color of the flowers, without any tendency toward 
markings, warrants its retention for horticultural purposes. At least 
G. primulinus has now become better known than G. Quaritnianus, and 


~ in garden literature it will doubtless be retained. 


G. psittacinus Hook. (Splendid Corn Flag) is from the Cape and has 
been called the parrot, or perroquet, gladiolus. In Holland it was early 
known as G. Daelent, after Dr. Dael, of Brussels, who is said to have 
been the first in Europe to flower it. Reinwardt named it G. natalensis, 
and under one or the other of the latter names it appears in early literature. 
It was first flowered in Great Britain by Richard Harrison, of Liverpool, 
in 1830, from corms procured from Prince de Salm-Dyck. The species was 
figured in the Botanical Register (1831), tab. 1442, and in Curtts’s Botantcal 
Magazine, tab. 3032. 

Sweet (1832-35) figured and described this species under the name G. 
natalensis Reinw., Natal Corn Flag. He says it was “introduced by 
Professor Reinwardt, of Leyden, who has liberally distributed bulbs of 
it to various collections both in this country and on the Continent. It 
is by far the largest in growth, and in beauty of its flowers it is not sur- 
passed by any others of the genus. The plant seems to be quite as hardy 
as G. byzantinus and requires the same soil and treatment as that species.” 


mG. psttiacinus is one of the parents of G. gandavensts Hort. 


G. pstitacinus var. Coopert Baker has segments more acute than in 


the type, and the tube is from two and one-half to three inches long. 


G. purpureo-curaius. Hook. f., from Natal, was introduced by William 
Bull, of Chelsea (who also introduced G. cruentus), and was first flowered 
in England in August, 1871. This is the hardiest of the African species. 
The corms are large, and the cormels are produced on the ends of running 
rootstocks. The leaves are somewhat glaucous, narrow, and stiff. The 
stems are from one and one-half to two feet tall. From ten to fifteen 
blooms are borne in one rank on the spike. The color of the flowers 
is greenish yellow, with a diamond-shaped maroon blotch on the two 


144 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9g 


lower segments. The flowers are bell-shaped and the spikes bow-like. 
This species is valuable, not for its beauty, but as a parent of garden 
forms. It was used in the development of G. Lemozinet. 

G. recurvus Linn. (Violet-scented Gladiolus) is a native of Cape Colony, 
and was grown by Miller from seed and flowered at Chelsea before 
1760. The stem is from one to two feet tall, is slender, and bears three 
strongly ribbed leaves. The flowers are from two to six in number, sulfur- 
colored, suffused and broadly edged with lilac, and with three stripes on 
each petal. The flowers are very fragrant, with a scent described by 
some writers as similar to that of violets or orris root. The species 
flowers in the northern hemisphere in April and May. This species is 
considered the most fragrant of the genus. It is somewhat intolerant 
of moisture when not in flower, but otherwise it never fails to bloom 
when the corms attain proper age. Marloth, who distinguishes between 
this and G. maculatus Sweet, says the three upper segments are broader 
than the lower, and are pale or dark lilac, and the lower segments are 
yellow with mauve or lilac points and similar streaks. The plant is fre- 
quent in the Cape flats and elsewhere, where it flowers in the spring 


(August) and is known by the common name Mauve Afrikandes.. This _ 


species was introduced into Kew in 1774, where it was named G. ¢arinatus. 
Miller’s description is full and complete, but his figure is incorrect as 
the stem is not branched. 

G. tristis Linn. (Sad-colored Gladiolus), an African species, was given 
its name by Linnzeus because of the color of its flowers, which, however, 
are scarcely somber enough to deserve the name. The color is pale 
yellow, with dark brown spots. The blossoms are sweet-scented from 
dusk to dawn. The flowers appear in April and May on stems one and 
one-half feet high. The leaves are linear, four-sided, and furrowed. 
This was one of the first species brought from the Cape, and was cultivated 
by Philip Miller as early as 1745. 

G. tristis var. concolor Salisb. was formerly known as G. concolor. This 
plant is so named because of the almost concolorous white and pale yellow 
flowers. Like the type, it is fragrant in the evening. The foliage has 
the peculiar characters of G. tristis. Like the type also, it endures little 
cold, and because of its early flowering must be grown in a frame. 


HYBRID GLADIOLI 


The variety Bellona is a hybrid between G. cuspidatus and G. papilio, 
raised and introduced by Dammann in 1899. In his catalog for the 
year Dammann described it as “an early-flowered gladiolus of most 
peculiar form and color. Leaves green, narrow and lanceolated, stalk 
about sixteen inches high, very rich-flowered. Petals long, rolled and 


3 


GLaDIOLUs STuDIEs — I 145 


pointed; leaves dark salmon, steel blue with black spots. A new gladiolus 
not yet seen.”’ 

G. brenchleyensts is usually considered a form of G. gandavensis, although 
the persistency with which it has retained its individuality through a 
period of more than sixty-five years might lend weight to the belief that 
it is more than G. gandavensis. The early history of G. brenchleyensis is 
not definitely known. In 1848 this variety was recorded as a hybrid 
between G. psittacinus and G. floribundus, raised by Mr. Hooker, of 
Brenchley, about 1846.% The stock, or a considerable proportion of it, 
passed into the possession of the Youells, of Yarmouth, who were for 
years the largest growers of G. brenchleyensis in England. Their notable 
displays of this hybrid did more to direct the attention of the public 


_.to the merits of this excellent variety than did the efforts of any one 


i 


= + 


else. The flowers are vivid scarlet, with pencilings of yellow in the 
throat. They are only medium in size, but the great number open at one 
time produce a brilliant effect. The plant is therefore very useful in the 
garden, where it is a vigorous grower. It is considered by many growers 
to be the best scarlet variety, and is grown for its good color for table 
decorations. In Europe this gladiolus is often recommended for bedding 
with Galtonia candicans. Barr, in 1905, introduced Mikado, a sport of 
G. brenchleyensis which was described as having flowers of a pale blush-rose 
shading to cream, with the lower petal striped crimson on a primrose- 
colored ground. 

G. candicans is a blandus-cardinalis hybrid producing a pure white 


- flower of good size and appearance. This was raised by Mr. Miller, of 


Bristol, about 1837. 

G. candidus is a hybrid between G. blandus and G. cardinalis, raised 
by Mr. Miller, of Bristol, about 1837, and figured in Smith’s Floral 
Magazine. 

G. Childsiit has been one of the most important types in America: It 
is a hybrid between G. gandavensis and G. Saundersii, originally produced 
by Max Leichtlin, of Baden-Baden, Germany. Leichtlin was perhaps 
the first to appreciate the value of G. Saundersi1, which he used in 1874 in 
crossing with some of the best varieties of G. gandavensis. The first flowers 
appeared in 1877 and the influence of the cross was especially manifest in 
the size of the flowers, which, according to Leichtlin, measured four inches 
across. The results of this hybridization work were reported in 1882. 

Leichtlin appears to have disposed of his stock in the autumn of 1882 
to Godefroy-Lebeuf, of Argenteuil, France. This new class of hybrids, 
however, seems not to have met with favor at the hands of European 


3 George Bunyard stated m roro that his firm obtained G. brenchleyensis from Hooker and sold it to 


“the Youells. Henry Youell (1911), in an address before the American Gladiolus Society, gives an 


entirély different account of its origin. 


146 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN. 9 


growers, who were attracted by the new Lemoiner group, and corms of 
G. Leichtlinit Hort. passed into other hands. The stock was purchased 
in 1884 (Childs says 1887) by V. H. Hallock, who continued to raise 
seedlings until 1891, when he sold the entire stock to John Lewis Childs. 
Until that time these gladioli were usually known as G. Leichtlini, after 
the originator; but as none of the stock was in the hands of commercial 
growers, Childs decided to change the name of the group to G. Childsit, 
and under this name he sent out the following varieties in 1893: Ben 
Hur, Columbia, Dr. Sellew, Henry Gillman, Mrs. Beecher, William 
Falconer. These were shown in a color plate in Childs’ catalog for the 
year mentioned. The price was one dollar per corm, or five dollars for 
the set of six varieties. In 1894 the varieties Aurea Superba, Mrs. La 
Mance, Ruby, Splendor, Torchlight, and Tuxedo were added. No 
varieties were added the following year, but in 1896 thirty-four varieties 
were introduced. Thirteen were added in 1897, seventeen in 1898, and 
twelve in 18090. 

Since 1899 many varieties have been sent out, and, while it is probable 
that at present there is not a distinct Childsii group except in so far as 
it is represented by some of the original varieties remaining in the market, 
it can be safely said that this group revolutionized gladiolus culture in 
America. Although the first varieties sent out were not favorably received 
by European and some American growers, nevertheless the general superi- 
ority of these varieties to the gandavensis varieties was recognized, and 
G. Childsii served as a foundation for further improvement by American 
hybridizers. 

G. Colvillei is generally regarded as a hybrid between G. cardinalis 
and G. tristis var. concolor. Dean Herbert thought it was a hybrid between 
G. cardinalis and G. blandus. The variety originated with Mr. Colville 
at Chelsea in 1823. Sweet (1826-27) states that it was raised by Colville 
from seeds of G. concolor that had been fertilized by the pollen of G. 
cardinalis. He publishes a color plate of the flowers and gives the 
following description of the plant: 


Stem slightly flexuose (in our specimen about 18 inches in height), leafy, slightly 
angular, glaucous. Flowers secund or all facing one side. Perianthium tubular, 
ringent with a six-parted spreading limb, of a bright red, with pale purple margins; 
tube scarcely as long as the spathe in the lower flowers and rather longer in the upper 
ones, bent forward near the limb; laciniaz unequal, obtuse, upper one more than double 
the size of the others, elliptic, slightly twisted or incurved near the point, the others 
oblong with the margins also incurved or involute near the points; three lower ones 
marked with a white spot which is lanceolate in the lower one and ovate in the others 
running down in a narrow line to the base of the laciniz, on each side of which it is 
bright purple. Pollen white. 


Baker (1892) describes this hybrid as having “ bright scarlet sub-erect 
flowers, with oblong acute segments, with a lanceolate blotch of bright 


GLaDIoLus Stupies — I 147 


yellow at the base of the three lower.’’ The color as shown in the color 
plate in Flore des Serres (Van Houtte, 1873) shows yellow blotches bordered 
with white, which contrast with the bright color> The flowers of G. Col- 
villet are fragrant, which points to G. tristis or G. tristis var. concolor as 
one of the parents. 

The white variety of G. Colvillei seems to have been discovered about 
1872. It is said to have appeared as a sport in two horticultural estab- 
lishments in Holland in the same year. It was figured, together with 
G. Colvillet, in Flore des Serres (Van Houtte, 1873). The plate shows 
a pure white variety with yellow lanceolate blotches on the lower segments. 
This sport, known as G. Colvillet albus, had colored anthers and was sup- 
planted later by the variety with white anthers known commercially as 


_ G. Colvillet The Bride. 


. — 


G. Colvilliotdes, a hybrid produced by crossing a variety of G. Lemoinet 
with G. angustus (the latter a form closely related to G. tristis), resembles 
G. Colville: but has yellow flowers. The leaves are long and straight, with 
prominent ribs. The stems are slender and erect, and bear medium-sized 
flowers. The color is a pure chrome yellow, with three triangular black 
spots or blotches. The normal time of flowering is the early part of July, 
but if the corms are planted in the autumn and protected during the 
winter by glass frames they may be made to flower with G. Colvillei. _ 
This hybrid was originated by Lemoine and was offered as a novelty in 
the autumn of 1903. 

G. delicatus is a hybrid between G. recurvus and G. blandus, raised by 
Dean Herbert. 

G. dracocephalus has long been known, but seems not to have been 
employed in hybridizing until recent years. Jackson (188g) described 
the dracocephalus-gandavensis hybrids of C. Sander as being of great 
size, strong, and floriferous. He states that a large proportion bear 
flowers entirely free from the stripes in the lower petals common to 
G. gandavensts. This is due to the dracocephalus blood and is a 
step toward self-color. Whether these hybrids were introduced is 
unknown. 

The veteran hybridizer, Lemoine, offered his dracocephalus hybrids in 
1900. These were produced by crossing G. dracocephalus and some of the 
varieties of G. Lemoinet. The form of the flowers indicates their origin, 
while the singular spots, or macules, produce a striking effect. The first 
varieties sent out were Cheret, Forain, Léonnee, Luc-Olivier Merson, 
Paul Baudry, and Roty. Since 1900 other varieties have appeared each 
year. A list of these varieties, together with the dates of their introduction, 
follows: 


148 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 
Arleqtin'. cv St. oy 1904. Le Masque.......° 1904. -Riberar.sao Saas 1902 
Leounes | Feo kes 1900 Rigoletto..... eee 1908 
Benvenuto Cellini... 1902 Louis Frangais..... 1901" Robinson: 4.2 eae 1904 
Luc-Olivier Merson.- 1900 ~Rodin............. 1908 
Fs ls dept pega Cealiarn trea 1900 Rousard .:34.. pean 1903 
Ghaplaits< we sans. TGOT = phate itor hae 1900... "“ROty. 5 Sena 1900 
Chetetactet puree 1900- Mascaraade..-.:... 1907 
GLALL Yes vec here te peek 1900 Michel-Ange....... 1902 Semaphore........ Igor 
Miracle.....:..... 1907 SPifite.........5., 1907 
Wauimiey a ete aes 1900 Misanthrope....... 1906 . r 
TD iby theese etre 1901 Mohican. i Me Rite sath 1908 pees 1 se aa 1903 
iy sterecesbra. atin 1904 BISIS.'- ee 1906 
- Thebiade......-. 1906 
Eugéne Manuel.... I9g01 ; pols 
Turlupin. : '-. 2 ae 
Naha setae rawre cs 1906 
Baloutene rt nisi.c ros 1908 Nostradamus...... 1907 yianl. -. +2 ice 
Patalttees (io aio 1907 solin: 2c. ee 
Baca se ee ee 1906. -Papillon..40505 nas 1904 Uae es 
ROtAIie ery Aen! seo - 7900) | Paul Baudny<- 257 1900. Velasquez........., 1902 
Fragonard......... 1904 + Pierre Gringore. 5... 1903 Vendetta. 24: vee 1908 
Francois Villon..... 1913 Virgile. . 722.42 eee 
Quasimodo. ....... . 1904 
iemriotes ees o aes 1900 Watteaw J. 2. s.r 1904 
Ralbelaisiee a: —ctesc 1903 =Werthet.c sac pee 1902 
WGsi(Gtine. avert LL QO7 a sceliam tn ects rool. ~ Willette? 3S see 1900 


Early Gladioli, Glaieuls Precoces, are hybrids produced by Lemoine 
and offered by him in his catalog no. 149, for t901-1902. It is there 
stated that these varieties are hybrids between some of Lemoine’s earliest 
varieties and the little-known species G. Leichtlinti and G. aurantiacus. 
This race flowers, it is said, about a month in advance of the earliest of 
the previously introduced varieties. When set out in April the plants 
flower in June; and if set out in the autumn with the protection of a 
glass frame, they develop their flowers at the same time as G. Colvillet. 
The varieties offered in the autumn of 1901 were Eclaireur, Mesager, 
Pleiade, and Précocité. Since these were introduced there have appeared 
the following: 


Adivanmbra son sv. Ses 1G06) WRavOlleraa sae 1904. Melusine-” 4. ieee 1910 
ISOLA Marsters Beet oe 1908. ~ Fraicheurs, io. 2 190540 Oasis: or, ate 1908 
Brasienin, :eecrtat ak OOS) Gitaldan ce eco ert 1906. “Parnasse <->) ome 1910 
MBC MAS epee ae a TOlO. Grenades 2 ect 1906, *Phentx >: <2 eee 1905 
(Canim etree | Aa sen, dress es LGO6 =o GY Ces erat cee hee ee T9IO -SUCCESS.:... -):h.. oe eee 
@otiquetex. sno 1908" (Melrosesigom 1908*_ ViSiOn.. 77. eee 1904 
i pleniGaci1-n sire I910 


G. excelsior covers hybrids of the best varieties of G. gandavensis crossed 
with G. nanceianus. The flowers are described as very large and open, 
ranging in color from salmon-scarlet to soft blush-rose with a scarlet or 
cream-colored blotch, or a crimson blotch on a white ground. Barr 
offered these varieties as a new strain in his catalog for 1903. 

The name Express Gladioli has been applied to the crosses of G. alatus 
with G. cuspidatus produced by C. G. van Tubergen, jr., of Haarlem, 
Holland. Wan Tubergen (1907:440) describes them as follows: 


A selection of crosses between G. alatus and G. cuspidatus are dwarf-growing, very 
free-flowering gladioli which flower in the open ground quite three weeks before the 


GLaDIOLvus StupiEes — I 140 


earliest of the manus or ramosus sections, which, as is well known, precede the gandavensis 
and other strains in time of flowering from three to four weeks. These alatus x 
cuspidatus gladioli, apart from their usefulness in flowering so early in the open ground 
(end of May), are very welcome additions to the gladiolus family, as each bulb 
produces from two to five spikes of about a foot in height, with flowers of fair size and 
of a charming colour of rosy-salmon with golden-brown markings. They are admi- 
rable for filling small glasses for table decoration, and other choice floral work. This 
’ strain I named “Express.” 


G. formosissimus is a hybrid uniting the abundant flowering of G. ramosus 

- with the colors of G. cardinalis, though not so brilliant as the latter. It 

first flowered in 1842, and for many years was one of the leading varieties 
of the early-flowering group. 

G. fragrans is a hybrid between G. recurvus and G. tristis, raised by Dean 
Herbert. The flowers are variegated and sweet-scented. The plant is 
moderately hardy. 

G. gandavensis is probably a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. oppos- 
ttiflorus. It was originated by M. Beddinghaus, gardener to the Duc 
‘d’Aremberg at Enghien, who made some crosses in 1837. One of the 
resulting seedlings, which was much admired by all who saw it, passed 
into the control of Louis van Houtte, of Ghent, who named it G. ganda- 
vensis and introduced it in his catalog no. 6, for 1841. He described it 
in glowing terms, as follows: “In stateliness and color it exceeds all others 

_ we have seen among gladioli. Its dimensions surpass ramosus; its majestic 
flowers to the number of eighteen or twenty are of the most charming 
vermilion; their inferior petals, adorned with chrome, amaranth, and 
brown, are relieved by anthers of an azure blue which descends to the 
center of the flower. At the moment I write all Ghent comes to admire it.” 
Van Houtte thought it a hybrid between G. psttiacinus and G. cardinalts, 
but this is doubtful. 

This variety was the foundation of a new race which has been known 
as Gladiolus gandavensis. Probably two thousand varieties have been 
named and sent out. This group led all others for garden planting from 
about 1850 to 1880, when the Lemozinet varieties came in, closely followed 
by the nanceianus and Childsit varieties. It is still important, and may 
be regarded as holding a position in gladiolus development in some respects 
analagous to that of the hybrid perpetual roses in the evolution of 
garden roses. 

G. haylockianus is a hybrid between G. recurvus and G. blandus, raised 
by Dean Herbert. Mrs. Loudon describes the flowers as pale and slightly 
variegated. 

G. Herbertianus is a hybrid between G. tristis and G. spofforthianus, 
raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. incarnatus is a hybrid between G. blandus and G. cardtinalis, raised 
about 1837 by Miller, of Bristol. It produces large, well-formed flowers 
of a pale pink color. 


I50- CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


G. insignis is described in Paxton’s Magazine of Botany (volume 7, 
pages 223 and 224) as a handsome hybrid with very long narrow leaves, 
and apparently drooping flower stalks on which the blossoms are borne 
chiefly on the upper side. The flowers are of a rich reddish crimson hue, 
with a dash of bluish purple in the center of the lower segments of the 
perianth. The parentage of this hybrid is unknown, but it was probably 
raised by Colville, as it was found in a collection purchased by Lucombe 
Pince & Co., of the Exeter Nursery, at the sale of Colville’s nursery. _ 
It flowered with the new owners in July, 1839, and is figured on a color — 
plate in Paxton’s Magazine of Botany, volume 7 (1840), page 223. 

G. Lemoinei (Large Spotted Gladioli) forms a group which had its 
origin in a hybrid made by Victor Lemoine between G. purpureo-auratus 
and some of the best G. gandavensis varieties. The original cross was made 
in 187s, and three seedlings were obtained, of which two —Lemoinet and 
Marie Lemoine — were named and later sent out. The new hybrids 
were exhibited at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1878, where they 
attracted considerable attention from amateurs. The two varieties were 
identical except in general color effect. Lemoinet was rosy white and 
Marie Lemoine straw color, both having on the lower segments large 
blotches of purple bordered with yellow. The two varieties were hardy, 
like the female parent, in the open ground at Nancy. In 1880 these 
varieties were offered for sale, and in 1882 five additional varieties — 
Lafayette, Cavaignac, L’Abbe Gregiore, John Thorpe, and Rochambeau — 
were introduced. To these were added, in the autumn of 1882, Enfant 
de Nancy, Victor Hugo, Stanley,. Adeliaque, Cleopatre, Christophe 
Colombo, Incendie, and Mars. 

Varieties with a tendency toward blue appeared early in the development 
of this type. Gambetta (1885), Emile Galle (1887), Baron Joseph Hulot 
(1896), represent the successive steps in the development of the blue 
varieties. 

G. Lowii is said by De Jonghe (1843) to have the same parentage as 
G. gandavensis. It was offered by Jacob Makoy in 1842. 

G. massiliensis is a hybrid of G. psittacinus and G. gandavensis, and 
was announced by Krelage as a new race in 1892. The hybrid was the 
result of testing the opinion held by some growers, that in order to secure 
greater vigor and resistance to disease it would be necessary to turn — 
again to the world’s species and use these in further crossing. This 
hybrid had, it was said, all the bad qualities of G. psittacinus, and it was 
apparent that the modern gladiolus had certain qualities resulting from 
its fifty years of improvement which could not be ignored by plant 
breeders if their results were to meet the approval of gardeners and 
florists. 


GiapioLus Stupies — I 151 


G. mitchamiensts is a hybrid resulting from crossing G. tristis and G. 
hirsutus. It is named after Mitchain, where Dean Herbert, who raised 
it, resided about 1810. The flowers are beautifully variegated, inclining 
toward G. tristis. 

G. nancetanus is a hybrid produced by crossing G. Saundersii with 
‘some of the first Lemoinei varieties. The flowers are larger than the 
Lemoinei varieties, well open, and marked with peculiar mottling or 
with short, fine, often parallel, strokes of contrasting colors. The plants . 
of the different varieties vary considerably in vigor, some exceeding any 
of the varieties of the other garden groups. The spikes of some of the 
more vigorous wanceianus varieties are often six feet high and bear 
flowers seven inches across. As in the case of G. Lemoinet, the varieties sent 
out by Lemoine are hardy under conditions similar to those of the place 
of origin. The first varieties, President Carnot and Maurice de Vilmorin, 
resulted from the crosses between G. Lemoiuet and G. Saundersti in 
1883. The seedlings flowered in 1885 and were placed on the market in 
1889. These forerunners of a new type were shown at the Universal 
Exposition in Paris in 1889, and exhibited in the same year by Veitch & 
Son at the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society in London. 

G. nanus (Dwarf Gladioli) is the term applied to a number of early- 
flowering dwari gladioli which differ from one another in the arrangement 
of flowers and in the disposition of the spots of color. Most of them 
are probably derived from G. cardinalis and G. ramosus, although G. 
blandus, G. irtstis, and some others are probably concerned. This class 
has been-largely developed by florists of the Channel Islands and in the 
Low Countries. The literature concerning the varieties is scanty or 
_ not readily available. G. Colvillet is undoubtedly the oldest variety of 
‘this class, and its white form (G. Colvillet albus, The Bride) is extensively 
employed for forcing. 

G. odoratus is a hybrid between G. hirsutus and G. spofforthianus, 
raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. praecox forms a group reported to have arisen from intercrossing 
the earliest varieties of G. gandavensis, G. Lemoinei, G. Childsii, and G. 
nanceranus. It is said that in color and size the flowers are the equal 
of those of any other group. The especial merit of this new group is 
that it can be grown from seed since seedlings flower the first year. The 
group was-originated by Frederick Roemer. 

G. princeps is a hybrid between G. cruentus and G. Childsii, produced 
by Van Fleet, who gave the history of it as follows (Van Fleet, 1904): 


Gladiolus Cruentus has round, widely-opened blooms about two inches across when 
fully developed, bright blood-red in color, with broad white markings in the throat, 
particularly at the bases of the lower petals or perianth divisions. It grows two or 
more feet high, with broad, handsome foliage, with a characteristic droop to the tips 


152 CoRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 9 


of the leaves. It is usually short-lived under cultivation, thriving best in well-drained 
peaty soils. 

Mrs. Beecher, the pollen parent of G. Princeps, I understand, is one of the original 
Childsi varieties grown by the late Herr Max Leichtlin, of Baden Baden, Germany — 
from seed of G. Saundersi pollinated with a superior Gandavensis variety. Plants 
of Mrs. Beecher grow over four feet high with long, straight spikes of widely-opened 
blooms often five inches across. The color, though disposed very much in the manner 
of G. Cruentus, is rather dull crimson with speckled white throat. 

Owing to the similarity of color pattern of the two varieties I made many pollinations 
in 1895 of Cruentus with Mrs. Beecher and seventy-two seedlings resulted, blooming 
in 1896-7. Princeps was the most vigorous and in some respects the most attractive 
and was so named by Herr Leichtlin, who introduced it to the Botanic Gardens of 
Europe in succeeding years, on account of its great international value and wide general 
recognition. I have since made many hundreds of crosses of Cruentus, which is a very 
shy seeder, with the best procurable species and varieties, resulting in some exceedingly 
handsome hybrids, but have found few worthy to send out as companions of Princeps. 

The stock of Princeps was sold in 1902 to Vaughan’s Seed Store for $1000 — a record 
price at the time, but since greatly exceeded for the stocks of successful novelties — 
and introduced by them the succeeding year. 

Princeps has probably the most extensive list of high awards from representative 
horticultural societies ever achieved by a Gladiolus variety and is still frequently 
exhibited and commented on in home and foreign gardening periodicals. 


G. propinquus is a hybrid between G. floribundus and G. blandus, 
resembling the latter. It was raised by Dean Herbert. ; , 

G. pudibundus (Blush-flowered Corn Flag) was figured by Sweet (1832- 
35), and described by him as follows: 


This is a hybrid, we believe, between Gladiolus cardinalis and blandus and was raised 
by the Honorable and Reverend William Herbert to whom we are obliged for the 
specimen figured in the plate. 

Stem from two to three feet high, straight, cylindrical, smooth. Leaves broadly 
ensiform, acuminate, ribbed, of a pale green. Flowers large, of a brillant rose color, 
about ten in number, distantly alternate and disposed in a distichous spike. The 
three lower segments marked with a pale whitish lanceolate spot having a deep red 
edge. Anthers purple. Filaments and style declinate, white. Stigmas linear-cuneate, 
notched, concave, copiously papillose. 

G. ramosissimus is probably a hybrid. It is mentioned in Gardeners’ 
Chronicle, 1842, page 171, as ranking next to G. cardinalis and G. psittacinus 
in beauty. The plant is tall, and bears a profusion of pale rosy pink 
flowers. 

G. ramosus (Branching Gladiolus) is a hybrid which originated at 
Haarlem from seed of G. blandus or G. floribundus, according to a writer 
in Revue Horticole in 1838. Some persons regarded it as a distinct species 
from the Cape of Good Hope. These doubtless confused it with the G. 
ramosus of Linnzeus, which has since been referred to the genus Melas- 
phaerula Ker. Baker thinks this form is a hybrid between G. oppostti- 
florus and G. cardinals. 

The plant is tall, with heavy, broad leaves. The flowers are openly 
funnel-shaped, bright red, with dark blotches at the base of the three 
lower segments. The flower has a general resemblance to that of G. 
blandus. This type blossomed later than the varieties of the blandus 
and cardinalis groups, and was for a long time an important one in the 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 153 


garden. The corms should be planted in the fall, since the variety does 
not flower well if planted in the spring. It is not hardy, and can be 
brought safely through the winter only by planting in well-drained soil 
and protecting with a heavy mulch, or by planting in a cold frame. 

G. rigidus is a hybrid between G. iristis and G. blandus, but inclining 
toward the latter. It was raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. schwartzenbergianus is a hybrid with the same ancestry as G. ganda- 
vensis, and was listed by Jacob Makoy in 1842. 

G. splendidus is another hybrid with the same parentage as G. ganda- 
vensis, offered by Jacob Makoy in 1842. 

G. spofforthianus is a hybrid between G. cardinalis and G. blandus, 
raised by Dean Herbert. The flowers show more resemblance to G. 
blandus than to G. cardinalis. The name was given to honor Spofforth, 
the home of its originator. 

G. Sternti is a hybrid raised by Beddinghaus and introduced by. Jacob 
Makoy in 1842. 

G. turicensis is a hybrid between G. Saundersii and G. gandavensis, 
offered by M. Froebel, of Zurich, Switzerland, in 1889. This hybrid 
was cataloged in the United States by Peter Henderson in 18o1. 

G. Victortalis is a hybrid between G. byzantinus and G. cardinalis. It 
originated with Dammann, who offered it in 1893 with the following 
description : 

A new early-flowering class of gladioli standing the winter well. It is the first hybrid 
gladiolus between a European and a Cape species. The habit of the plant stands 
between those of its parents. It is dwarf, robust, and rich flowering. The flowers 
are pink or dark red, and the inner segments are striped like those of the African 
Gladiolus cardinalis. They appear about the middle of April, are large, very open, 
and somewhat scented. The Gladiolus Victorialis offers quite a new field to the grower 


as he may further try to unite the beauty of the African species and the hardiness 
of the European kinds. Well adapted for the market and cutting. 


G. vitriacensis isa hybrid between one of the Lemoinei varieties and 
some of the early-flowering forms known as G. manus. The flowers are 
reported as being of medium size and brick red in color, with the character- 
istic blotches of the dwarf type. The plant, however, is taller and more 
vigorous than the dwarf type. This form was offered in 1913 by Cayeux 
et Le Clerc, who have seedlings of other colors ready for introduction. 
The value of this type is that it fills the gap between the early- and late- 
flowering groups. 

G. Willmoreanus is a hybrid of G. gandavensis and G. floribundus. The 
flower is creamy white, with the three upper segments streaked delicate 
rosy purple. It resembles G. psittacinus in form, but not in color. The 
variety was introduced as G. natalensis var. Willmoreanus. Allied to 
this were the following varieties: G. oldfordiensis —flowers large, delicate 


154 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


salmon marked with purple; G. roseo-purpureus — flowers of medium size, 
of a deep rosy red marked with deep purple-red; Wellington — flowers 
large, deep orange-red. All these were raised by Mr. Cole, gardener to 
Mr. Willmore, of Oldford, and were noted in the Floricultural Cabinet ° 
_for 1850, page 295. 


HISTORY OF GLADIOLUS IN AMERICA 


The gladiolus was not an important garden flower in America one 
hundred years ago, and in comparison with other flowers it received 
scant treatment in the garden books of the period. McMahon (1806) 
mentions ‘‘gladioluses,’’ or “‘gladiolus’s,’’ incidentally in his brief dis- 
cussion of the culture of hardy bulbs, and lkewise in connection with 
Cape and greenhouse bulbs. A list of species with the common name 
of each, taken from English garden works, is given at the end of his book. 
As will be seen later, these species were not cataloged in this country. 
Green (1828) does not mention gladioli. Sayers (1838) names the following 


species: 
Tender bulbous plants 


Gladiolus verstcolor............ Variegated’. 2. t.2..).2. = May, June 
GAGOTCINGTES tas cae ee Darkened? imi). tate cacti May, July 
Gx PSTIGCINGS aah. Me a palon eee Wiellowied gk esther as 


Florists’ flowers 


Gladiolus alatus, bright orange G. floribunda 

G. byzantium, delicate purple G. fragrans recurvus 

G. carneus, flesh-colored G. hirsutus roseo 

G. cardinalis, superb scarlet G. psittacina (parrot-like) 


A few years later the works of Breck (1851), Bridgeman (1847), and 
others gave more space to the culture of gladioli, but it was not until 
the time of the Civil War that there seems to have been any considerable 
interest in the flower. 

The most extensive collection of gladioli offered by any of the pioneer 
American seedsmen was that of William Prince, who in 1825 offered the 
following species and varieties: 


Gladiolus (Corn flag, or sword lily) 
Class, Triandria; Order, Monogyma 


Gladiolus communis, purple 
Gladiolus communis, rose-colored 
Gladiolus communis, large red 
Gladiolus communis, flesh-colored 
Gladiolus byzantinus, or Turkish flag 
Gladiolus segetum 

Gladiolus Watsonius, or scarlet flag 
Gladiolus tyger, yellow 

Gladiolus, large African 


© SIDNEY Vo 


GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — I 155 


Under Greenhouse Plants the following are given: 


735. Rose-colored gladiolus, G. africanus roseo 

736. Yellow gladiolus, G. africanus lutea 

737- Narrow-leaved red gladiolus, G. angustifolia rubro 
738. Two-spotted gladiolus, G. bimaculaius 

739. Sad-flowering gladiolus, G. triste 


The first species was offered at 12 cents for each bulb, the next three 
kinds at 20 cents, the fifth kind at 25 cents, the sixth at 50 cents, and all 
the others at $1 each. 

The oldest American catalog consulted in this work was that of Grant 
Thorburn for 1824. Here are offered ‘‘Gladiolus, or Sword Lily, beau- 
tiful,”’ at 12 cents, and ‘“‘Gladiolus by name, superb varieties,’ at 50 
cents each. Thorburn offered in 1827 the following gladioli, the prices 


of which also are interesting: 
Each Per dozen 


alatus, or wing-flowered................ Bright orange......... $ .50 $5.00 
byzantinus, or Turkish flag............. Delicate purple....... 25 2.50 
TAEMECUES Ps Rte oO Sk se ot oe J. esh-tolored v.22. 55. : .50 5.00 
cardinalis, or large-flowered............ Superb scarlet......... .50 3.00 
ersuundus, or Cluster-flowered 2.25 5 5. be ee dene kee .50 5.00 
jragrans recurous, or swecet-scented 2... ee ee eee 50 5.00 
INFERS Sr t0- Dn TR eS ee Be Fs bd Rey EOS .50 5.00 
mereanas, Pusey, Or Tose-colored. < s.. )5 2 6 DOS ew wr eee ae. .50 5.00 


The catalog of Thorburn for 1832 includes pstttacina (parrot-like), a 
new and splendid variety sold at 75 cents each or $6 a dozen. Frimi- 
_culata was dropped. Aside from these two changes the list is similar to 

the preceding. 

Landreth in 1828 cataloged G. undulatus and G. carneus. 

The editor of American Gardeners’ Magazine stated in 1835 that G. 
byzantinus, G. cardinalis, and G. communis-were the only kinds observed 
in the gardens around Boston. In the same year S. Sweetser read a paper 
_at the January meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
entitled Remarks on the Management of Gladiolus natalensis (now properly 
known as G. pstttacinus). He had flowered the species the year before 
from bulbs procured from Thorburn, who imported the species in 1832 
and offered it to his customers. Later (in 1835) it was stated that G. Col- 
willet and G. tristis were flowered by Mr. Cushing. Baron von Ludwig 
sent a collection of bulbs to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 
1836, and among them were G. hirsutus, G. blandus, andG. alatus. Marshall 
P. Wilder flowered and exhibited G. floribundus and G. pudibundus (a 
hybrid raised by Dean Herbert) in 1837. 

Hovey & Co. in 1839 offered corms of G. natalensis at 20 cents each, 
and of G. floribundus at 50 cents each. 

R. Buist in 1844-45 cataloged the species bimaculatus, blandus, byzan- 
tinus, cardinalis, Colvillet, floribundus, formosissimus, galeatus, hirsutus, 


s / 


156 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9g 


inflatus, insignis, praecox, psittacinus, pudibundus, ramosus, roseus, and 
undulatus, and the variety Queen Victoria. G. ramosus, G. insignis, 
and G. formosissimus were $2 each, while Queen Victoria corms were 
$2.50 each. 

The editor of the Magazine of Horticulture says (on page 6 of volume for 
1846) that the variety Queen Victoria, and the species G. gandavenstis 
and G. ramosus, have already flowered in this country. G. Christianus 
was exhibited on July 18 of the same year, and G. belviderus on August 1. 
G. Wilhelmus and the variety Lizette were exhibited on June 26, 1847, and 
G. Liebnitzii was exhibited on July 24. 

The culture of gladioli, however, was not very common at this time. 
An amateur florist wrote as follows (Anonymous reference, 1848 a): 

The Gladiolus.— This is one of the finest bulbs in the world for the open border in 
this country. The common Gladiolus, or “sword lily,” (G. communis,) with purple 
flowers, and the green striped, or Parrot Gladiolus, (G. psittacina,) are well known 
hardy border. flowers. But the finer new hybrid species and varieties, so well known 
in Belgium, (where they cultivate above forty sorts,) are very seldom seen in the United 
States, except in the gardens of the largest collectors. 

They are well worthy of more attention. The roots of these new sorts are very 
easily preserved through the winter in a cellar or green-house; and nothing can well 
be more gay, brilliant, or delicate than the colours of many of the finer sorts,— 
G. cardinalis, gandavensis, roseus, etc., with all the shades of flesh colour, rose, pink, 
deep scarlet, and purple, in their long spikes of blossoms. They also come into bloom 
at midsummer, when there are comparatively few flowers in our borders. Good, 


rich, sandy loam, and an open exposure, will, in this climate, grow them to our great 
satisfaction. 


Hovey in 1852 listed the following species and varieties under the head 
Greenhouse Bulbs: blandus, cardinalis, Colvillei, floribundus, gandavensts, 
Lord John Russell, natalensis, Prince Albert, pudibundus, Queen Victoria, 
ramosus. In 1854 the following were added: Apollon, Eugénie, Inter- 
medius, psittacinus major, rosea carnea, Ulysses. 

From the foregoing it is evident that many, if not all, of the new kinds 
appearing in Europe were offered to American growers. That the importa- 
tions were made is sufficient indication of an interest in gladioli, but up 
to 1852 the writer-has not discovered any record of new varieties being 
produced in America. 

E.S. Rand, jr., as chairman-of the floral committee of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, published with his report for 1858 a paper on the 
culture of the gladiolus, in which he expressed the hope that seedlings 
would be raised. It appears later that Mr. Rand and others acted upon 
the suggestion, for the following statement is found in the history of the 
above-named society: ‘‘This year [1863] witnessed the commencement 
of those profuse and beautiful displays of seedling gladioli.” Mr. Rand 
exhibited in 1863 seedling no. 12, rosy salmon, which was commented 
upon favorably by the committee. A week later, on September 5, he 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 157 


exhibited no. 2, white, a fine hybrid between Sulphuria and Berthe 
Rabourdin. On September 12 he exhibited seedling no. 13, light salmon 
in color. John Hogan exhibited five seedlings on August 22, and James 
McTear nine on August 29 and one on September 12. 

W.C.Strong, E.S. Rand, jr., George Craft, Francis Parkman, and James 
McTear were the principal exhibitors of seedlings in 1864.- Craft won 
the silver and bronze medals. Elnora (Craft), the variety awarded the 
silver medal, was a pure white, in some cases faintly flaked with violet, the 
center petal feathered maroon on delicate lemon ground; it was charac- 
terized by a bold spike, a large flower, a neat and compact face, and 
vigorous habit. Colonel Wilder Wright (Craft), the variety awarded 
the bronze medal, was of the reverse-flowered form, carnation in color, 
marbled and mottled with carmine, the lower petals heavily marked and 
feathered with carmine-purple; its size, form, and habit were good.: - 
McTear exhibited Jeanie Dean, which was white marked with crimson- 
purple; other varieties from the same exhibitor were Salmonia and Exem- 
plar. Strong was awarded a first class certificate for a variety which was 
brilliant cherry-carmine in color, shaded violet-purple, the lower divisions 
of the petals marked with a distinct white line. The report for 1864 
would indicate that there must have been a remarkable interest in the 
production of new varieties, for McTear exhibited twelve, Parkman 
twenty, Craft thirty-eight, and Strong forty-two seedlings during that 
_season. . 

James McTear won the silver medal for the best seedling exhibited 
in 1865. George Craft exhibited, among other seedlings, the varieties 
Mrs. Westcott, Elnora, and Fairy. W. C. Strong exhibited his new 
seedling Parkmanii. 

Silver medals were awarded to George Craft and J. S. Richards in 1867; 
to J. S. Richards for his seedling The Bride, and to Francis Parkman, 
in 1868; to J. S. Richards in 1869; to J. S. Richards for Elegantissima in 
1871; to A. McLaren in 1872; and to James Comley in 1874. Bronze 
~ medals were awarded to J. S. Richards in 1872, and to W. H. Spooner for 
Diamond in 1878. First class certificates were awarded to Francis Park- 
man in 1866; to J. S. Richards for the seedling named Joseph Breck in 
1868; to J. S. Richards for the seedling M. P. Wilder, and to George Craft 
for the seedling Thomas Sheren, in 1869; to A. McLaren in 1872; to J.C. F. 
Hyde in 1875; and to J. W. Clarkin 1882. 

The development attained by these American growers may be under- 
stood by the following extract from the report of the floral committee 
for 1872: ‘The gladioli were all that could be expected, and nothing 
seemed to please the strangers so much. Indeed they were astonished 
when informed that they were American seedlings. Gentlemen capable 


158 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


of judging on any flower were delighted to know that such progress had 
been made in the standard of this popular and useful flower.” 

The credit for introducing the first American seedling has not been 
definitely determined, owing to the fact that all available catalog files 
were incomplete. It is quite certain that some of the producers of the 
new seedlings that have been named were the first to introduce their 
novelties. In the fifteenth edition (1868-69) of the catalog of Curtis & 
Cobb, of Boston, Massachusetts, Craft’s Elnora, Finette, Imprimis, Lieu- 
tenant Stearns, and Viola, and McTear’s Salmonia, are fully described. 

The bound catalogs of Washburn & Co. for 1868 contain what is prob- 
ably the first color plate of any variety of gladiolus published by an Amer- 
ican seedsman. The varieties figured are G. brenchleyensis and Berthe 
Rabourdin. The first American variety shown by a color plate, so far 
as the writer can discover, was Innocence, a variety originated by James 
Vick and figured in his magazine for February, 1885. The two original 
varieties of G. Lemoineit were shown by means of an excellent color plate 
in American Gardening in 1882. 

Although Curtis & Cobb appear to have been the first to catalog named 
American seedlings, nevertheless attention should be given to the List 
of Gladiolus Roots, No. xv, 1870, of George Craft, of Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, wherein are described Blythe, Freedman, Gordianus, Grenadier, 
Jores Morthen Jongman, Lisette, Napoleon I, Theophila, Hesba, Yosemite, 
Finette, Katarina, Lieutenant Stearns, Lucilla, Mariana, Morningside, 
Petit Bonnet, Rosalind, Sarah P. Pearce, Scrooby, Statuiskii, Una, and 
Violenta. It is stated that these are Craft’s own seedlings. It is 
more than probable, therefore, that Craft offered his seedlings prior to 
the time when the same varieties were offered by Curtis & Cobb. In 1871 
Craft offered Alphonso, Ariadne, Leyden, Lucio, Mrs. Westcott, Naseby, 
Thomas Sheren, Valentine, and Virginie as new, with the following in 
his general list: Adriana, Blonde, Early, Golden Lily, Orlando. No new 
varieties appear in the lists for 1874 and 1875, which complete 
the lists consulted. There was a lessened production of seedlings after 
1873 until about 1890, and the present interest in gladioli dates from 
about 1908. 

Meanwhile the interest in the French varieties of Souchet was increasing. 
Barnes & Washburn, Spooner & Co. (later Strong & Spooner), Henry 
A. Dreer, Eugene A. Baumann, George Such, and C. L. Allen had 
extensive collections of varieties. The last named, in his catalog of 
spring bulbs for 1869, stated that he had over two hundred varieties, 
and in 1871 he announced over three hundred varieties. He was at 
that time the largest grower of corms. In 1870 he had seven acres, and 
in 1873 fifteen acres, devoted to growing gladioli. The cut blooms were 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 159 


shipped to New York in large quantities, occasionally as many as ten 
thousand spikes being sent in one day. 

A number of seedlings were raised at Rochester, New York, and 
introduced in 1883 by James Vick. These were Brunette, Bryant, 
Charlotte Cushman, David Copperfield, Dr. Warder, Henry Clay, Holmes, 
Innocence, Longfellow, Lowell, and Rainbow. This list, with the excep- 
tion of the last-named variety, was cataloged for several years. 

The variety Snow White was raised by J. C. F. Hyde, of Newton, 

Massachusetts, and exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society in August, 1879, when it was awarded a first class certificate. . 
In 1881 it was recommended by the floral committee for the prospective 
prize of $40 as the best flowering plant. Hallock & Son bought the 
stock in 1883 and changed the name from Hyde’s Seedling — or Hyde’s 
White, as it was locally known —to Snow White, and introduced it 
in 189go. 
_ Among the American varieties of gladioli produced between 1880 and 
1890 were Bayard Taylor, Emma Thursby, E. M. Stanton, General 
Phil Sheridan, Golden, Isaac Buchanan, Joseph’s Coat, Martha Washing- 
ton, President Lincoln, and Augusta (Hallock). 

Meanwhile Luther Burbank had been breeding gladioli, and about 
1890, after twelve years of experimenting, he placed on the market a 
strain the flowers of which had greater substance, and therefore withstood 
the bright sun and dry atmosphere of California much better, than the 
older types. This strain had strong, stiff stems which were not so tall 
as in the usual types, but the flowers were large and had all the usual 
colors. Among the varieties were California, Cisco, Mariposa, Santa 
Rosa, Shasta, and Yolo. Later, probably in the following year, Igo, 
Modesto, Mono, and Pohono were added to the list. The price of Cali- 
fornia and Santa Rosa was $2 a corm, but the set of ten varieties was 
offered at $8. Unnamed seedlings and seed were offered for sale. The 
variety California was remarkable from the fact that the flowers were 
arranged close together all around the stem. The development of a num- 
ber of similar varieties in France may possibly have started from this sin- 
gular variety developed by Burbank. The variety California was notable 
also in another respect, and that was its habit of sometimes producing 
double flowers. If this tendency appeared when the variety was grown 
outside of California it does not seem to have impressed lovers of the 
flower, for nothing resulted from it. 

The work of Matthew Crawford began about 1880, but he did not 
catalog gladioli until 1888. Prior to 1891 he offered his gladioli in mix- 
tures. The first seedlings which he named and introduced were Bertha, 
Lulu, Mabel, and May, in 1891. In the subsequent years he offered 


+ 


160 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


only mixed gladioli until 1895, when he again offered the varieties named. 
Unnamed seedlings one and two years old, raised from English-, French-, 
German-, and American-grown seed, were offered in 1891, and no doubt 
many of the later introductions of other growers came from this or 
similar sources. Isabel, Jessie, Margaret, and New America are some 
of Crawford’s more recent varieties. 

Then came the introduction of the Childsii varieties, remarkable for 
their vigor of growth and large flowers. These have had an important 
part in the development of American gladioli and in the increase of the 
flower in popular favor. 

Any account of the development of American gladioli would be incom- 
plete without mention of the work of H. H. Groff, of Simcoe, Ontario. 
His work was begun prior to 1890, and for years he has been breeding 
to eliminate the weakness of existing types. Using the strongest parents, 
and particularly those of individual merit (and he is unexcelled in his 
knowledge of varieties), he has practiced a rigid selection among his 
seedlings. The result is that the name Groff’s Hybrids, as applied to 
his own named varieties, has become a synonym of merit. Through 
cooperation with Arthur Cowee, whose ability as a grower and exhibitor, 
equals that of Mr. Groff as a breeder, these hybrids have become widely 
and thoroughly known. 

The popularity of gladioli as garden flowers is due to Mr. Cowee in 
larger degree than to any other person. He has labored for many years 
to bring the merits of the flower to the attention of the people. The 
splendid exhibits he has made at expositions and fairs, his attractive 
advertising in magazines and in his catalogs, and more than all his personal 
enthusiasm, have served to place gladioli in the foremost rank among 
the garden flowers of the United States. Without the interest of the 
people many of the present growers would not find a market for their 
bulbs. All the growers, and garden lovers generally, owe much to the 
pioneer efforts of the gardeners of Boston, and to Childs, Crawford, 
Cowee, and Groff. 

The ruffled gladioli produced by A. E. Kunderd, of Goshen, Indiana, are 
a distinctly new and original American type. The flowers are distinguished 
by the peculiar ruffling or fluting of the petals, producing an artistic effect 
approaching that seen in waved sweet peas. The first variety introduced 
was Kunderdi Glory. The ruffled gladioli are the result of experiments, 
begun about 1896, in crossing and selection of plants showing the ruffled 
tendency. 

American growers do not depend on the novelties sent out by foreign 
firms, for they have produced numerous varieties better suited to this 
soil and climate. A study of these varieties often reveals the fact that 


GLaDIOLus StupiEs — I 161 


they are not clearly of any particular type of gladioli, and they are referred 
to as American, by which is meant that they have been produced here 
and are the result of so much intercrossing of previous forms that they 
stand alone. As has been done with the carnation, the gladiolus growers 
are making a new and distinctly American type of plant and flower. 
Through the breaking of Old World fetters and limitations the way is 
open to further achievement, for which the future holds bright prospects 
for American gladiolus breeders. 


1 ge 
v par Pye 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — I 163 


BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GLADIOLUS 


BOTANICAL WORKS 
Aiton, W. 
1789 Hortus Kewensis 1:62-66. 


Andrews, H. C. 
1799-183i Botanists’ repository, tab. 8, II, 19, 27, 99, III, 118, 122, 147, 188, 
219, 227, 240, 241, 275, 589. 
Baker, J. G. 
1875 Gladiolus angustus, corneus, saltatorum. Linn. Soc. Trans. 29:154—-155. 


Balbis, G. B. 
1813 Gladiolus elatus. Catalogus stirpium horti bat taurensis, p. 38. 


Bauhin, Caspar 
1671 Pinax theatri botanici, p. 41. 


Bauhin, Johann 
1651 Historie plantarum universalis 2:701. 


Besler, B. 
1613. Hortus eystettensis (estivalium), quartus ordo, folios 10 and 12. 


Boerhaave, H. 
1727 Index alter plantarum qual in horto academico lugduno-batavo aluntur 2: 127. 


Boissier, E. 
1884 Flora orientalis sive enumeratio plantarum in Oriente 5:139-143. 


Boissier, E. P. 
1842-54 Diagnoses plantarum orientalium 7: 102. 
1852 Pugillus plantarum novarum hispanicum, p. 112-113. 
1854-59 Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, additis nonnullis Europaeis 
et boreali Africanis 13:7-15. 


Boissier, E. P., and Reuter, G. F. 
1852 Pugillus plantarum Africae borealis hispaniaeque australis. 


Bouché, Carl 
1838 Beobachtungen tiber einige europadische Gladiolus-Arten. Linnaea 12: 


477-485. 
Bradley, R. 


1728 Dictionarium botanicum: or, a botanical dictionary for the use of the 
curious in husbandry and gardening 1:—. 


Breyne, J. P. : 
1739 a Icones rariorum et exoticarum planatarum. 
1739 b - Prodromi, fasciculi rariorum plantarum, etc. 


Burman, N. L. : 
Prodromus florae capensis 2:—. 


Dodoens, R. 
1578 A nievve herball, or historie of plantes (translated by Henry Lyte), book 2, 
p. 197. 
1616 Stirpium historiae pemptades sex. 


Ecklon, C. F. 
1827 Topographisches Verzeichness der Pflanzensammlung, p. 38. 


164 . CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Ecklon, C. F., and Zeyher, C. 
1834-37 Enumer. pl. Africae Australis extra-tropicae. 


Ehret, G. D., and Trew, C.. J: 
1750-73 Plantae selectae, tab. 39. _ 


Engler, A. 
1901 Die von W. Goetze und Dr. Stuhlmann im Ulugurugebirge, sowie die von 
W. Goetze in der Kisaki- und Khutu-Steppe und in Uhehe gesammelten 
Pflanzen. Bot. Jahrb. 28: 365-366. 


Gerarde, John 
1597. The herball, or generall historie of plantes, p. 95-97. 


Hallier, Ernst 
1873-75 Deutschlands Flora, oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der wildwach- 
senden Pflanzen in der mitteleuropadischen Flora. 9th ed. 


Hornemann, J. W. 
1813-15 Hortus regius botanicus Hafuiensis 2:950. 


Jacquin, N. J. 
1764-71 -Observationes botanicae. Jn Collectanea ad botanicum 4:150-171. 
1781-93 Icones plantarum rariorum 2:tab. 233-260. 
1796 Collectaneorum supplementum cum figuris coloratis, p. 17-29. 
1809 Fragmenta botanica 3:12. 


Koch, Karl 
1848 Beitrage zu einer Flora des Orientes. Gladiolus. Linnaea 21:634-636. 


Koch, W. D. J. 
1844 Synopsis florae germanicae et helveticae 2:805-807. 


Lamarck, J. B. P. 
1786 Encyclopédie méthodique. Botanique 2:2:723-728. 


La Roche, Daniel de 
1766 Descriptiones plantarum aliquot novarum. Lugd. bat., p. 27-30, tab. 2-4. 


Lichtenstein, H. 
1811-12 Reisen in siidlichen Africa in den Jahren 1803-1806. 


Linnzus, C. 
1737 Hortus Cliffortianus, p. 20, tab. 6. 
1748 Hortus upsaliensis 1:16. 
1753 a Systema plantarum 1:52. 
1753 b Species plantarum 1:36, 37. 
1759 Amoenitates academicae 5:353. 
1762 Species plantarum, 2d ed. 1:52-54. 
1767. Mantissa plantarum 1:28. 


Lobelius, M. 
1581 Icones. 


Marloth, Rudolf 
1915 The flora of South Africa 4. 


Miller, Philip 
1731 The gardeners dictionary. 
1754 Same. 4th ed. 
1771 Figures of the most beautiful, useful, and uncommon plants described in 
the gardeners dictionary 1:95, pl. 142. 2:157, pl. 235; 158, pl. 236, 
fig 1; 297. 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — I 165 


Pappe, L. 
1850 Flore capensis medicae prodromus. 


Parkinson, John 
1629 Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris, p. 189-191, I fig. 
1640 Theatrum botanicum, p. 1197, 1250. 


Pax, F. 
—— Engler’s Hochgeb. fl. trop. Africa, p. 175. 
1893 Iridaceae Africae. Bot. Jahrb. 15: 150-157. 


Persoon, C. H. 
1805 Synopsis plantarum 1:43-46. 


Ray, John 
1686-1704 Historia plantarum 3:559-561. 


Redoute, P. J. 
—= Les liltactes, tab. 35, 36, 112, 122) 123, 125,°136,'267,'273; 344, 377, 425. 
(Often cited as Red. Lil, i. e., Redoute’s Liliacées.) oo 


Reichenbach, H. G. L. 
1823-32 Iconographia botanica seu plantae cfiticae, tab. 598, 599, 600, 643. 


Richard, Achille 
1847-51 Tentamen florae Abyssinicae 2: 307. 


Roemer, J. J., and Schultes, J. A. 
1817-30 Systema vegetabilium 1:407-445. 


Salisbury, R. A. 
1806-07 Paradisus Londinensis, tab. 8. 


Schlechtendal, D. F. L. von, and others 
1880 Flora von Deutschland, 5th ed. 4:62-67, pl. 307-311, 353. 


Schlechter, R. 
1900 Plantae Schlechterianae novae vel minus cognitae describunter. II. Bot. 
Jahrb. 27: 102-103. \ 


Schneevoogt, C. V. 
1793 Icones plantarum rariorum, tab. 12, 19, 27, 40. 


- Schrank, 
1822 Bot. Ges. Regensburg. Denkschr. 2:195, 197, 198, 202, 204, 206, 207, 
210, 212. 


Sibthorp, John 
1806 Flore Greece 1:25-26. 


Sowerby, James, and Smith, J. E. 5 
1842 English botany, or colored figures of British plants, 2d ed. 9: —. 


Stapf, Otto 
1885 Irideae. Jn Beitrage zur Flora von Lycien, Carien, und Mesopotamien. 
K. Akad. Wiss. [Vienna], Math. Naturw. Cl. Denkschr. 50: 81-83. 


Sweert, Emanuel 
1612 Florilegium tractans de variis floribus, tab. 42, fig. 1. 


Tausch, J. F. 
1836 Botanische Beobachtungen, no. 57-58. Flora 19: 421-422. 


166 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Thunberg, K. P. 
1794-1805 Prodromus plantarum capensium quas promontorio bonae spei Africes, 
annis 1772-1775, p. 184-185. 
1807-12 Flora capensis 1:173-206. 
1823 Flora capensis sistens plantas promontorii bonae spei Africes, p. 40-54. 


Trew, C. J. 
1750 ‘Tabule ehretii, tab. 39. 


Vahl, M. 
1790-94 Symbolae botanicae. 
1805-06 Enumeratio plantarum vel ab aliis vel ab ipso observatarum 2:82-103. 


Willdenow, C. L. (Editor) 
1797 Linnzus, Species plantarum 1:208-221. 


SPECIAL WORKS 
Babington, C. C. 
1863 Gladiolus illyricus as a British plant. Seemann’s Journ. bot. 1:97-98. 


Baker, J. G. 
1875 Gladiolus Cooperi. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 101: tab. 6202. 
1876 Gladiolus crassifolius, Milleri, Newii, ochroleucus, etc. Journ. bot. 14: 
333-335: 
1877 a Gisdiole ochroleucus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 103:tab. 6291. 
1877 b Gladiolus Eckloni. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 103: tab. 6335. 
1878 Systema Iridacearum. Journ. Linnean Soc., Bot. 16:170-178. 
1879 Gladiolus brachyandrus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 105:tab. 6463. 
1884 Gladiolus Quartinianus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 110:tab. 6739. 
1886 Gladiolus Kotschyanus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 112: tab. 6897. 
1889 =. Gladiolus Leichtlini Baker n. sp. Gard. chron. ser. 3:6:154. 
1890 ~=—- Gladiolus primulinus, n. sp. Gard. chron. ser. 3:8:122. 
1891 a Gladiolus paludosus, G. Elliotii, G. antholyzoides. Journ. bot. 29:70-71. 
1891 b Gladiolus Milleri. Gard. chron. ser. 3:10:393. 
1892 Handbook of the Iridee, p. 198-229. 
1893 a Gladiolus oppositiflorus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 119:tab. 7292. 
1893 b Hybrid gladioli. Gard. chron. ser. 3:13:596. 
1896-97 Gladiolus, Linn. Flora capensis 6:135-165. 


Dyer, W.-T. Thiselton- 
——— . Flora of tropical Africa '7:576—577. 


Gawler, J. B. 
1805 Ensatarum ordo. or natural order Ensatae. Konig & Sims’ Annales of 
botany 1:219-247. 
(See also Ker, J. B.) 


Geel, van 
1829 Gladiolus Daleni. Sect. bot. 2:tab. 19. 


Herbert, William 
1837 On crosses and hybrid intermixtures in vegetables. Jn Amaryllidacee, p. 
335-380. 
1842 Gladioli crispiflorus, Caucasicus, aequinoctialis, oppositiflorus. Bot. reg. 
28: misc. 81, 82, 97, 98: 
1843 Gladiolus splendens. Bot. reg. 29:misc. 61. 


Hooker, J. D. 
1866 Gladiolus Papilio. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 92: tab. 5565. 
1869 Gladiolus cruentus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 95:tab. 5810.. 
1870 Gladiolus Saundersii. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 96: tab. 5873. 
1871 Gladiolus dracocephalus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 97: tab. 5884. 
1872 Gladiolus purpureo-auratus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 98: tab. 5944. 
1901 Gladiolus sulphureus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 127: tab. 7791. 
1902 Gladiolus Mackinderi. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 128:tab. 7860. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 167 


Hooker, W. J. 
1830 Gladiolus psittacinus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 57:tab. 3032. 
1839 Gladiolus Mortonius. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 65:tab. 3680. 
1864 Gladiolus sericeo-villosus. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 9o:tab. 5427. 


Ker, J. B. 
1749-1825 Giadiohis descriptions in connection with color plates. Bot. mag. 13, 
tab. 450. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 15, tab. 538; 16, tab. 562, 574, 578, 
582, 586, 591, 592; 17, tab. 602, 610, 625, 632: 18, tab. 645, 647, 
648, 688; 19, tab. 719, 727; 21, tab. 823; 22, tab: 874; 26, tab. 
- 1042; 36, tab. 1483; 38, tab. 1564, 1575; 52, tab. 2585. 
1821 Gladioli species. Bot. reg. 7:appendix. 
1827 Genera Indearum, p. i—158. 
(See also Gawler, j. B.) 


Klatt, F. W. 

1863 Revisio Iridearum. Linnaea 32:689-725. 

1867-68 a Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Irideen. Linnaea 35:291—308. 

1867-68 b Diagnoses Iridearum novarum. Linnaea 35:377-384. 

1882 a Gladioli Andrewsii, arcuatus, etc. Naturf. Gesell. Halle. Abh. 12:— 

1882 b Erganzungen und Berichtigungen zu Baker’s Systema Iridacearum. 

Naturf. Gesell. Halle. Abh. 15:335—404. 

1885 Determination and description of the Cape Irideae, chiefly collected by 
R. Templeman and contained in the herbarium of P. Macowan. South 
Africa Philosoph. Soc. Trans. 3:197. 

1895 Gladiolus in Th. Durand and Hans Schinz Conspectus florae Africae 5:214. 


Koch, W. D. J. 
1840 Charactere der deutschen Gladiolus-Arten. Deut. Naturf. Versamml. 
Ber. 1840: 122-123. 


Lehmann, J. G. C. 
1836 Gladiolus Ecklonii. Ann. sci. nat. 2:6:107. 


Lindley, John 
1831 Gladiolus psittacinus. Bot. reg. 17:tab. 1442. 


Loddiges, Conrad, and Sons 
1825 Antholyza montana. Bot. cab. 11:tab. 1022. 
1831 Gladiolus natalensis. Bot. cab. 18:tab. 1756. 
1833 Gladiolus Watsonius. Bot. cab. 20:tab. 1949. 


Molkenboer, 
1850 Gladiolus sulphureus. Jaarboek Tuinbouw, p. 39. 


Moore, Thomas 
1868 Gladiolus cruentus, Moore, sp.n. Gard. chron. 1868:1138 


Neubert, Wilhelm 
1863 Ueber Gladiolus und deren Kultur. Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenk. 1863: 


353-362. 


Nickles, Napoleon 
Notice sur les gladiolus de France et d’Allemagne, n. d., color plate. 


Pucci, Angiolo 
1898 Gladiolus Colvillei var. alba. Bul. Roy. Soc. Toscana Ort. 23:228 


Rendle, A. B. 
1899 Catalogue of Aces plants collected by Dr. Welwitsch 2:1: 28-30. 


1912 Gladiolus gazensis. In Contributions te our knowledge of the flora of Gaza- 
land. Linn. Soc. Journ. 40:210. 


168 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN g 


Stapf, Otto Md 
1885 Gladiolus atroviolaceus. Jn Die botanischen Ergebnisse der Polak’schen 
Expedition nach Persien im Jahre 1882. K. Akad. Wiss. [Vienna], Math. 
Naturw. Cl. Denkschr. 50:19. 


Sweet, R. 
1826-27 Gladiolus Colvillei, G. viperatus, and G. alatus. British flower garden, 
ser. I, tab. 155, 156, 187. 
1832-35 Gladiolus cochleatus, G. pudibundus, and G. natalensis. British flower 
garden, ser. 2, tab. 140, 176, 281. 


Syme, J. T. Boswell 
1863 Remarks on Gladiolus illyricus Koch and its allies. Seemann’s Journ. 
bot. 1:130-134. 


Thunberg, K. P. 
1782 Dissertio de Iride. 
1810 Beskrivelse over 19 artes of gladiolus fra africas sondre odde. Skriv. Nat. 
Selsk. Kiobenhavn 6:1-15. 
1814 Om gladiolus sparmanni ett nytt species. Akad. Handl. Stockholm 35: 
189-194. 


Vaupel, F. 
1913 Iridaceae africanae novae. Bot. Jahrb. 48:533-543. 


Wright, C. H. 
1906 Gladiolus carmineus, Gladiolus primulinus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 132: tab. 
8068, 8080. 
1914 Gladiolus Masoniorum. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 140: tab. 8548. 
1915 Gladiolus Melleri. Curtis’s Bot. mag. 141: tab. 8626. 


HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 
(Anonymous) 
1839 «©. Gladiolus ramosus. Flor. cab. '7:143, color plate. 
1848a The gladiolus. Hort. 2:488. 
1848 b Gladiolus Brenchleyensis. Ann. hort. 1848:523. 
1862 The gladiolus. Journ. hort. and cottage gard. 2:312-313. 
1876 Australian gladioli. Journ. hort. n. s. 31:2¢8. 
1892 Hardy hybrid gladioli. Garden 41:542. 
1894 Gladiolus Saundersi hybridus. Garden 46:116. 
1906 =6. Gladiolus nanus. Florists’ rev. 18:583. 
1907 Gladiolus praecox. Florists’ ex. 23:803. 
1908a Gladiolus The Bride. Florists’ rev. 21: Feb. 20:6. 
1908b Hardiness of Gladiolus praecox. Florists’ ex. 25:215. From Hort. trade 
journ. [England]. 
tg908c Hybrids of Gladiolus primulinus. Florists’ ex..25:684. 


Allen, C. L. 
1911 Bulbs and tuberous-rooted plants, p. 101-130. 


Beaton, D. 
1860 Gladiolus Colvillii sport. Cottage gard. 24: 259-260. 


Bois, D. 
1913 Gladiolus x Vitriacensis, nouvelle race de glaieuls hybrides a floraison 
hative. Revue hort. 85: 369-370, I fig. 


Breck, Joseph é 
1851 The flower garden or book of flowers. 


Bridgeman, Thomas 
1847 The florists’ guide. New ed. 


Bunyard, George 
1910 Gladiolus brenchleyensis. Gard. chron, ser. 3:48:83. 


GLADIOLUs STuDIEs — I 169 


Carriére, E.-A. 
1879 Gladiolus hybridus Lemoinei. Revue hort. 51: 330-331, color plate. 


Childs, J. L. 
1893 The gladiolus, its history, species, and cultivation, p. I-30, 7 figs. 
Cole, J. 


1850 On cross-breeding and culture of gladiolus. Gard. mag. bot., hort., and 
flor. 1850: 169-172. 


Crawford, M. 
1g0r Grofi’s hybrid gladioli. Amer. gard. 22:131—-132. 


Crawford, Matthew, and Van Fleet, W. 
Ig1r The gladiolus, p. 1-98. 


Dauthenay, H. 
: 1897 L/’origine des glaieuls cultivés. Revue hort. 69: 194. 


Dombrain, H. H. 
1873 The gladiolus, its history, cultivation, and exhibition, p. 1-56. 


Endicott, W. E. 
* 1888 The species of Gladiolus. Gard. and for. 1: 363-365. 
1891 Some hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 4:403. 
1897 Garden notes. Gard. and for. 10: 277. 


Fitzherbert, W. 
1911 Gladiolus tristis. Handb. Nat. Glad. Soc. (Eng.) 1911: 18-20. 


Fuld, Maurice 
1912 Gladiolus nanus. Amer. Glad. Soc., Bul. 4:16-21; also, Hort. 15 : 458-459; 
also (1914), Mod. glad. grow. 1: 107-109. 


Garnier, Max 
- 1g10 . Glaieuls hybrides de primulinus. Revue hort. 82:578—579, color plate. 


Green, Roland  _ ; : 
1828 A treatise on the cultivation of ornamental flowers. 


Grignan, G. T. 
1908 Le gladiolus primulinus. Revue hort. 80:8-—10 (1 fig.), 416. 


Groff, H. H. 
1907 Practical plant-breeding, more especiaily in relation to the gladiolus. Roy. 
Hort. Soc. [London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 421-425. 
1910 Hybridizing gladiolus. Florists’ ex. 29:884. 


Hariot, P. 

1892 Gladiolus tristis. Jardin 1892:88—89. 
Hatfield, T. D. 

1897 The hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 10:335-336. 
Herbert, William 


1820 Instructions for the treatment of Amaryllis longifolia, as a hardy aquatic, 
with some observations on the production of hybrid plants, etc. Hort. 
Soc. London. Trans. 3:187—196. 

1822 a On the production of hybrid vegetables; with the result of many experi- 
ments made in the investigation of the subject. Hort. Soc. London. 
Trans. 4:15-50. 

1822 b On the culture of the African gladioli, and other Cape bulbs, in the open 

borders. Hort. Soc. London. Trans. 4:153-155. 
1847 On hybridization amongst vegetables. Hort. Soc. London. Journ. 2: 81-107. 


170 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 . 


Hottes, A. C. ‘ 
1915 Garden gladioli. Journ. hered. 6:499-504, 3 figs. 


Houtte, L. van 
1846 Gladiolus gandavensis. Flore des serres 2:3, tab. 1. 
1848 Gladiolus recurvus. Flore des serres 4: 422. 
1849 Gladiolus gandavensis citrinus. Flore des serres 5 : tab. 539. 
1850 Gladiolus Willmoreanus. Flore des serres 6 : tab. 639. 
1873 Gladiolus purpureo-auratus, Colvillei Swt. Flore des serres 19: tab. 1992, 


1993. 


Jackson, R. T. 
1889 Hybridization of gladioli. Gard. and for. 2:88-91. 


Jacques, 
1849 Rapport sur la collection de glaieuls de MM. Souchet pére et fils a Fon- 
tainebleau. Ann. Soc. Hort. Paris. Rept. 40:259-261. 


Jonghe, J. de 
1843 Des glaieuls. Revue hort. 5:395-399. 


Krelage, E. H. 
1892. Hybrid gladioli. Garden 41:190-192, I color plate, 1 fig. 
1896a The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. chron. ser. 3:20:701. 
1896b_ The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. and for. 9:446. 


Kunderd, A. E. 
1908 Ruffled gladioli. Hort. 7:165. 


Leichtlin, Max 
1889 Auch Etwas tiber Gladiolen. Gartenflora 38: 102. 


Lemaire, Charles 
1846a Glandiolus gadavensis (hybridus). Revue hort. ser. 2:5:141-142, color 
plate. 
1846 b Gladiolus gandavensis (hybridus). Flore des serres 2: pl. 1, March. 


Lemoine, E. 
1890 Les glaieuls hybrides rustiques, p. 26. (French reprint of paper read 
before the Royal Horticultural Society, London, 1890.) 


McMahon, Bernard 
1806 American gardener’s calendar. 


Mottet, S. _ 
1912 A propos des glaieuls hybrides du G. primulinus. Revue hort. 84:448-450, = 


I fig. 


Paxton, Joseph 
1836 Gladiolus pudibundus. Paxton’s Mag. bot. 2: 197. 
1839 Gladiolus ramosus. Paxton’s Mag. bot. 6: 99-100. 
1840 Gladiolus insignis. Paxton’s Mag. bot. 7: 223-224. 
1844 Gladiolus gandiensis. Paxton’s Mag. bot. 11: 27-28. 
1847 Gladiolus Canheaee superba. Paxton’s Mag. bot. 13: 190. 


Rand, E. S. 
1864 The gladiolus. Downing’s Hort. 19:333-337. 
1868 The gladiolus. Amer. journ. hort. and flor. comp. 4:78-82, I fig. 


Reider, J. E. von 
1827 Gladiolus cardinalis. Annalen der Blumenisterei 2:125-128, color plate. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 171 


Rudolph, Jules 
1899 _ Les glaieuls hybrides nains. Revue hort. 71:111-114, color plate, 3 figs. 
1910 Glaieuls hatifs Pont-de-Céais. Revue hort. 82:523, 1 fig. 


Sayers, Edward 
1838 American flower garden companion adapted to the northern States. 


Such, George 
1867 The gladiolus. Gard. monthly 9:I10-111. 


Tubergen, C. G. van, jr. 
1907. Hybrids and hybridisation among bulbous plants. Roy. Hort. Soc. [Lon- 
don]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 438-445. 


Van Fleet, W. 
1904 Hybridizing gladiolus species. Jn Proceedings International Conference on 
Plant Breeding and Hybridization, 1902. Hort. Soc. New York. Mem. 
1:143-149. 
1914 History of Princeps. Mod. glad. grow. 1:79-80. 


Verdier, Eugéne 
1874 Culture of gladiolus. Flor. world 1874: Io. 


Watson, W. 
1892 Gladiolus oppositiflorus. Gard. and for. 5:545-546. 
1893 Hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 6:243-244. 


Wheadon, E. T. 
1915 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:2-4, 14-16. From Guernsey Growers’ 
Assoc., Yearbook 1914. 


Wobhlforth, 
1852 Notizen uber die Cultur der Gladiolus frei aus dem Franzdsischen nach 
Truffaut mit Zusatzen versehen. Gartenflora 1:73-81. 


Youell, H 
1911 The gladiolus. As we knew and grew it fifty years ago. Hort. 13:420. 


COLOR PLATES AND FIGURES 


GLADIOLUS SPECIES 


Gladiolus: 
alatus Linn. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 8. 1799. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 586. 1802. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:155, tab. 47. 1915. 
Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. I, tab. 187. 1827. 
alatus var. namaquensis Ker 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 122 under title G. galeatus. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 592. 1802. 
angustus Linn. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 589. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 252. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 17, tab. 602. 1802. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 344. 
blandus Aiton 
‘Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 17, tab. 625. 1803. 
blandus var. albidus Jacq. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 99 under title G. blandus. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 256. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 18, tab. 648 under title G. blandus var. niveus. 1803. 


= 


172 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Gladiolus (continued) : 
blandus var. carneus De la Roche : 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 188 under title G. campanulatus. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 18, tab. 645. 1803. 
blandus var. Mortonius Herb. 
Hooker, W. J., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 65, tab. 3680. 1839. 
brachyandrus Baker 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 105, tab. 6463. 1879. 
brevifolius Jacq. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 240 under title G. carneus. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 249. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 19, tab. 727 under title G. hirsutis vars. aphyllus and 
brevifolius. 1804. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 125 under title G. Orobranche. 
byzantinus (Bauhin) Miller 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 22, tab. 874. 1805. 
Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant. crit., tab. 643. 
cardinalis Curt. 
Curtis, Bot. mag. 4, tab. 135. 1790. 
Herbier générale de l’amateur 1, tab. 22. 1816. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:154, tab. 46. 1915. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 112. 
Reider, Annalen der Blumenisterei 2:125. 1827. 
Schneevoogt, Icones plant. rar., tab. 27. 
carmineus Wright 
Wright, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 132, tab. 8068. 1906. 
cochleatus Sweet 
Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. 2, tab. 140. 
communis Linn. 
Curtis, Bot. mag. 3, tab. 86. 1789. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 38, tab. 1575. 1813. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 267. 
Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et helv. 9, tab. 349. 
Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant. crit., tab. 589. 
Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4, tab. 308. 1880. 
Hallier, Deutschlands Flora, tab. 396. 1873-75. 
cruentus Moore 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 95, tab. 5810. 1869. 
Moore, Florist and pomologist, 1869, p. 121. 
cuspidatus Jacq. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 219. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 257. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 582. 1802. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 136. 
cuspidatus var. ventricosus Lam. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 147 under title G. cuspidatus. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 255 under title G. carneus. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag., tab. 591 under title G. carneus. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 36 under title G. cuspidatus. 
debilis Ker 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 52, tab. 2585. 1825. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:155, tab. 47. 1915. 
dracocephalus Hook. f. 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag., tab. 5884. 
Eckloni Lehm. 
Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 103, tab. 6335. 1877. 
edulis Burch. ex Ker 
Ker, Bot. reg. 2, tab. 169. 1817. 
florentiae Marl. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:155, tab. 47. 1915. 
floribundus Jacq. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 118 under title G. grandzflorus. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 254. 


a 


7 GLaDIOLUs StupIEs — I 


Gladiolus (continued): 
floribundus Jacq. (continued): 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 17, tab. 610. 1802. 
La Belgique horticole, 1859, plate 23. 
gandavensts 
Paxton, Mag. bot. 11:27. 1844. 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 2, tab. 1. 1846. 
Van Houtte, Revue horticole 18:141-142. 1846. 
gandavensts vat. citrinus (Lemonier) 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 5, tab. 53¢. 1849. 
gandavensts var. superba 
Paxton, Mag. bot. 13:190. 1847. 
gracilis Jacq. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 246. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 562. 1802. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:153, tab. 46. I915. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 425. 
grandis Thunb. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 19, under title G. versicolor. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag., tab. 1042 under title G. versicolor- 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:157, tab. 48. I915. 
hirsutus Jacq. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 11 under title G. roseus. 


Herbier générale de l’amateur 2, tab. 127 under title G. hirsutus var. roseus. 


Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 250. 


Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 574 under title G. hirsutus var. roseus. 


Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 273. 
hyalinus Jacq. 
Jacquin, Icones plant rar., tab. 242 under title G. strictus. 
tlyricus Koch 
Babington, Seemann’s Journ. bot. 1, tab. 4. 1863. 
Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et helv. 9, tab. 352. 
Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:65, tab. 309. 1880. 
Sowerby and Smith, English botany 9g, tab. 1493. 1842. 
tmbricatus Linn. 
Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et. helv. 9, tab. 350. 
Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant. crit., tab. 599. 
Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:66, tab. 310. 1880. 
Kotschyanus Boiss. 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 112, tab. 6897. 1886. 
Ludwigit var. calvatus Baker 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 103, tab. 6291 under title G. ochroleucus. 
Mackinderi Hook. 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 128, tab. 7860. 1902. 
maculatus Sweet 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:158, tab. 48. 1915. 
Masontorum Baker 
Wright, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 140, tab. 8548. I914. 
Mellert Baker 
Wright, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 141, tab. 8626. I9gI5. 
Millerit Ker 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 17, tab. 632. 1803. 
montanus Linn. 
Loddiges, Bot. cab. 11, tab. 1022 under title Antholyza montana. 18 
nivent Baker 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 275 under title G. ringens var. undulatus. 
oppositiflorus Herb. 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 119, tab. 7292. 1893. 
Watson (?), Garden 45:440-441. 1894. 
orchtdiflorus Andr. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 241. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 259 under title G. alatus. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 18, tab. 688 under title G. vtperatus. 1803. 


Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. 1, tab. 156 under title G. viperatus. 1826-27. 


18 


1802. 


i id 


25. 


173 


1817. 


\ 


174 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9g 


Gladiolus (continued): 
palustris Gaud. 
Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et helv. 9, tab. 351. 
Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:62, tab. 307. 1880. 
papilio Hook. 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 92, tab. 5565. 1866. 
psittacinus Hook. 
Hooker, W. J., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 57, tab. 3032. 1830. 
Lindley, Bot. reg. 17, tab. 1442. 1831. 
Loddiges, Bot. cab., tab. 1756 under title G. natalensis. 
Reichenbach, Exot., tab. 116. 
- Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. 2, tab. 281. 1835. 
psittacinus var. Cooperi Baker 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 101, tab. 6202. 1875. 
purpureo-auratus Hook. f. 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 98, tab. 5944. 1872. 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1992. 1873. 
Quartinianus A. Rich. 
Baker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 110, tab. 6739. 1884. 
recurvus Linn. 
Andrews, Bot. repos., tabs. 27 and 227 under title G. ringens. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 247 under title G. punctatus. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 16, tab. 578. 1802. 
La Belgique horticole, 1859, plate 23 under title G. ringens Andr. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:156, tab. 47. 1915. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 123 under title G. ringens. 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 4, tab. 422. 1848. 
Saundersit Hook. f. 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 96, tab. 5873. 1870. 
Saunders, Garden 12:64. 1877. 
segetum Ker 
Hallier, Deutschlands Flora, tab. 386. 1873-75. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 19, tab. 719. 1804. 
Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et helv. 9, tab. 353. 
Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant. crit., tab. 600. 
Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:67, tab. 353. 1880. 
sericeo-villosus Hook. 
Hooker, W. J., Curtis’s Bot. mag. go, tab. 5427. 1864. 
spathaceus Pappe 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:158, tab. 48. 1915. 
striatus Jacq. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 260. 
sulphureus De Graaf 
Hooker, J. D., Curtis’s Bot. mag. 127, tab. 7791. IgoI. 
Molkenboer, Jaarboek Tuinbouw, 1850, p. 39. 
tenellus Jacq. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 248. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4:157, tab. 48. 1915. 
trichonemtfolius Ker 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 36, tab. 1483. 1812. 
tristis Linn. : 
Curtis, Bot. mag. 8, tab. 272. 1794. 
Ehret and Trew, Plantae selectae, 1750-1773, tab. 39 under title G. bifolius et 
biflorus, folius quadrangularis. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 243. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag., tab. 1098. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 35 under title G. spiralis. 
tristis var. concolor Salisb. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 245 under title G. tristis. 
Marloth, Flora South Africa 4, tab. 46. I915. 
Salisbury, Paradisus Londinensis, tab. 8. 


adh co 
» 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — I 175 


Gladiolus (continued): 
undulatus Jacq. 
Jacquin, Icones plant. rar., tab. 251. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 18, tab. 647. 1803. 
Redoute, Les liliacées, tab. 122. 
villosus Ker 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 21, tab. 823 under title G. hirsutus var. 1805. 
_ vittatus Hornem. 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 15, tab. 538 under title G. undulatus. 1801. 
Schneevoogt, Icones plant. rar., tab. 19 under title G. angustus. 
vomerculus Ker 
Ker, Curtis’s Bot. mag. 38, tab. 1564 under title G. hastatus. 1813. 


HYBRID GLADIOLI 
Gladiolus: 
antwer piensis 
Flor. cab. 10:265. 1842. 
Christianus 
- Revue hort. 23:341. 1851. 
Colvillet 
Maund, Bot. gard. 5:4, tab. 167, fig. 5. 
Mrs. Loudon, Ladies’ flow. gard., Bulbs, tab. 13, fig. 5, p. 61. 1841. 
Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. I, tab. 155. 1826-27. 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1993. 1873. 
Colvillei albus 
Pucci, Bul. Roy. Soc. Toscana Ort. 23, tab. 7. 1898. 
Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1993. 
Delbarinus (Delbaere) 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3, tab. 158. 1847. 
hybridus Lemoine 
Amer. gard. n.s. (1:5). 1882. 
_ Garden 17:306. 1880. 
ignescens 


Maund, Bot. gard. 6:136, tab. 233, fig. 2. 
insignis 

Paxton, Mag. bot. '7:223. 1840. 
Lemoinei 


Amer. gard. n.s.1:5. 1882. 

Revue hort. 51:330. 1879. 
Leopoldii (Carolus) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 4, tab. 194. 1848. 
mitchamiensis 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2 under title G. tristi-hirsutus. 
oldfordiensis (Cole) 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 249. 
picta blandas (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 
primulinus hybrids 

Garden 76:391. 1912. 

Garnier, Revue hort. 82:578-579. 1910. 
princeps (Van Fleet) 

Revue hort. 76: 208-209. 1904. 
pudibundus (Herbert) 

Paxton, Mag. bot. 2:197. 1836. 

Sweet, Brit. flow. gard., ser. 2, tab. 176. 1833. 
Quartinianus superbus 

Garden 55:388-389. 1899. 
ramosus : 

Flor. cab. '7:143. 1839. 

Maund, Bot. gard. 6:165, tab. 238, fig. 2. 

Mrs. Loudon, Ladies’ flow. gard., Bulbs, tab. 12, fig. 1. 

Paxton, Mag. bot. 6:99. 1839. 


176 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9g 


Gladiolus (continued) : 

rigidus (Herbert) 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2 under title G. tristi-blandus. 
ringente-tristis (Herbert) 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2. 
roseo-purpureus 

Flor. cab. 19:6. I851. 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 249. 
Willmoreanus (Cole) 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 169. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 6, tab. 639. 


HORTICULTURAL VARIETIES 


Ad. Brongniart (Souchet) 
Floral mag. 6, tab. 363. 1867. 
Aida (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
Alice Wilson (Standish) 
Flor. and pomol., 1873, p. 73. 
Alphonse Lavallee 
L’hort. frang., 1856, tab. 20. 
Alsace 
Revue hort. Belge 13:227, tab. 23. 1887. 
Alsace-Lorraine (Lemoine), nanceianus var. 
Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Prakt. Ratgeber Obst u. Gartenbau 19:360. 1904. 
Aristote 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 4. 1857. 
Arlequin (Souchet) 
Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 8. ©1857. 
Atroroseus 
Florists’ journ. 3:177. 1842. 
Bala (Kelway IgII) 
Garden 76:437. I9I2. 
Baron Joseph Hulot (Lemoine 1896), Lemoinez var. 
Revue hort. 71:404. 1899. 
Beatrice 
Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Ben Hur (Childs), Childsi var. 
Garden 48:420. 1895. 
Bernard de Rennes (Truffaut) 
Revue hort. 23:341. 
Berthe Rabourdin 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1859, p. 97. 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 5. 1857 
Blushing Bride 
Garden 34:580. 1888. 
Revue hort. 71: 111, fig. 4. 1899. 
Boussingault (Lemoine 1887) 
Revue hort. 50:228. 1888. 
Bramfarine (E. Aragon) 
Revue hort. 39:131-132. 1867. 
Calypso 
Illus. hort. 6, 227, fig. 5. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Canari 
Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. I. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Charles Davis (Standish) 
Flor. mag. 3, tab. 171. 1863. 


/ 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — I 177 


Charles McIntosh 
Revue hort. 71:111, fig. 5. 1899. 
Christophe Longueil (Dr. d’Avoine) 
_ Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Cochenille (Verdier pére) 
L’hort frang., 1851, tab. 23. 
Comte de Kerchove (Lemoine 1896), Lemoinez var. 
Revue hort. Belge 23:217. 
Countess Coghen 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Countess Craven (Kelway) 
Flor. mag. 20:465-466. 1881. 
Couranti carneus (Thibaut et Keteleer) 
L’hort. frang., 1852, tab. 15-16. 
Crepuscule (Lemoine 1899) 
Prakt. Ratgeber Obst u. Gartenbau 19:360. 1904. 
Dame Blanche (Haage & Schmidt) 
Revue hort. 68:540. 1896. 
Demi-deuil (Lemoine 1899), Lemoine var. 
Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Diane 
Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 8. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Docteur Spae (Truffaut) 
L’hort. frang., 1851, tab. 19, fig. 2. 
Duc de Malakoff ‘ 
Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 3. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Ed. Pynaert-Van Geert (Lemoine) 
Revue hort. Belge 18, tab. 19-20, fig. 5. 1892. 
Eleanor Norman 
Flor. mag. 4, tab. 222, 1864. 
Elvira 
Revue hort. 71: 111, fig. 7. 1899 
Emile Galle (Lemoine 1887) 
Revue hort. 63:568. 1891. 
Emperor Napoleon [=Marechal Vaillant] (Leveau, Loise 1866) 
Revue hort. 38: 8-4, fig. 2. 1866. 
Ethiope (Lemoine 1898), Lemotnet var. 
Revue hort. 71:404. 1899. 
Eugénie Bourdier (Truffaut) 
Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 1. 1851-52. 
E. V. Hallock (Lemoine), Lemotnez var. 
Illus. hort. 37:107, tab. 115, fig. 3. 1890. 
Ferdinand de Lesseps (Lemoine) 
Revue hort. 63:568. 1891. 
Ferdinand Kegeljan (Lemoine), nancetanus var. 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 
Fille de 1’Air (Lemoine 1897), nancetanus var. 
Revue hort. 71:404. 1899. 
Flaming Sword (Kelway 1911) 
Garden 76: 182, tab. 1449. I9gI2. 
Garden 76: 437. 
Francis Herincq 
L’hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Gen. Changarnier (Truffaut) 
Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 3. 1851-52. 
General Grant 
Revue hort. 71:11, fig. 6. 1899. 
General Scott 
Garden 34:580, fig. 3.. 1888. 
Georges Frick (Lemoine), nancetanus var. 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 


178 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Georges van Rye (Dr. d’Avoine) 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Goethe (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371-378. 
Goliath (Souchet) 
Tilus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. I. 1857. 
Harry Veitch (Lemoine 1890), nanceianus var. 
Garden 41:190. 1892. 
Henri Vautier (Lemoine 1898), nanceianus var. 
Revue hort. 71:404. 1899. 
Henry Irving 
Revue hort. 71: 111, fig. 2. 1899. 
Horace (Souchet 1869) 
Flor. mag. 9, tab. 507-508. 1870. 
Imperatrice Eugénie (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. 1. 1867. 
Innocence (Vick 1883) 
Vick’s mag., Feb. 1885. 
Iris (Ragot) 
Revue hort. 85:35. 1913. 
Tsoline 
Tilus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 2. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Jacob (E. Aragon) 
Revue hort. 39:131. 1867. 
James William Kelway (Kelway 1911) 
Garden 76:437. 1912. 
Jean Ragot (Ragot) 
Revue hort. 85:35. 1913. 
John Laing (Lemoine) 
Illus. hort. 37:107, tab. 115. 1890. 
John Standish (Douglas) 
Flor. and pomol., 1872, p. 169. 
John Standish (Standish) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353- 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1860, p. 231. 
Flor. mag. 1, tab. 36. 1861. 
John Waterer (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. 3. 1867. 
Julia (Kelway) 
Flor. mag. 7, tab. 405. 1868. 
Jupiter (Souchet 1871) 
Flor. mag. n. s. 11, tab. 43. 1872. 
King of Gladioli (Kelway 1905) 
Garden 70:6. 1906. 
Kleber (Lemoine 1890) 
Garden 41:190. 1892. 
Revue hort. Belge 18: 217, tab. 19-20, fig. 1. 1892. 
Konigen Wilhelmina 
_ Gartenflora 46, tab. 1437. 
Lady Alice Hill (Standish) 
Flor. and pomol., 1868, p. 241. 
Lady Muriel Digby (Kelway 1904) 
Garden 76:182, tab. 1449. I912. 
La France (Lemoine) 
Garden 30:76. 1886. 
L’ Alsace (Lemoine) 
Garden 30:76. 1886. 
Le Chamois (Souchet) 
Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Le Grand Carnot (Lemoine 1890), nanceianus var. 
Revue hort. Belge 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 6. 1892. 


GLADIOLUS STuUDIEs — I 


Leopoldii 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 4:173. 1848. 
Le Pactole 

Revue hort. 63:568. 1891. 
Louis Van Houtte (Truffaut) 

Revue hort. 60:228. 1888. 
Madame Chauviere (Truffaut) 

L’hort. frang., 1851, tab. 19, fig. 1. 
Madame de Vilain 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Madame Dombrain (Souchet 1868) 

Flor. mag. 8, tabs. 463-464. 1869. 
Madame Eugéne Verdier 

L’hort. frang., 1856, tab. 20. 


Madame Ferdinand Cayeux (Lemoine 1900), Lemoinei var. 


Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Madame Furtado (Souchet) 
Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 4. 1851-52. 
Madame Herincq (Verdier pére) 
L’hort. frang., 1851, tab. 23. 
Madame Lemichez (Truffaut) 
Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 5. 1851-52. 
Madame Leseble (Souchet) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353.- 
Flor. mag. 1, tab. 36. 1861. 
Madame le Vicomtesse Vilain 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Madame Pele (Souchet) 
Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Madame Riviére 
L’hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. ~ 
Madame Rougier 
L’hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Madame Vilmorin (Souchet) 
L’hort. frang., 1864, tab. 23. 
Mademoiselle Olympe Lescuyer 
L’hort. frang., 1856, tab. 20. 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie (Truffaut) 
Revue hort. 25:41. 1853. 
Marechal Fabert (Lemoine 1899) 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 
Marie Lemoine (Lemoine), Lemoinet var. 
Amer. gard. n.s.1:5. 1882. 
Garden 17:306. 1880. 
Revue hort. 51:330. 1879. 
Marot 
Revue hort. Belge 13:227, tab. 23. 1887. 
Marquis de Saporta (Lemoine 1886) 
Revue hort. 63:568. 1891. 
Marquise de Pompadour (Leveau, Loise 1866) 
Revue hort. 38:8-9. 1866. 
Masque de Fer (Lemoine) 
Garden 30:76. 1886. 


Mathilda 
Revue hort. 71:111, fig. 3. 1899. 
Mathilde de Landevoisin (Souchet) + 


Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 6. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128.  ~ 
Milton (Souchet) 
Flor. mag. 5, tab. 315. 1865. 
Mr. J. W. Lane (Standish) 
Flor. mag. 3, tab. 123. 1862. 


179 


180 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Mrs. Bates (Kelway) 
Garden 15:240. 1879. = 
Mrs. Beecher (Childs 1893), Childsti var. - 
Garden 48:420. 1895. 
Mrs. Dombrain (Standish) 
Flor. mag. 2, tab. 77. 1862. 
Mrs. Marshall 
Flor. mag. 20, tab. 465-466. 1881. 
Mrs. Moore (Standish) 
Flor. mag. 1, tab. 36. 1861. 
Mrs. Reynolds Hole (Standish) 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1861, p. 289. 
Mrs. Standish (Standish) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353- 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1860, p. 321. 
Mons. Ch. Henry 
Revue hort. Belge 13:227, tab. 23. 1887. 
Monsieur Domage 
L’hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Monsieur Legouve 
Flor. mag. 8, tab. 463-464. 1869. \ 
Monsieur Vinchon (Souchet) 
Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Napoleon III (Souchet) 
L’hort. frang., 1864, tab. 23. 
Neogenes (Kelway) 
Flor. mag. 13, tab. 102. 1874. 
Ne Plus Ultra 
Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Nestor (Souchet 1870) 
Flor. mag. 11 n. s., tab. 3. 1872. 
Neue Bleue (Lemoine 1890), Lemoinez var. 
Revue hort. Belge 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 7. 1892. 
Newton (Souchet) 
Flor. mag. 6, tab. 364. 1867. 
Oberpresident von Seydenwitz 
Gartenflora, tab. 1268. 
Ophir (Souchet) 
Tilus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 7. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., 1860, p. 128. 
Oracle (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 6. 1857. 
Oriflamme (Lemoine 1887) : 
Revue hort. 60:228. 1888. 
Orion (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371- 
Orphee (Souchet 1869) 
Flor. mag. 9, tab. 507-508. 1870. 
Our Little Lucy (Standish) 
Flor. and pomol., 1866, p. 65. 
Pactole (Lemoine), Lemoine var. 
Illus. hort., 3'7:107, tab. 115, fig. I. 
Parure (Lemoine 1898), nanceianus var. 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 
Patens 
Flor. journ. 3:177- 1842. z 
Paul Marguerite (Lemoine), Lemoinei var. 
Illus. hort. 43:345, tab. 70. 1896. 
Pegase (Souchet) - 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 3. 1857- 
Phebus (Souchet 1871) 
Flor. mag. 12 n. s., tab. 63. 1873. 


* 


- 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 


- President Carnot (Lemoine 1889) 
' Illus. hort. 37:107, tab. 115, fig. 4. 18g0. 
Revue hort. Belge 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 3. 1892. 
Prince Imperial (Paulin) 
- WL’hort. frang., 1862, tab. 20. 
Princess Mathilde 
Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Professeur Lambin (Lemoine 1891) 
Revue hort. Belge 18, tab. 19-20, fig. 2. 1892. 
Queen Mary (Kelway) 
— Flor. mag. 17, tab. 295. 1878. 
Queen Maud (Kelway 1908) 
Garden 76:182, tab. 1449. I9gI2. 
Queen Victoria (Plant) 
Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 
Randle Jackson (Standish) 
Flor. mag. 4, tab. 184. 1864. 
Raphael (Lemoine 1897), mancetanus var. 
Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Rebecca (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 7. 1857. 
Regnerus Bruitsma (Dr. d’Avoine) 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Reine Victoria (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. 2. 1867. 
Rembertus Dodonaens (Dr. d’Avoine) 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Reverend W. Wilks (Lemoine) 
Illus. hort. 3'7:107, tab. 115, fig. 2. 1890. 
Robert Lodge (Douglas) 
Flor. mag. 10, tab. 556. 1871. 
Rosea Maculata 
Garden 34:580, fig. 4. 1888. 
Rosy Gem 
Garden 34:580, fig. 2. 1888. 
Schwaben (Pfitzer) 
Revue hort. Belge 38:377. I9gI2. 
Sir George Nares (Kelway 
Flor. mag. 17, tab. 296. 1878. 
Sirius (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
Sir James Clarke 
Flor. mag. 5, tab. 266. 1865. 
Sulphureus (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 2. 1857. 
Tall Blue 
Bul. Roy. Soc. Toscana Ort. 22:112, tab. 5. 1897. 
Thecla (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
The Fairy 
Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Triomphe de Louvain (Carolus) 
Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 1, tab. 353. 1845. _ 
Triumph von Hietzing (Lesemann) 
Illus. Gart. Ztg. 14:209. 1889. 
Ulysse (Souchet) 
Flor. mag. 8, tab. 419. 1869. 
Undine (Haage & Schmidt) 
Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371, fig. 4 
Valleda (Souchet) 
Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 4. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg. 1860, p. 128. 


181 


182 CorRNELL ExTENSION 


Van Gagern 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1851, p. 193. 
Van Speyke 


Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Venus (Plant) 
Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 


Vesta (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 
Vicomte de Narcillac (Verdier pére) 

L’hort. frang., 1851, tab. 22. 
Victor (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 
Voltaire 

Revue hort. Belge 13:227, tab. 23. 
Wilhelm IIT 

Revue hort. 71: 111, fig. 1. 
W. Watson (Lemoine 1891) 


1857. 


1838. 


1899. 


Revue hort. Belge 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 4. 


BULLETIN 9 : 


ee 


INDEX 

SPECIES* 

‘ Acidanthera: PAGE Gladiolus (continued) : PAGE 
PERMA HORA AUIS 1c. oat a,a)< <n) a%s 2 a seine oe a's 107 ig file lee Sk eS Ae eis RS Ga 2 es 103 
SIA Se Sooo ete reese 97, 107 atropurpureus........ Bo a ae he we 102, I10 
DPMTEUMURA Sarl cyclo ate ons Shaan as eaters 108 AUNGTESE TS Her eas accra oS. Soe OT 103, IIo 
UMNSIINMSY eis Swan Ss ods sot asa te 107(2), 108, I09 atroviolaceus....... 104, 106, I10, 117, 121, 138 

. Antholyza: ECAR aI AA ACLS en Py gee Sis, ct aes oe IoI, 110 

4 EMRIMTENOD es oie aoe oe. Ie ac aod sie sto di ealew we 109 SHEE TSS ue SE Ort een Pe eee te IIo 

BRM dee ooo Se soni se cots sche eee 108 ARETE AS Se toe Se 6 a Boe oN ce 103 

' SEL tre Se eras ee eee ie sea! 109 [ERATE 2G By een yee eek eer meee es 103 
RTPRRANI a neh cho Ao. fone 2m 'nierhwig: SENaPa 97, 107 EE. he i Pert oD Lane Beate it ade oor 103, II0 
(EE ae FOSS ee arn +S BAT elas ABrote 108 Melyilerds samt or sea Y.(a bleh Waceotee de 156 
WANES et eter FEEL kook css bosaaa eee 107, 108 Benpywelensis 9. oS). els hoo 2 eek eee 102, I10 
cpt ost ttl Ey Cr a aie pee ee 97, 107, 108 lett re ee re ane IOI, 105, 106, IIo 
PPM EE OS horn a 2a hs at Nave Sao 108(2), Io09 DEMONS iB Ba eter | AR IS 2 ara lt Acie eee 107 
BRPRRIIMIE SS. . feo Tc fo ose Solera 2 107, 108, 109 PSURTAIS Stee a Woh i Soe oe atk Se oo, IIo 

Aristea: CEOS a Asc wa NG AN eA Se «oan wes 104, 107 
. MENSIRETARE RS Oh ede ote eb Die o's Se a ss eee 97, 107 DESNICMIES CoA oe oe Oe So 97, 104, 155(2) 
Babiana: TERMITE Se eS ONS ck Phas oe A 104 
Sin Ct SE ae ea 109 blandus. ...98, 101, 104, 105(5), 106(2), IIo, 117 
5 Fi AS Seo pe eee ee 107, 108 125(2), 138, 155(2), 156 
Zh Se Te a ee Pee or 108 PAT ST Ci ee See are 104, 117, 138 
Up LES TOD 8 es ee ee Ree ae 108 CHLHENS ahd c ese cs = noe". as 104(2), 117, 138 
TIS eee areerer ae 107, 108(3), 109 ERS fe Sak oe IM a Oa 117, 138 
Tere See oot Eanes an erer 108 ESET Moe oe co edo es Sv ote ea 117, 138 
SED RNID ek) Sie a So a ee era ae ge rae Pilesrpeanitetsses 2) ees hoes Se wie. ae II7,. 139 
LLP LE CES Ae SOS Se arene a PMS a oo che, Nei 8 oss 0, 02 Sav ae 117(2) 
SERLE in A eee ee 97, 108(4), Lp NSSEUS. 2s... « Beare oe clon. ort ciclo a aoe 117 
af 15 Ee eee ene oe ote ie 108 Af Sg eh a ae cig ag Se ee 100, IIo 
Ue is ao Se ee eee ere ... 108, I09 bE OES eS Aer CO OER ert Se .- 104 
“DE erie eae ee 107(2), 108, I09 EORENPEEES Loos als 2 2 en oan ty ae ee eS 104 
MMESUSERNS Crees a as, ORS « Sed cme Sardis ee ee aes 108 rach yAMETEs) oo .co oo. ase ato w Soe eee 102, IIo 
Ferraria: prac hydiea Siete SMe eos Std J cee are 103 
q UPMRAUSACNIR ee Aa Poo oaia's bute tacit cece Des 108 GACH PSC HPRGS) rete te nes ayer ee ee ateee 160, IIo 
Freesia : UOTE APTUES hace Sipe od «= 5,3 § Cees Soe oe 107 
Stich Cg BES Oe Seen ae epee 108, 109(3) BLAIS Beha oo ee hoo) e's d dele See Re 107 
Gladiolus: brenchieyensis = )=. ; . 2%... 542.22 130, 145, 158 
PREM ESE Se ok et iS ee ee ees 107 BIE vICds et od Sart tire fetes ae 102, I10 
WASECRSI et S te st oe Pole cto 2S oem IoL ORemICR Is ee FNS eas cb oa OS chee 104 
ETO ET ee a ee Ere ie 107 brevifolius....... 98, 99, 104(4), 105(2), 106, I10 
ponds oe eee ieee ae 103 DbSmISGaUlies sho > ot) ana ws Sos do se ass ohare 103 
LATE, 1ST: ER a Pe 104, 118 Breyuunuss So ess ss swe 98, 104, 120, 125 
E REP ITIMAR og Porc us NSC a ore wee. de Ss wk Hae oe 155(2) LEpefecintriccr  hgaes 8 ae ogee de ete, La an 102, IIo 
alatus.....97 (2), 101, 104, 105, 106(3), I10, 117 SPIES esa bia toe ties Pe x re caro eae 1n2, 110 
; 125(2), 137, 154, 155(2) PY WRUIES Ahh Pe cio 22 %,c me a'e'sie,e Be a Ie 107 
MAMAGUEHSISS: 2S. .% << 3. 07, 105(2), II10, II7 byzantinus. .96, 98, I04, 105, I10, 117, I2I, 124 
TOT G2 SS Sa Se Shee eng ee 104 125, 128, 154, 155(3) 
MR oa Stal 2 acini: shojo oS» 5,2 oa ee 104 PYRAMIOBNS Pree tere oc aie ie Se. k win ae we awe 104(2) 
TM RAs We ried CLL hy aces res bow nde avert oes 128 Reymentg Tee ee seas. sie cal ia sl daw a ote eet s 154 
LTS Se Ee en ahs 104, I17 alatawrsise so ote eee dnt 103, II0 
ROP ehh 2 lois ctv = <,<'pee a nists eee a 107 PUES eg Ee Fats Bes wan we a Lao wince cae 104 
DESI, eran renee bon ae 104 CRM DAMMIT RS rho os, oft ot, 052s ome 104, 117, 138 
I EOURARIP Soe 8 as aimee ate ewe ae BERS 97, 107(2) anne rast ors tras feta Fas oe we Ce cra'spcraeneae rs 145 
SIREESIPPIEMES cE ces eet? hake Meni os eee L 104 CATT NESS oe ee OM eis BSlaro ale a etal haloes 145 
“OTITIS Cae A I07 HAL DARIAN he ores, NS on Ns oe aha Solaire siete 07, 107 
JUDE ee oe ae eee ee Ce ‘.. IO4 cardinalis..... 98, I0I, 106, III, 118, 125(2), 139 
EIS a i a A a 107(2) 154(2), 155(3), aes 
RIS Ree aon ee CIR A Sele sieisia ss Oe Seed ee 107(2) BAG GES ses Lhe Soros es cverevaids edi eyes 
MMR VEINSN rs, eS esos Seo aos 102(2), 104 SeAN ERNST ert ta, Slate i ont ea foo cahcusi na telntv mr saa a 
TE Ao ee es Ser rere cee 104 PAERAIGS 35 ge ee <sins chalcts 29 97, 104, 120, 144 
PIPRSES Hod ons Ca thos oa SRS Paka oe 102(2), 104 ROT AMINTATES SO ore Rte pa ycieh tard seheps Orta ave ees 103, III 
SP ORAPVINSE Ges Spe Mts, ot Soe bs, = ohre wae Cee 96 PIPIES COUSINS HeN Poh on NOe Set eratnns were a ors 124 
LS Le S Se ee ees ee pei or as I55 RETIN ts tate wet Sala Sheis se. 3's Se 104, 154, 155(2) 
FRMESR TIN ONIS Oe RE be eS See ex wisn Sem 104, 107 FASHEUS coos re oes Ss ee oko 43 98, 104(5), 118 
MPUSHIS . 8 cin. a 96(2), 98, 99, I04(2), 105(2) pein Seeet A ee ss ES 5 acta. SS en era ehe ah 103 
yer 1c6(2), I10, 125(2), 137 CADIS UIOEMS oO ios gas BRIS ates alo 2 ain aS 107 
RISER OE Le Slclhe atchain aca wlereta d 104(3), 117 ERSSTIOI OMS hee Na: 8 wan, SO <a ae es che aioe ee 107 
JO OS Sas te eee Seer einai See ae 107 SSEIEESESEISESIE 2S SEMA Sahel nc Sia «,oe-alherove 104, 121 
TREES Te eS ene 103, II0 ES EVI S s  E eOe eeeee 103, IIE 
BHBNEDAVUUS,. «ia boson exam ae etm en 103, II0 vite i yh SANS ee eed a 133, 145 
SPIsT ANSI Chao oe Sk Sr eek FO re tone cree 98 DR IPIStA TINGE Core toes pete a ot ome ayejeietia eee 156 
CELL OE SE ee aS or ME cm 104 CAPTORS OPP et a| ac, ha, J ore os eka he Aa ticaie a 104 
PASI Sie CE, orbs, .6,o fe Sx Sroreie See IoI, I10 PACA ENS ete es yc oct oinie ain, we EO ee 107 
LOPES RTE OR Se Oe Re eee IOI, 105, I10 CC TUETI TD age gis gn Renee aeRO ee) roo, III 
AEE TC) [SUEY TE i eRe el ica eae 103, II10 CAMA MESES eee oho a pererehs uid s.0 ey sive OMLTOR 104 


*Species names in italics are synonyms. Page numbers in bold-faced type indicate pages on which 
descriptions of species are given. 


183 


184 
Gladiolus (continued): PAGE 
eperalescens*. = 2 5502 aes eee hese ee Loe) Tr 
LOUIGDUS | Fiate 5c neo oH eT Te ee are oes as eee 104 
Colvillet\. .. =: 2 125, 128, 146, ‘Ist, 155(2), 156 
FEST) ee PORE cle BINA Sr ecicicePs ei 147, I51 
Coiviltlioides sti 54 oe 2 ote oe eee ee en's cae Lay 


communis. ...96, 98, 104, 105(2), I1I, 118, I21 


124, 125(3), 154(4), 155, 156 


COMMUNES. Hehe, eee Coe eG ec ei raise 2 Sec 104(4), 121 
TENCULTLES > SP re eee Fe oa ete See ee 104 
CONGROT SLOSS Dd BC e ae oe HORE 104, 144 
GaniratHte ac) ee evade seek nate ee 103 
IDET Ee ME ae nk ote aii aos Rete 104 
COPA eee Taio ie ee tlaw saree See 104 
Crnetiss pee sea se sae ees arose 102, III 
PEASSHONUS EG oUt hoes - wheels motels roc, IIr 
PFESIASUTTUS hore 2 ees ool - ele cee eee ete 104 
EISSN eh eee Rene oe cae eo eC ee 107 
REALE wrote oh sols Sins Nie lets aos ee wale oaks be ee 107 
CTUMEHEAS ates mos paie aee we IOI, III, 118, 140 
CRNONME = Ce opie ose ek See week ee 97, 107 
cuspidatus. ..98, 99, 104, 105, 106, I11, 118, 141 
CMSHONUS!.. 2s. cos Sees s oekis cee III, 118 
ventricosus....... 98, 104(2), 107(2), III, 118 
CUSDUAOUS HIPS a ae a jel ge ee 104, 118 
PVCIGCAT PIS S, ccd sche waste telat eo sia ge ees eet 103 
cay tad DARTS Oya Sitar ie ee eicas te ees eB 103 
DACRE ee ore GAO cee Eee 143 
GALHIUSIONS. 5.0 oz wo SE Se oc sls Se See 104 
Geiitlicn eos ea tea eo neh soot 100, IIT 
HOCIICHSIE Ko aeS8 eo Cee ars see Se 103, III 
decorates. 70 es ee bene ee eects 102, IIt 
HeIsdes = o.. Coach See Oe an eee ee EM ek ae III 
Belicatis scree EL een eh wees ree see eee 147 
GeHSIHORUIS) 5 .2¢hokis Garcons eee red sats oe 103 
GERUCULTLUS 5.0 io siciae sd Se OR Ce Re 107 
ASEBROLOMIUS 30:2 Dic aoe iene, be Sateen LOD. 
MESHICHUS. oa nc ae Coon oes v eae Come 107 
dracocephalus ....... IOI, III 118, 141, 141, 147 
DrEsCi et cas 2 2c Pee eee cee e eee IOI, IIt 
AUS rn ROS ard Seta a toh PUES 104(2) 
ckdont se sake d= Sechelt e 109, 104, III 
Sa ee ee eRe, Lo are 98, IOI, III 
PUES FANG he tes Shao aoe i ite Pose = ETO 105, I17 
PIED ASIS So cle cle Ste wie eo iia co olae ae i oe 103, III 
otieece wan nee eee eee eee 100, III 
Pilots. 0 Gees os. «oo Os cp oan es wee eee 103 
PLONEOLUS Vo isco ie te ster gee ae eS 98, 105, 107 
CUSSIGUMS 2G hone Nac: ape ices ow eer 105 
CQUMAMS OP tora oa he Slats ake We Shake aoe 105, I17 
prechillorus. < © ce 2S cisacoe eae. 109, IOI, III 
EXPCISIOR se cc 22 ER On re ic oa as ole Dea 148 
CXLOSESE eee te ee ee ee ne 105 
PLESSIS: cn ete eee oe PR ee ieee Ge pie 107 
CxscR DUS. oe Be ice oto ancl teva aes f 107 
GDYSESEERET ce Go ihie. 2 Sane Stns a ee EOE 107 
ICORUS Sz oo FSG cee Ss RE Ie cee oie see 107 
PRASCSINUS J feta there iar Noon See Pee 105 
JESNIIUS cote ake cide Ate Rees Bs o£ eae 105 
LASSEIOUUS Oa de oo et es eo 107 
FISTULAS ee tee eres Oe ene ee 107 
REDE Eis) a0 eerie ce emer eee 105, 142 
Mlanaganics 500 Sosa eet eee 103, III 
EAUUS = See ooh os 8 ante ie ete acer os wie Oe 107 
MEXHOSUSS 5 te) oo oe oes Oe eee 103, III 
eSUOSUS RR sos ee Ie ee RR eee 97, 107(2) 
jlore alba’ (orialho) 26 ,-cee acl ee a oe 96, 124 
Horenmbtae oy licwic Chase Ri nete ie a eee alos een III 
tlOTE TUVONNE Scheie tes OE So Oe ee ee 96 
PlOre: SUBVE:TUDENIE: 2-38 202 aS ee ee 124 
flon bunds tro cee an oie eee eee 154 
floribundus..... 98, 100, 105, III, 118, 125, 128 
129, 155(4), 156 

floribundus So 8 Ce PEt, RN ARO ee 105, 142 
floribus uno versu dispositis..........-+-+ 124(5) 
(fOLSESERSS{ OF MEDUS 2 oe ne tae ie a oe 96 
folits linearibus............. sy SEES cio 06 
FOTMOSISSiIMUS oy ees 149, 155, 156 
FOTIMOSUS™ c < LGore AL te ELA Se ees ON OE IOI, III 
FOVINOSWS > oiled an, 5 is wt ato ante eke ele ote = fate 105 
traprans: Ae ee en Oe Ea ets eee oes 149 
PRCT CS oo oe on aa en ge oe ele pl = ae ao rok 154, 155 
START ANS ae «ree ris to PO oe fe son si nee 107 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Gladiolus (continued): “ PAGE 
frimiculafa-oo ot So oe ee os esas selegs Sey 
FUSCO=VITIGIS) cy.;.2/8 he ae eS Saves ao ea 
CRIA S SEs oR Ae ee 105, 107, 117, 155 
Baltctensts. 2 oo. 5 oc. ss 2 a % 02 Scie ee 105 
gallacensis ts: © 4.'. 25 «5.7%. ae . LOg sabre 
Pandavensis ...°.5 3. - oe ae See 128, “149, 156(3) 

citrinus <2). 20.5... <:5 5 tee Pa 129 
Garniert \s j55 6. sos os ee 102, 112 
Garntertt.. . 2.0 3ss 6. oe eee 107 
PAaATUaANUS. .6. cise cee ee ee 103, III 
Gawler. 2. o.0. 0. 6s) os eee oe eee 103 
Gawler?..,. 5.35505. oo). as oo 8 ee eee 105 
gazensis 2) 4..25. 0... . feoes eee 103, I12 
germanicus. |... ... <2. 3.5. cee 103 
Plaucus. sss Sk es eee 103 
SIUMACEUS... ace 5s w+ Jala op 2 107 
Gogtzet vas Fc oe = aera iter .103, 112 
PYACIIS 650, 0/c\oe ees ee 97, 99, Tos, "106(3), II2 
BVAOAUS. sashes 2 Os ee eee eee Pee ey 
gracillimus < ), #'3.. ee coe «io oo gOS ae 
PIGMINEUS Thi so win Aa Peers o\e sce» 2 ali 
grandiflorus Suet idses seat ee .105, 118 
Prandis. <<. 2). - 97, 99, 104, 105(2), 106, 107, I12 

; IIQ, 142 
Grantit 00.0. 305 Soccer 102, 112 
RIELATIUIS 25. ee ores owe be Oe 102, I12 
GUGINBL. 2 oc oT. Ook ee vee 105 
Guepini 2022 o.6 . see Ae ee 105 
halophilus'.. =.:)., 2. tas Seen eee 112, 121 
Hanningtonts. i... <n - <2 eee 102, I12 
Hanra 80-2 Fk oie os nn eee eS © 103 
Harmstanus. 2 222. Soc: 4a eee ~etLOZ, 222 
hastatus’ 2dnc'-k eects 99, 104, 105, “106(2), I12 
hhastatus . ask ss os o's $356 Coles 105 
haylockianus. ...2.5....0:5 >s°ssee— eee 149 
Herbertianus. 07... «ai <<.» «sia cir) eee 149 
Herbertit'.:52..3...405 < oc viniys oe ee 128 
heterolobus :. =... % ae<s 2 en eee 103, 112 
hirsutis 7ose0c...., .. 5: i> «5 oe yee eee 155 
hirsitus. ... 2 97, 100, 104(3), 1¢5(2), 106(2), II2 
IIg, 128, 155, 156 

TOSEO 00s oes oe 2 gas 2 ee fs 
WS7 SUS... is capes sas oe le eee I05 

VOSEUS s. 355.30 ois 3.5 a4 0s, oe en 119 
RSIS © 5. ova 60 eee oe sh cee eee fea Dos 
hispanicus florealbo .... :.% «ls -cameeeeee 123(2) 
BUMS 2.0.66 Ko oe wis nk He eee Li2, 125 
Hyalinds 65,2 cs Teh oc ae 97, 100, 106, 112 
hygrophilus.... 222s ws « o,00:- 2» oe 105 
ilivrsiods= =o 104(4), 105, 106(2), I12, I2I 

Reuteri 2 =: o:...: 33 s%2dekee ee 106(2) 
imbricatus....... 96, 98, 104, 105(4), Ic6(5), 112 

I2I, 124, 125 
inandensis =... =. <<. 2s -s~oo se eee 99, II2 
ENGTIMENSES «25 Ds ww a oo ss eee 105, 121 
incarnatus. ws). ..sss+¢s.> Se eee 149 
snclinatus... 2.050. 03 osc o eee ee 108 
INCONSPICUUS: J i.-0\.5 4. 5st ee ee 103 
SNMALTOUS 2 6 5. Sn di ogenmyaieic sis w oh e,bheie area 108 
SNFESIUS: |. Hos de clas ne A eee 105, 121 
inflatius:--.s.- 2: 98, 100, IOI, 105, 106, 112, 156 

blandus.. .  ... Hoc secede oe ee 128 
infundtbuliformis.. =... i 22.556 + cs <e eres 108 
POSIB IS Cee cxctee et el oe eee ay 150, 156(2) 
Involubus <2. 2. ee 97, 98, 100, 104, I12, 125 
4VtAifoltus 2 hos 3,1 a Decker eee 108 
UOIICUS 2.2 Se eee 2 ee 95, 96, 105, I21 

flore rubro...3. 222s es 2. 123(2) 
$xt08d eS. ss Sos Poe ee eee 108 
Johnstont .202.....2:.0-<. - 2s Bae 103, 112 
GUNGEUS «2 oboe os acaba s oan Je 108 
junodi....0. 00. 2... sh... Joe ee eee 103 
karendensis.2.: 0... 23.2 20h 103 
RkilimandschartCus ©... sas ¢ +2 eee 102(2), 105 
Kirke. os 2 SoS 5 dein sake te oe 100, II2 
Kotschyanus. ....:.}02% o3:.. se8 «eee I1I2, 121 
kubangensis;... 4.005 6-522 2. eee 103, I12 
LOGCCORS 552 rs os Sire ew 32 od 105, 108 
baceratusc23 oes 2. ek US, See 1c8 
lacustrisc.. 52 iio. 3 <u sae cane eee 95 
IGETES ave ed OS cee a ae ee 98, 105 
Lamar chit 5. 5,260.6 fon ks > Ss ee 105 


GLADIOLUS 
Gladiolus (continued): PAGE 
BASINS: Sieh aco 0, za ea Stece itaga ae See erecta ers 99, I13 
PIRI GH te tats is oie st pelo Coke ohehe we 103 
EELS eres hen oto crest ircy at ehagatsl bigs Ie ois > 108 
BIUROSE LS ats c's Des clots ix Xero nl «, notte ota 102, I13 
TERI EO ec EN a ce ae or AS ek En 108 
EICHEt. 52 oc eo BN ate cos Sera ate IOI, 102, 113 
PRESEN SETA 58 21a SIN cc ctanel eS er ovcre wrk. 3elatoay Bhersias 133 
LU SPTTTE va Coy eg Oe Dr A ee 132, 150, 158 
LE ECT ie a, Re NON) ne ee Raa ae 105 
PEREETENT IVES Soot tects Stel yes to Se aetis gies ee a 105 
WRTECUS ri NTS oahu os he oe oS, as ase a 105 
MOSUL UZ hohe Ne ctha's o esets, Nahr ni dicta eins Stee aes 156 
REPRE E PUES Soy sect oot Cook ys erckoertet hac eo teas s 105 
1G ert 20) ELTA ge See 1G3, 113 
1, EGPCS, SG 2 a OS ee PM ae = 108 
hed iy2 SS Ae ee ae ia i Sa ea ne a i PO 103 
CIEL POST Sates ieee oe Sp chayS ete Pee ema e 128 
OE ee Te OOO EDO ee 1c8 
“ALBIS TTEE Ie ae ea eo ae eA ee PMD Pas CE 103 
MATIRERCOMBS Hote oc 3), Cio ns, Sues he ate oO avaserene eae 108 
ors. Sachs eco swanide dabete fone: 108(4) 
RM nS ahe oat Mace ee eos ue era tee Re 150 
[CEG i aR Se negara: ADs ad 108 
MIEDISCROL TSE iets S oo ss ko ee dete 105, 121 
COTE SILEE, ISTE Ee ee Pes 100, I13 
ReMENTEAS EAS es see ceie <i dy or Ma ois east os gavotte 104 
REM Peete re, AS chat Sha eae NIE « Hale Be 102, 113 
UE GHALS ee Seam 2 ao ated PRE. woo eee ells eaten 105 
RVERCTINCINS Were ale cto noice eee Ose oe SS mae 113 
[STIG CSS eae eee 97:08, 102, Tis) 225 
Ree OCP e aes site ehehcle ot 0,2 sce Fb eieaKe I05 
iil RES Ge Pete el nn ie eae ae ance ee 103, I1I3 
VET WARE yee aster ats alate oe) oreo nigete fas {ol, I13 
Macowaniensis..... Rr te i aon a end eeutess 105 
SHACMEYPINEDIS a2: aie ovcln td aie Sein & 103, I13 
PETRA ESC Rre te ray 0h Rive otncd toe BOL Sota 2 %s apete tees 142 
WOEGULL IESE RSE, Foe are eke Wiahoré helt ue tele 105, 120 
FARTOT DYCOIIGTUS 2 0 5 steca oe, vis © ded 0, 6, ¥ scene eel 
Aap LGD SRR ee Mot cee Beer 103, 113 
TAT ELLE tae as SE eet Ee ue IE 105 
ELE LTS OS Rg iC MORSE Se ee Ce Da 108 
EO AOE tS ck ae Ce ee Pres 108 
IRAISCITEICSCEITRA Cee oy tah Sets FL ge oiet oP nrae a A 103, I1I3 
SESE SONG ETC oo Ses a Re re Oe age Soha 150 
ESSERE Oi TSS Spc sleesn Vintners Sears 103 
RHE RETICNS Tors sie esa tg ha an eee 103, I13 
PACRIIMS ANOTGUS': -. wratere <cix 9 PS oa an tealele we 12 
EN Le ee Teele sapere are 102, II3 
ET Td CG OS en ee res et Por 98, 108 
WIPE SIRI UNE eet Bor Me Ns Ticks exces a, sora h oi kpaeeene 108 
REBCUAEUSie ees < Sap ae 102, 103, 113(2), I2I 
OTOP US nc chico. Dare tee see alee ae 99, II3 
RE EOST AOL a at bow sce 2 «ona aa Siete labile tae Ic3 
IVEPRETIN Aytres Se sishels-. es sae 98, IOI, 113, 125 
TE POUR TOO LO CORR ee 108 
MESMEAIET OV US aot cot) ne ak ton ane ARLE a 108 
ATS) RS Ra ne poe aie oe FOG. ers 
RUIMEMARMICHSISet ech. o tala Nsae tetas ees eins I51 
RREEMS yore Mik noe hostteeks Gre ts iota cen, Aer hane a tain 106 
PEMOSHEGIV US 52) 5. 0.5.5 ise! sxesierF alae Pn ri yalace. 105 
THOT EATS vt et. Oe et,» 97; ror, 106(2), I13, £25 
ERICITTUITINIALACTISIG S % «c'insbn, oi tle seuss: fore es gece akon 103 
RHINOS eta Pe Ie 2 105 
MURTONEUS, A Be esis soe oc, MO oe ce apes oes 105 
RT SATENICCDSIS « </2 5) fayete 2 coet- pa, oak etree © 103 
TOL ONES 80S 2 6 Sie 10 iS Geis 105, 108(2) 
REET rae ce he Sit aietamk cat rea 102, 113 
WWERREIARCS IM crn se bois ears. oishe s)he Stee 103, I13 
THUMM TUENSIS 3 3)..0 os As Fo oe eee 97, 105, I17 
FEIPURICENCLEIEIS) oe Nore res coeie ecient toe trey eee 133, I51 
SPECEII(G Sees ARs oy Pe nee ete Monta Hee LSE 
LEVEES Cae eee ele (Sieben crete wheishs Biola as a ytnte 108 
MU UGMENSESao=. ste.) <,- vere sinew te raat 95(2), Io5 
PE ANCE MUO. ois 2)i. 0 tot. ae Sete 122,523 
flore incarnato intensiore.............. 123(2) 
narbonensium flore purpureo.............. 122(2) 
MalGlensiS.. Sates... « si = 105, 120, 143, 155(2), 156 
MERLECIUS aici a se id Rose honk see 105 
oD OE OAR OE SEITE Ota te cee ae 108(2) 
BEWUIE tes itera fkta seri oh aitat 3.y oe lore 102(2), 105 
TITAS a ite pee SATS WY atk ie 100, 106, 113 
MIDRY DSU Be oes oie! aoe ig te oe Pnlwre ge Wie SBP aU Neees 105 


Stubiges — I 


] Gladiolus (continued): PAGE 
ERESSINTCUSGEIS Octet re tere hd. Sie on 5 oan deste aS 103 
TEVULCETI SISO Cal ho otra et ec, Dek oes 103, Ir3 
CAPES aye oe ote ae eee 102, 113 
CUTS ACTS ete Gk hn Ie te 100, I13 
OOGLANS fie, eee ee eld aah SE I5I 
OES ae win ete. bt ere ee 105, 108, 120 
Glafordiensics vos © cn oe sacs... ee 129, 153 
Ete eL HIS hens OE cla a ta ee 103, I13 
OLPOpHIS DIS Bre ees ot oe ee ae 103, 113 
oppositiflorus. ...10I, 105(3), 113, II9, 129, 142 
ODDOSHELOITUS vie spl ead ype Soe eC 165 
erchiditorus |e) 405-2 97, IOI, 104, 1¢7(2), 113 
OR CNAMETIOUAS Hack ces ht ag ete wi RS os 105 
Gregehanis 2 ese cek eis ety ene ae 103, II3 
LTE 2 Breil te! ghee ain atu S cae le Sate halle, on Te ayn athe 105 
OF OOVANCN ELS ON) MAO Det eae Fes eet 105 
PallidUsm cyte te sien See ae as. Pee 103, II3 
PAlEAOSHISEP EES yuo croc cite eras 100 
PALUSERIBV! Aaa dic, eae betes 104, 105, 106(3), I2I 
PIISESIP ESR Ve, Te vist penta ds aot eye ae a 95 
PURICULOLUS 7 Wha. ah c SAI a ce 2 oie aes atsig oN 108 
Papin eer i. tet Lae ake eee Ico, II9, 120 
DULPUZORIACOUS was asl os Avocent ste sata 106, 108, II7 
DAD DEMe hg Ne is hort Reese pag ae eaters 100, I13 
BALVINOLUS: oes. oo ek shotye rere ne oe oe 113 
DOL OEOVUS AM, = Roar ste ve eget career 106 
DALVUIUIS AS 03 35 dee ee bie oa ioe Te ees II4 
DPAUCINOLUSE Sis ac damit suntie coc ee 102, II4 
PUUCENONUS 2c. SMOG coe, eohoke «a, aes oe Rae 106 
Decipans sss = Set ee eee uA KEOS 
EE MIEA IMLS. -tomkan cts age = cue ets 97, IOI, 104, 114 
PICTSICUS 2 Meaty te iets svete See ieee EEA, E27 
GL gi hg aL a tear, MIT ¢ ty Sere Pe 106, I17 
PEGS Fo OARS. ter enn hg eee igh ee - 106 
DAISIES co St ns Ps eile tin he Ce 106 
DIGNIACINEUS hs hy Al ee ere 108 
platy pL VUUS cio) hua c) eit Pare 3 101(2), 103, I14 
DUCAE TIN Ey nce Yee me ee ee 96 
DUCOLUS SN Noten eee Tee 97, 108(3) 
DOVYSIACKYUS*S ple, ure cis oe as ete ae 108(2) 
DOT EOS. cS ENR 2 ito AT. Wad ee eee 103 
POR SUES cone te eae RS ha ot One ae eee 1c8 
PIACCOS AE fn Wels eo eee Toes eels 128, I5I, 156 
DPRTOLO Deas Us Sells voles OR SO 108 
fod Oo) ON NE DOE SOM ANOS Be As 106 
pretorius siete ate Aidt Gin a ape opt alelel tare reasons 103 
SUING TIMSs Gates Des 42 Beis 102(2), I14, 120, 134 

COMEOIOT Nc). Pe. oes 21, dae Ue oe eee 135 
SL CCL IES yao es. sige fo) niet 3 Cis atare ti weg eo ar OF on kis ok 3 2S5 
TACHIALUS 2. Seas 4 Raton Speen ee 135 
AIOE es ce ies ee Sat ee ee 135 
SAMNGNCUS.. 6. ere eee adie nee ae 135 
DT EIUETIME SF talon Acs 2s, pin Biel ole ioe 106, 143 
PEDIC CTS ites Sree oe ie kle: on eae 140, I51 
PrismiscOSI PMO. och. =2 cha thee tee 103, II4 
PEOPUIGUUS). - 5 eS ial ee we eee wale ne 152 
PStkeaGlnehes «hfe Poiluley ayers okt 154, 155, 156 
psittacinus .... 101, 105, I14, 120, 128, 143, 154 
‘ 155, 156 

ROODELLE fens eects aces 104, II4, 120, 143 
153121. Gn AoE DER este Neb AL pant hE deals, 150 
PICFODIVUES ©. G 8 oS wept the ce oe ee 106 
VTLS OLE ays ee he PGS ovate tere eth Ay tae 103, 114 
MBESCEDSY J. a-7-714 9.596 ase oe 99, 103, I14 
Mudibundus ss 2 tes. ose ewe 152, 155, 156(2) 
joie felt lk Wee ee ee ar. ee IOI, 114 
PUREMALIS. oo CAs otic se ee ee 100, 103, 114 
UMERALUS oo ee iene ae Re Le Srerd ee i106, 108, 120 
DILITOD ULES > 2 tao Sins ohn tas Po eae oe Ee 106 
DRMEGEUE ath los ode Poe Seve eo = ya 96 
PEUNEEETES OSU Bsc 97, 106, 108 
purpureo-auratus./.......... 100, II4, 120, 143 
BVO RrISoe. peat ir oo Oss ie eee 132 
DUP DULEM STE EAs OG ORR ere ee Oe 108 
DULPAKEUS MINOT. yoke Seo ea econ Bee 96 
PURO IMIEUS Ne) oe hgh ee ake Pak e ote eatenct haters 108 
DIT GIBEGGIS Se 20 oP ee OR, ee <9 a Wine 108(2) 
GUAGLONGUIETISS. doe: os ee 97, 108 
Quartinianus...... 102(3), 104(2), 105(2), 106(5) 
107, II14, 143 

(uilimanenSists .)<4,.h ison. 5 tek we Lee 103, II4 
FACIE FOTUS er ON-0 sede alennn coe oeenertnd 99, II4 


186 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 
Gladiolus (continued): PAGE Gladiolus (continued) : PAGE ~ 
ISTIC SEA Oe Se Att Ot On pies eet Oat 106 subbiflorus.... - Soto sitve, © &sgahtetiiee ne ee 106 
LAMIOSISSINIUSL a7. abel aes ast aes he eee ele aati 152 Subalatus...8.% seen. eet ee eee 103, II5 
EATHOSHS)..ccch.7., Some sone aoe 127, 128, 152, 156(4) |. SUBDULGUUS. wien sos SO bee OL ee 109 
KOEMOSUS © eke eS itt eae a 97, 106, 108(2) SUICALUS £3. yards oo ek eo ne | pee 106 
recurvus..97(2),98,99, 104(2), 105(2), 106(3), 107 SuIpHHreus! Soo. ea c save hah ours ane eae LOZ rey 
DLA L202 5 2). 0A 2 kA SULDAULEUSS.... {Agee s,s 1,8 Sacske ae ee 109, III 
WECULUUG, ors stone cash et, van ee eae 108(2) SNITOSIF ESS oone petcal doe se tesco ae ea Bees: Far, 122(2) 
PEAUCLUS HORS op SRP Te Gad ato tcote oe aaneto ee pie 103 tab ularis.s c.g so eta ta 2 re ae 99, II5 
TERED. Spiers tte Ge ihe Pits coe ok ones heey 108 FADULETIS 8 3s. on see se en 106 
RESLIECLUS Hectic ntee ee ie eee eee oe ake Tatbertianus: . 2. 3. eee 103, T15 
RE Heri amaals tes sence eee crete es oa hs nce eee 100, II4 Daylortanus. . let Se ee 106 _ 
TET OCIND AS ot eer et eb eit a ae 103 LLP ER. sree S. ois, ss rive wee ow ee ee 106 
TESUOSPENDIUS Rone diene oe He 109 Mem plemantiaenne. oh ee “Pig Cee 106 
ROTEL er PME aire em ee oS Sara orae era Tore 106 TENEMIS:@ 5 S25 Souci an aa Mean ae 97, 99, 106, I15 
PIB CSCET Se. Mente Mens suet ao 8 orale ten aie ae ee 103 LENUEMOTUS. - 4) ojos ots aks oe 106 
TIGA OMUS eres coe teen OEE, cite eerste eneone tae 103 TOMWIS: Se ciocse es ogee eee eee 100, 115 
rigidus Ee eg BW Pee RN Rae S Melee on Pepe es 153 LENUIS ES a nsetdte ca Pues > Deke ne 106(2) 
FLUREN Sees erat hoe ye itp ane we 106(2), 109, 120 PESEGCEUS . 5 2.3 'o) sk osc ts ates 109 
URTALALUS i tas one ee Seaham ae 106 MThomsont cf .t oes os ee eee 102, 115 
EO ELSIE Ale lows tiare siete remand ocean ane 100, II4 Thun Der ot 302k ts ads ee 106, 109 
OSE AnCATMEG Yer tee re oul cite cece nae area 156 LESTUMUS fic cee evi abtsie eo atoms Oo 106 
FOSCOMIDUS he Fatt es ee Se EET Om 109 trichonemifolius .......... 98, 99, 104, 105, 115 
TOSEO-PULPULEUS! s-Fay</. ice eye eee eee 129, 154 trichostachyso70ic 52% aos: be a 103 
TOSEMS Ree ee ce eae eee a sate 128, 156(2 LTICOlOL. sake ic eos Gta ee II5, I21 
TOSEUSE acne tee oe Nae ae iS Ole 106, 109(2), 119 tvamaculatus..\. . . <2 4.0851.) 0s wae ee OREO ORES 
POSSELUS ere sO Te NGS cae 106 Cripiiy lysis co So as a hae ee TES peo 
VUDENS ee ante Ree Dee RISER eerie 109 EVEPTVUUS oh. coo. «os eis snss sca a0 ite ee 106 
rubrocyanus. . Pe esh tate ch slopd <td oe me oetee 109 DEIGLE Jee-bop sie Pitae op hie eerie eee eee 155 
rubromarginatus PIR OE eS ae OF -o 106 LEIS HORT oiler ai sina meso ee 96° ~~ 
Me ICOlaka wa eel tak as Lele e te eo eas 103, II4 tristisi y= 2: 97(2), 90, 106, 115, 121, 125(3), 128 
PUTICOLA niet sate). cee come es Peron 103 144, 155 
SABES CT ac on a raters G8 Sate een estates ona ee 106 CONCOIOL As. 2 os}s eRe ene 104, II5, 121, 144 
SHHCAHETISS rts) eh eto seo eee t Ae ee 128 Wists SPa. 3 . . en ree 106(2), I19, I2t 
Sa lMOMEUIS ao ye tae Se ee hcl eee eas 100, II4 BYONGES sic wee bs Oh ae yu oe eee 119 
SURE TVIDT TTA MI ee Malt NR, Aa in a 106 PUNCOLUS 0. on. Opes ae oe 120 4 
GANG ELSil tate ae eee IOI, 114, 120 triliceus ~... woo bee oe eee 109 ; 
SCADEL. the etn ce ans hips ea ane eon orks 105 tritoniaetormis ..c.\sis.teec anh eee 103 
scaphochlamys........ AG 62 RASA he 100, 114 tTitONOIGES, «te ova ceckd aul ase ee 103, II5 
SCRYIRDETLINUS 5.02 5 hs Fon epee easy lade 106 tUBOIUNS 2 = sic as cele Re Cee 109 
Schlechteri...... Sats eh Seta ene uee atone 103 1UDtAOKUS. =. = Oh shee On ee 109 
Schwartzenberpianasse ce ssa: tee 153 tubulosus: = 2250s tao oe 2 eee 109(2) ’ 
cell livin meena oi A ast hid octet IOI, 114 PIUTICENSIS. ..S a0 2 ce heehee 133, 153 a 
SECIS keh uote tate Ue aeons ala ee 109 AYET stool sarees hatte Male so ale eee 154 ' 
TA ET I CHA CAAT RRR COT oe Pome ID OTS OG. eer, 109 Avsonivs 3-4 ee op tape basauceel ee 1 hae ae IOl, Tr5- ; 
SE RELA LES wens aay s Be io oe ete eee rete eile al aac rege Reee 106 GHEHENSIS +...) sc. «2 sae ee ee eee 103, II5 
segetum...94, 95, 98, 104(6), 105(5), 106(2), I15 ‘bealakournAG RIA Wem anol pene ee 98, IOI, 104(2), 106, 107 
121, 121, 124,0025, 254 115, 125, 155, 156 
SERICCOAVINOSUS eon ek hatin ee ene 100, II5, 121 UNGULALUS = <2 dos ctetke Lae bee 106(2), 118 
SEROLETUUS 2 ates Fa Ret erate eet 106(2) NATIT CU bets ele tasesiaic rete eb nee 102, 104, II5 
SEEOMOUS op craic cheat Seuss bee tes eae «eer 97 UNUROKUS sO. cee ek oe eee -pae 106 
SPLPOMUS he cian eanis Oe eee oer eee 106, 109 utrinque sees Se PRIME Ac 124 ; 
SSLENDUDES Ler rece at eee en rae EN Ren eee 109 flore rubro.. See i ics LE 
SEITCEMISIN 5 ope cero eaans. ih ee eaa ees einiey aan IIi5, 121 floribus albis. Bal do due oye) Elid a) 4°, Ra eee 124 , 
SPORMIGUME oc ace ors Sy) -ebseeunre, > ome Faisal i=l 109 VENOSUS2. Dace isd Oe ony ee 109 
spathaceus~ .. 0... 6-0-2 2s 199, 104, I15 WENEVECOSUS ws. 5 sa sos is Ua bo ee aoe Wee 
SPathaceus... . -. 02 vee st ep aoe 106 VEMNULOSUIS) << tiescrnsteterce ke ae a eee 103, IIS 
SPOLMEGEUS)« o1-\--0) = re: boo ots aa ooe sarod 109 Werdickiti. 5. tececlietace jibe oe eee 103, II5 
Spatialatusiea, «pes staersersecvaer cere es IOI, II5 NEV SILOLOT ae es ee 97, 107, II9,. 154 
SPECLOSHS Hts oer Fiero Perea Crain ens tnes tac mic 98 vexillare. P.yahwctt sens ho tee 103 t 
IS PECLOSUSE As poe < S ato “ 106(2), DL, LES Victorialis’ 60-22 fi) a0) Sade os este T3as.05a 
spectabilis.--.:.:...- PSO ASS le NSO EC 103 BIMOSTUSCULUS ss, oc )o 8 toss be OS 107 
Spicatuse st wpe eee oe PIR en BER niece 115 DILLOSULUS . Seas sve sss cles a ee ee 109 
ISPEGCALUS Ho oa ees) Sinks ja teeters So See 96, 109(2) villosus. .96, 97, 08, 100, 105(3), 106(3), 107, 116 
spilanthus......... UPD nt Wire, He octet 106(3) villosus. .. feicNae Soe 109(2) 
SHE OLS rea rane) delegate ee tenet ae 106, 121 DNULUS To, he eo sk Bn in eee 107 ) 
splendens. . SF RANE See aN een TOT wlO2. Ens UIOLG COUS wo vn chance ee ee 107, 120 
ISPICHMENS rer oto anlse-tcle PS 5 ons F .106, 109 PEPELALWS >. 208s acgedeent ayes eed vo eee 97, 107 + 
Splendidus reat.) See ee TES, 153 DIL ESGENS voc ite! ool vue ne aes et ce 107 . 
Spottont Nawus. secs cee ee ee Serie ree . 153 WINE DES Se fs vc 5 peer ord ie A ee 97, 109 
DUET PEEL IIL aie ove vers bein eee ee 109 vittiaCensiS; /; .¢<+20 +2 aa co oe T4s5 ess 
Sbaltdbil 2.0... Pay AAS en A cid 103, II5 VIbGAEUISs fi. cern (os eee 100, 105, 106, 107, 116 
Sfenopovlus cause Ho: et ere RIAL O58 ILD UIDs ek He ee eae Oe SC etek bse ee 107 
SLENO PAY LLUS are Seven oa ee te 109 WOMETCUIS 2 e. Ma es ee ete “08, 99, 105, 106, I16 
SPernit®s 5..< tee ne cor ee ae enanentesee reo 153 Watsonioides.. stn). ne Cale = Stee 109 
SCOLONTLETOUS. «os, Be esta tebe a Tecate 109 Watsonius. 2.54.0 oi cee ere ie ae 97, 105, 154 
SEEIAtUs |. stare coeie Bt Ree a re 100, 105, 115 Watsontus:'(— 03% ot ue com cite ee eS 109 
ISEYEULUS cue ont sae ie eA Teens - 106, 109(2) WelwstSCHit. 3.0e ask ane 2 102(2), 107 
© PSERECE VOL US = (ees che een omnes eho mle 109 Wihyter on. oe ele acter eee 103, 116 


| 
BEmCLUS .1cc Natdscaa tee eit Soheeaeal= or keene 99, 115 Walhhelmus <4. < cit sys scape tee eee 156 
SEPECLUS ois cs fovea TAC Ae Cee nei ete ee 106, 109 Wiallmoreamts:: 5.26... -.< jon acters eos Ree E29, 258 : 

q 


SAEMUCOLENS Poe. cone acs el, Potters thes eee 98, 106 iGO Ca hoo ay: ake tn, els en hae 99, I16 
Subaphyllussc).0 aeeiciy neBom mictiene wees a LOR ids xanthospilus.....«...- oot Face sla. eae aera 109 


e 
GLADIOLUS STUDIES — I 187 
Gladiolus (cont:nued): PAGE | Synnotia: PAGE 
7 (DE TC ENE TEE OR SS es re ey i er 102, 116 ENCOIOTI A yr eeene ier ee Me he Maen a eee 107, 109 
SPREE DATIOUS a. 420 028 Shen ona haere tes 116 Plane Ae Sea Soe ee coc tae eae eae 107 
Hebea: : Tritonia: 
TTT MAS a Rar Sa ae ce ee eee 117 ACT mee fet ete BS Ae RES Mota SEI 109 
Hesperantha GEIS ae ee ae He SI ae 107, 108(2) 
EMS MEE Fae alc ror otity 2, 1808p Sunt > Sod ne RES 108 Ga Lanta ee ie cee Nee coe ee Te 107 
Homoglossum BE Ee CON Glee Sk sien ae uel ees Oe Ee 107 
BISA eae os Sie tate eaare cP elon. nauay ats Piss ard tah 108 TEE ge RC Gp’ nl 30 ae CES eee ey 108, 109 
Ixia: ich eee Slot see Che Pas eee ene 108 
pee oirr ah ahaha S822 Facet na ede DMe:* ssenw's fons Oo DARI taal tet ee Pee eee ee. tidy ho uae 108 
Burmanni.........--.-----.-2-+-+++-5-5 107 Pottsita. 2 Banik oo ee eee ae we ia eee 108 
OSES TRISE ol 2k SE ee ae ee ee ase 108 WAS R eel es ee oT oe OL 107, 109 
PMMA GAs 8) Sn Stal oan duane, vd Ae oe, wee 108 ETS, a 
if LETITIA een ae eco a eter 107 Bs eon. Rie, ona te et es ia 
Reaceexnnaid: SS lan peg oe nomae ae Gs pcan BORE se ; 
LST DT ESSE i Phy au ie a eins ade 107 al Soe 
FP micite oe eee es ee an aes 107(4) AERO ES ere tata ra eae 107, 108 
HISS72) 12h oe Gh ae i lA a ao 107(2) brevifolia ....-..-. 00.1... sees eee Eig 
PISTOLS A hr ieee ae a 107(2), 108(4), 109 humilis ..............-...5...05- 107, 108, 109 
SUG eres Se ek ES ele ry erate eRe 109 METIANUS... 1 1 ee ee ee eee eee 109 
Lomenia: PIG MONA ee rome Sey ens Soe a Sy yh oe ree 108 
SURG T RCs Eee GOES eee Sere 108 BA TIAT CE acre Cer tee eR ee See 108, 109 
Melasphaerula: cs) ie Eyre ie iy Webs eRe see A eh MENS er he 108 
senrierge | Bey ae eel ee ee 97, 107, 108 Ma Peig ENO Remegeioee te MeN dk Ppt neg Bs ah eS tl 107, 108(2) 
Meristostigma: POLL EOE Sere te een B i Cote Ae © Star Seyret 120 
LET A Le EE Be ee Serie ort 108 Diantagimeatl as aoe A ot 97, 107, 108(2), 109 
Moraea DUNC LATA Sees ee. dct 107, 108, 109(2) 
aC AMR A Srey eb! , ofboth ou phe 108 CECUINE Creer iy etd ss he ee 120 
Salemoneus 7 FOSPAEY foe Se hPa oes eiceh okie Sols 107, 108, 109 
LAIR SE 26S Rene eM wes eee ee eg 107 SOIGATAS.Y ecko Bist aroats oeeisiee es 96, 107(2), 109(2) 
Sphaerospora : SEEN ct SPAIN Sonn hla anit cic nt ye Ae he ee ae ee 109 
MIRON BES ATO. he geo aca el whe e\>!s aye: o> vie 121 
: GROUPS OF VARIETIES 
PAGE PAGE 
SERPS AERIS terete tee Ui < Rodna 8 etre age nalenas ee as EGOUM aN CMEAT Sart oil Sc Eek ve ce ee a een 157 
Cayeux et belOlerc’s* 0.20. firm es TSA Ors peat tys oo) le IRICHATUS WER hes od bd Oe 2 hey ee ene ona pa 157 
OSES GISY 5 EN a a ee I4 SIE (as eZee Wy OC Ia ete Re cee ene peed Waa pale. TG 132 
SHLE Soe Ub Ee eee SO ae ares DIC MORRIE SLinssaee POS ee are a SE are eee 131 
SERIE SS ee ES ae eig | mn na ee ee es nc als Leck. S = Sir ye cay Shere io alos. 130 
LE EER LCEIETS «gta an Ot Real eer ER ea re T3Db ew BrCier eC PNSENG) Seka Suc ae ct eee ee 131 
PaER OME ne ee it Be ee gan ice ws He 0 al) MEN @ Ge! ‘ype SNE Seay Se a AE airanee AY 2 ee oie 159 
HORTICULTURAL TYPES 
PAGE ) PAGE 
[ENE Di ty oes BAS Ui A at eerie Cage j4 a Pbanepranae pate oe eh tae eo 135 
(23 SLES TA 1 a ee me ie fy Rb Teh.) Lenipmenbwprigs -08. oi 2st ofl cle wlecs : 133, 150 
mmMestt HYVDHOS. .. owe oe ee be ee 133} £A5, ROOT ANanceianys Mybrids.-5 >. 6: cows sk ote So ee 133 
PeAcHeepbalus Hybrids: -...)2.... ac. 22 oe aes NIC. heal | wl Eaae Sle th tk al a i fc i con ee I5I 
PianlvPOLRe TCCOCES 7a... we ts Chee Senge HA Se th FECOECS Ahern ENR ho eke Aa, Nee w de 148 
SNOT ese eo. |. Reese as saree ot TAG ese tanCepG ens ee nee oa eon tio Lah aie 4 shen 140, I5I 
LESBINSS SA ane eee Seca Oe a Soa cea 148 | Purpureo-auratus hybridus Froebeli. . bo ES? 
Giant- flowered Elvbritistetss. tice acs ee eae Rapa) weaned pict tot sek ee ee nt ee 160 
Bel tietisty ED! TONG, . 2) hegre oat os Shae ele ae PRAT MAGEObIa issatn eee terest cles tioiea oes 133, 153 
Glaieuls hatifs Ponts-de-Céais..............-. Bs5eleeWellsnptonrs tort esac ee. cae oacns 129, 154 
Batters precoces,. with, Sts ene peasants ne Se oe 148 
GROWERS MENTIONED 
PAGE PAGE 
ROR TERE RS eT farses io BAT arc ierdests others GA STATA 158 Cp lonlles See. eRe ae or esate wee, Mee 125, 146, 150 
LEBNETS CC Sia ie een aaa anes 134 Wormleyeslamesvin cnt ta eee Ue ee 157 
BET ERLENCC MV WASH DME sec): 2 ile os Shae fart oe 158 WSorereucrtenas er ates Sec, Connect ns hu, oat oes 130 
ESD. eae eR eee, Ae ene 145, 148 GaweerAnhhue 2 ofoce Sons tishck whence 160(2) 
EeTee Gy UP ENOOAT oi. = 4 );k.g ie afoeee ale hac 158 SrasiaiaPoree.s oc acct tee. hays 2 ore 157(6), 158 
EPO sie tates eek. De ees, acts Cae 128, 149, 153 Crawtord pMatthews.c4 ee bo ote ewie ooh 159, 160 
See eOperiiona Gos). ites Seem oe ee 134 Cris Ce CODD I ey eee et nie ee. 158(3) 
MRRP te eres Po Bie eed clea So eth ane 130, 133 tis irae: Ca pig ee re tet ie hes wey een AY, 155 
MERE POS Me oe tee re is Se IL hiss Se ee 155 EVES RRS cure a eo ST Me Are ae fs ie Rep oct oe 143 
CETL URINE 7 i a 140, 143 Dammann eos. ean 2 3 133, 144, 153 
Emer Stith GEOL PE ste. oly apo tit cls o <jele As.os ween 145 MDGLTEUN Mech te oa Meee eee oa os in eee a 133 
RMEGESARSORENTEREL ft), We telacy Dele ceees oats cee 159 1D [ayaats CeCe ag gee rape Wee ees OMIA a NER Sea? Oe B &: 130 
TE REISE (Va pie ee 127(2) Drecrcblenrys Beton rc. oe en naar 158 
eaveux et Le Clerc... ...°..~s.s~- 134(2), £35;-1S3 De Ie te tee fo: oe, xn OB Cob oa ee 130 
Bersids. "Ponn Lewis 266. o.oo ta tee wc se 146, ORE ANICIS Peewee ee naka. > oA Rey, ee Os 143 
ITE WU craton te een Fe cee ees oe 157 EGER S eit settee co. coe as. Sa ee Kio 133, 153 
TLE) oe Re are ena ee aa E20) 2051 ali GOderroy-LeDEUL a:2i2 os vs 4 wate cee wre 133, 145 


188 
PAGE 
Grealer 2 sc Na Ssoys olsen tieks fe oe eee 139 
(rtth ED. VEL Arete eee Roale Seon ee Soto 160(2) 
Banos SASCHhmIGE.: 2 iS. o ctu clase one ae 133 
iallocl: Go) Sons Wetec. atari etee ck csteces score 159 
TAU G CL? OVS Elin fee chores here eee ae ee 146 
WATSON RICHALG.* ein el -s eee 143 
Henderson: Peter ss. 7.6 ee he me eee 153 
Herbert, William’. 3......5, 126, 147, 149, 151(2) 
152(2), 153(3), 155 
Te Loyez baited fol chee See as 3 Bas ee ener ker areas 157 
FIODKEL His eee es be ce cena 130, 145 
outte pGouis vats 2). hee sk nl «lous 128, 149(3) 
OME MEd COt te rene es else aoe 155, 156 
Eiydew| Gale etotatn Slices ec eee 157, 159 
ACKER eee Comey tae ak Oat k dota tee 139 
eel merciuem Mes eee ac a. s ed, en Cs elnare 132, 135 
ini oinelOnite.: co Pecsts oe oye ten ee 143 
A STRIG EME DPN & ee A er a i 133, 150 
arsidlerd AS) Be. 2)-rsrcteealas Ae See eats ERE 160 
iDarrYs bey n a gl B es ee eee ety Met meee na ee ere 155 
UEZAST rely Fhe DUR tie tl a aS ERS =a aie TS 143 
WetOHbhint aMiaKS (vaca Woe the, otk ep ce ee 133, 145 
Lemoine, Victor... .132, 133, 135, 147(2), 150, I51 
IGEWASOOCHMLACKIO. tats dion ook ta ode Neves a Meee 139 
iDeoteleinehe ted Iie 3) CaN eee een amen Peeere sae te | i 5 128 
ECOMPE EINE OLLCO Aan o cede asia de oe 150 
TA WIE RATOD WGN oh 25) 445 nie Ss 5 sal eae 155 
Wie iineye eG Site: Ae Ce eho ee ce 157(2 
McMahon Bi I statistic wrens « eer ea eee 154 
McTear, James FS) AO he 7 Sen ea Eee 157(5) 
Miakoysslacop™ a2 esteeo acc. Sates sore 150, 153(3) 
VEGI SE UMAR MPa cone ripes Sheen NO ein Serta aS 130 
Waser Meets Reine te te reer ate 138 
Miileri sy. oF OC Ata aee ree oot cee 145(2), 149 
Maller wIPhilip =. tri maser we fs te 125, 138, 144(2) 


CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 9 


Parkman, Francis ic. /5.2/..:sae ote ee 
Pince (Lucombe) & Co 
Porcher-Dionneaw...... 55.2. Se 
Prince, ess se bss 2 os Sh 2 weey Oe 
Rand). B.)Si, Jt. ose. ee eee 
Reinwardt. 0.102 o.,....\s02 see 
Richards; J.-S... =... 2)... :e aie be | ee 
Rifkogel...... jejaraiars 2 «sine + ele 


ROSSEGIS 5. oi sic eine Ss tn oars 
pander,/ Ci... tc. see too: 


Sladden,; J-:.....45...). 0 sane Ce 
Souchet, Eugéne . 2°! ..>2s4- 21. e ane 
Soulard 2.00) 1d). 50 cst one eee 
Spooner, W..H.. .: ... 9.0.20 -. Rae 
Sprenger. vis sek 0.216 be eee 
Standish, John = ...4..... 22/3. 
Strong & Spooner ° 
Strong, WiC... dos: sone eee meertne: 

Such, George. . 222. ca... 265) eee 
Thorburn, Grant: 25 21.8. ot eee 
Torcy-Vaunier.. 2.2 3k a 
Trefoux «5... sh. bs.b aes 2 ot od eee 
Traffaut fils... 0. 2+ ae eae oe 
‘Tubergen,' C: G. van, jr... 5. <=)... 148 - 
Van Fleet, W 
Waughan . S002. 3.05. s Rene eee 152 
Veitch &:Som. .25..0.5 0. oe ee I5r 
Verdier, Bugéne:;:..22.%...- 6 eee 131 
Vick, James 20.055. ¢-255..25 se eee 158, 159 
Washburn & Co... 3475s stk see eee 158 
Wilder, Marshall P....0... 3. eee 155 
Youell; Henry.” 2.5.0.5. a. he eee 145 


a oe 


December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 10 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies —I] 
Culture and Hybridization of the Gladiolus 


Alfred C. Hottes 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


‘December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 10 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies —I] 
Culture and Hybridization of the Gladiolus 


Alfred C. Hottes 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


PREFACE 


The data for this bulletin are based on the results of four years of work 
in the trial grounds of the American Gladiolus Society, and on conversa- 
tions and correspondence with many gladiolus experts. In 1913 question 
blanks were mailed to members of the American Gladiolus Society 
and to some of the growers in Europe. Much information was derived 
from this questionnaire. The writer wishes to thank the following for 

their assistance in this work: 


Mrs. K. Atkinson, The Flagstaff, Locksheath, Southampton, England 
Mrs. A. H. Austin, Wayland, Ohio 

B. C. Auten, Carthage, Missouri 

G. B. Babcock, Jamestown, New York 

J. G. Baker, Kew Gardens, England 

E. T. Barnes, Spencer, Indiana 

J. M. Bassett, Hammonton, New Jersey 

C. Betscher, Canal Dover, Ohio 

G. D. Black, Independence, Iowa 

A. P. Bonvallet, Wichert, Illinois 

Ernest Braunton, Los Angeles, California 

C. W. Brown, Ashland, Massachusetts 

W.C. Bull, Ramsgate, England 

Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California 

Montague Chamberlain, Wellesley, Massachusetts 

Madison Cooper, Calcium, New York 

Arthur Cowee, Berlin, New York 

Matthew Crawford, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

N. L. Crawford, Grafton, Ohio 

E. H. Cushman, Sylvania, Ohio ~ 

E. N. Fischer, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 

E. T. Flanagan & Sons, Belleville, Illinois 

Maurice Fuld, New York City 

L. M. Gage, Wellesley, Massachusetts 

H. H. Groff, Simcoe, Ontario 

I. S. Hendrickson, Flowerfield, Long Island, New York 

Dr. C. Hoeg, Decorah, Iowa 

. E. Huntington, Painesville, Ohio 

B. Hutchinson, Haddonfield, New Jersey 

. H. Krelage, Haarlem, Holland 

. E. Kunderd, Goshen, Indiana 

. R. Macomber, Woodfords, Maine 
| Pa 

F. 

gal 
ay 


Moore, Northboro, Massachusetts 
Munsell, Ashtabula, Ohio 

W 
R 


of abel C7 Co benll©) 


. Pearson, National Botanic Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa 
ichardson, Woodfords, Maine 


IQI 


192 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Oo 


e Ruyter & Hogewonig, Noordwijk, Holland 
. E. Spencer, Woburn, Massachusetts 

. E. Stewart, Brooklyn, Michigan 

. S. Tait, Brunswick, Georgia 

.C. Thomann, Rochester, New York 

. H. Tracy, Wenham, Massachusetts 

. G. van Tubergen, jr., Haarlem, Holland 
. Van Fleet, Glenn Dale, Maryland 

. Watson, Kew Gardens, England 

B. F. White, Terryville, Connecticut 

W. W. Wilmore, jr., Wheat Ridge, Colorado 
Henry Youell, Syracuse, New York 

C. F. van Zanten, Hillegom, Holland 

C. Zeestraten & Sons, Oegstgeest, Holland 


Rane eee 


The writer has had valuable correspondence with many others, and 
regrets that each person may not be given due credit. 


ALFRED ©. Horres 


CONTENTS 
PAGE 
The gladiolus as a cut flower and as a garden subject.............. 195 
Se rneRR EE BMS SAIL TUCMESGR 20. oes eT De acae< obs. He Raed 199 
eeeniieers And their see A ce a es fee eS 201 
men dike Mianwer OF Manne...» 65). 6) Sl ee ee Se ee ok 204 
nema AIM AITIRTMEE CAM ISIS Se yg Sc nh dea de a wees 205 
os SEES SOT Sa Ge ee a a eS a ie oe 208 
be EST TT re go 0) 0 ee ge, ee ie a 212 
Semen eriee HATPH ICU ALION SY Se SO oe Gn cl oe in oa ae ee 222 
ERE TEST ing eo aed Ob ee A oa ES ee 222 
(DALES REC LITT FI ere i ei 2 cea age NE 233 
Pennies tor saproyemenh.s... 2 feos i Re a 2 Si 237 
Rin weil, Spee 5 es chars os Be eh Cat sates eee Dh 237 
The most-needed improvement: . : 0. 2. i yp. bee ree eee 240 
Reman AEN TM ATILING SCCM 66 23 we cae eee 0 ee eS eed 241 
EE dee cS ee OSS te ance SEO sae iat ie. 5 eed Se eRe 244 
SaeeaiAp ae ALIS Ot AN ch Sy oon re ee. - Ge Mote Meets 248 
REPENS os ig hn eR es Ge ea Se oe eRe | a es pe ee 249 
MRAP EERIE 8 Ber a Sry Bn Dnt HE FLA SI are Me 251 
Sip earie Siattitinl tenes oe 2 ne 2 pe cass oiwny 254 
no TE hea PAS 22S te ae Peon ieee ries oY hci ae GRU ay gh Rey IRR et 256 
ET a OA tac eae oe CARON te Shor Se tc ON ase gS ae Ne Ree ee 259 
Eg Fa, the Seis ae). cy, VARRR Ceet ot Cae OP eae 270 


193 


| 


- 


GY 
« 
$2 


INDOOR TYPE OF GLADIOLI 


NANUS VARIETIES: PEACH BLOSSOM (PINK) 
AND MODESTY (WHITE) 


oe) 
of. 
rie” 2 


ee: 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — II 
CULTURE AND HYBRIDIZATION OF THE GLADIOLUS 


ALFRED C. HortrTes 


THE GLADIOLUS AS A CUT FLOWER AND AS A GARDEN SUBJECT 


““ Gladioli to cut, cannas for out-of-doors,” writes B. C. Auten. In 
the same strain ex-President Hendrickson (1911),! of the American Gladi- 
olus Society, writes: 


The gladiolus is essentially a cut flower, and will rival nearly any other in keeping 
qualities, as they can be kept fresh and beautiful after cutting for a period of five to 
ten days by changing the $ 
water daily and removing 
each day the withered 
blooms, it also helps to nip 
off the ends of the spike 
when changing the water. 
If the spikes are cut when 
the first two or three 
flowers have opened, the 
entire stalk will open out 
for us after it has been put 
in water. They are very 
adaptable to send tofriends 
at a distance, as they will 
arrive in excellent condi- 
tion if just a little pains 
are taken when shipping. 
If we want to do this the 
spikes should be cut when 
the first flower opens, and 
put in water in the cellar or 
cool place for two or three 
hours, so they can take up 
a good drink, after which 
they will stand the journey 
of two or three days, and 
when placed in water will 
quickly respond and unfold 
their gorgeous petals. 


Miss Re Shore 
(r911) speaks further 
of the gladiolus as a 
cut flower. She writes 
that they are “ best 
with their own foliage 
and in tall, slender, 
clear glass vases. 
bles SReHiAL SeAGHTe TAT ao. S i wc hae caus 
their credit is that they Pace so wanes sobs 
do not fall to pieces Soft creamy yellow in color with a brilliant red tongue on the lower 


~ = petals. This is one of the slender-stemmed varieties, and lends itself 
in the house. particularly well to all manner of arrangement 


1 Dates in parenthesis refer to bibliography, page 259. 


195 


196 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Groff (1906 b) gives the following excellent suggestions for the care 
of the cut blooms: 


Cut the spike when the first flower opens and place in water without overcrowding. 
Remove the terminal buds soon, as this checks stalk development and throws the 
strength into the larger and earlier maturing flowers. The end of the stalk should 
be shortened and the water renewed daily with frequent cleansing of the vases. In 
shortening the stalk cut diagonally, to insure free absorption of water by the spike 
without the contamination and obstruction, caused by sediment, if cut at a right angle. 

re Blooming the spikes in the shade of room or piazza modifies the field colors, 
from bright shades and tints to delicate flushes and shadings, and also reduces the 
latter types to the faintest tinge of color or white. : 

The advent of my new hybrids producing the most intense and deep shades of 
violet, purple, crimson and scarlet . . . makes it desirable that these brilliant 
combinations be preserved when the spikes are cut for decorative purposes. 

To ensure this most desirable result, place the vases of these highly colored types 
in the early morning sun for an hour or two daily, preferably after renovation and 
renewal of the water. 

* * * * * * * * * * 


One of the causes of the popularity of the gladiolus as a decorative flower, is the 
fact that it has no perfume, as there are few flowers used for this purpose that are 
not distasteful to some one — particularly in closed rooms — either from personal 
preference or painful association. : 

Where the pollen proves irritating to the tissues of the respiratory organs ee 
the anthers may be easily pinched out during the daily renovation. . . . This 
removal of the anthers is desirable in the highly colored types, . . . where the 
shed pollen dulls the brilliancy of the petals on which it may fall. 

The consideration of the gladiolus as a cut flower is not complete with- 
out a discussion as to the proper way to cut a spike. A corm is a thick- 
ened base of a stem, and this being the case there must be leaves re- 
maining to nourish and feed this corm. Thus, in cutting the blooms, 
two or three leaves should always be left on the plant. The spike may 
be cut with a short enough stem to accommodate this balance, or one may 
merely cut into the leaves and through the stem, taking only enough leaves 
to be used in the bouquets. Cutting the stems too long is a common mis- 
take of the amateur. 

The spikes are being used more and more in the making of floral designs, 
for bases of standing wreaths, and in large clusters for sprays. The indi- 
vidual flowers have in many cases taken the place of lilies and orchids 
in wedding and presentation bouquets and baskets. The graceful spikes 
of the Gladiolus nanus varieties are especially valuable for corsage bou- 
quets or for small baskets, or arranged in flower holders, or japanas, 
placed in bowls of water. If these varieties were better known and appre- 
ciated, the demand would be great. Many of the large flower shops 
use them when they can be obtained. As a summer flower for large dec- 
orations the gladiolus is unexcelled, especially when placed in large vases 
or hampers and used on porches or yachts, or in hotels, summer resorts, 
churches, or automobiles. 

Excellent results are obtained by careful selection of the receptacle 
for the flowers. Wall vases containing a few spikes, carefully arranged, 


GLADIOLUS StupiEs — II 197 


are sure to be interesting. Plain vases and simple baskets are to be pre- 
ferred to highly decorated ones, since the gladiolus is gay in itself. Many 


! 


PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY MRS. B. H. TRACY 
Fic. II. DAYBREAK 


A charming rose-bowl decoration. These spikes had been cut fora week. A suggested use for spikes 
that are nearly through blooming 


of the individual spikes are so beautiful that if arranged alone in a vase 
their separate charms are more effective than if more than one are used, 


198 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Curved spikes are indispensable for some of the most effective arrange- 
ments, especially in huge hampers. Large vases of one variety, such as 
Brenchleyensis, Hazel Harvey, Mrs. Francis King, and some other darker 
varieties, are effective when combined with the variegated-leaved corn 
(Zea mays var. japonica). Mrs. B. H. Tracy deserves much credit for 
popularizing this flower in a decorative way by exhibiting the blooms 
properly, for she has made many advances in arrangement. over 
the ordinary method of using uninteresting vases and inappropriate 
receptacles. 

In addition to the value of the gladiolus as a cut flower, it is especially 
attractive also as a garden subject when planted thickly in clumps or 
beds. Soil well prepared will allow a good development of the spikes, 
even if the corms have been very closely set. Unless used in masses, 
the plants are likely to appear rather spindling; but when properly planted, 
the bed of gladioli is one of the most showy features of summer or autumn. 
The beds so used need not be for gladioli exclusively, but may have some 
annuals or perennials growing with them. Good combinations result 
from planting early in the spring a bed of white Phlox Drummondi1, and 
later using the gladiolus America between the plants; or pink phlox and 
the gladiolus Rochester White may be combined. Especially effective 
is the combination of gladiolus with the summer hyacinth (Galtonia 
[=H yacinthus] candicans), the tall spikes of white bloom and the bold 
foliage of the latter seeming especially harmonious. No better combina- 
tion is available than that which results from the planting of some corms 
among irises, which have leaves in perfect harmony with the gladiolus 
and which bloom in a widely separated season. 

The stately spikes are attractive when used in large clumps of one 
variety among shrubbery. Care must be taken not to place the plants 
within the detrimental influence of large tree roots or in too much shade. 
Gardeners frequently start certain good varieties in boxes or pots, and, 
when in full growth, transplant them in clumps to places in the border 
where a bit of color is needed after some other plants have failed. 

Miss Andres (1914) advocates combining columbines, petunias, and 
gladioli, not only because of their colors, but also, and mainly, for the 
excellent succession of bloom provided. 

Bold masses of Gladiolus primulinus hybrids (fig. 12) are extremely 
effective, since their various colors blend so well. Blue Jay and Baron 
Joseph Hulot are violet and blue varieties which harmonize well with 
yellow varieties, such as Golden King or Sulphur King. 

Excellent combinations have been made with roses and gladioli. 
The June-flowering roses are best for this purpose, since they are entirely 
out of season when the gladiolus is at its best. 


GLADIOLUS StTubDIEs — II 


a 


The accusation that the gladiolus is stiff and formal does not now hold. 


The modern gladiolus is stately and 
dignified, and deserves prominent 
consideration and a place in every 
home or palace. It isa regal flower 
available to all. 


SOILS FOR THE GLADIOLUS 


Soil technologists emphasize the 
fact that a proper physical condi- 
tion of the soil is quite as important 
for the growth of a crop as is the 
richness; in other words, the tilth 
and handling of the soil is as much 
to be considered as the actual 
chemical analysis. Various opinions 
have prevailed, and still persist, 
regarding proper garden soil for 
gladioli. 

Dombrain (1873) mentions the 
former belief that there was no soil 
too poor for the gladiolus, and 
states that advice was given that if 
the soil were not poor enough it 
had better be charred or burned to 
make it so. However, as he says, 


experience proved this to be unsound, and 


a rich soil was considered by no means © 


unsuitable. Then came the high pressure 
treatment; heaps of manure in the soil, 
heavy top-dressings above it, and then 
what blooms we shall have! But the 
strongest advocates of this system found 
that they had been a little too fast, and 
that although they obtained fine blooms, 
they lost their bulbs. Since then a more 
moderate system has been practised. 


The depth of planting will obvi- 
ously differ with the soil. The lighter 
the soil, the deeper the corms may 
be planted. Deep planting is espe- 
cially successful in dry seasons, be- 
cause the roots are in cool, moist 
soil. Usually, with deep planting, 


FIG. 12. 


PRIMULINUS SEEDLINGS 


The primulinus seedlings include a group of grace- 
ful varieties all of which have distinctly hooded 
blooms. The colors are charming, following the in- 
fluence of the clear primrose-yellow of the primulinus 
parent as well as of the delicate intermediate colors 
possessed by other parents, which in many cases are 
Lemoinet, Childsi>, or nanceianus varieties 


staking will be unnecessary. There is danger in deep planting in a heavy, 


— 


200 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 

moisture-holding soil. The soil may be too wet and may cause a rotting 
of the young shoots as well as the corms. If the soil is too clayey the 
shoots may not have strength enough to emerge, or they may be twisted, 
and thus made unable to produce a good, strong spike. The following 
data are valuable for showing the various practices and opinions as to 
the best soil for proper growth of the plants: 


| Depth 
Grower to plant Type of soil Soil preferred 
(inches) 
ACIS NSON A 2e a osck tye Ae| Slaght- loam 2 27 5.. Light loam, good bottom 
~ drainage 

Austin 4 | Sandy loam.........] Sandy loam 

U.N cis ee, eter eee eee, ore 2A MePraime@sis isn. see No limestone nor dressings 
of lime 

Babcock as soa eeh O27 35. Gravelly= sax wee 

PAIGE oP toy ea sev! 4 | Sandy loam...... ...| Sandy loam 

RASSEET Ac ccm eerie: 4-6 | Light and sandy..... 

Betschers iii ase heey: 3-6 | Sandy loam......... Good clay loam, but depend- 
ent on season 

Black: 203) s.c.s eager 2-6 | Sandy loam......... Sandy loam 

Bonvallet. 227-222: Ars Sand yi tc ete eee Sandy loam 

Brown 4-6 | Sandy loam.. .| Considerable sand 

Balle ic cnesgae ere ate 4 | Stiff loam.. Stiff loam 

Binbankes ania te eee 6 | Sand and heavy clay. Sandy loam; new soil 

Grawiornd: siete ee 4 | Heavy clay loam. Sandy loam 

Crawtord, NL. . fave 5 | Loam and sandy loam] Loam for large corms; for the 
smaller, much lighter soil 

Dombrain Ag teat eneesicce ys quran eat Medium 

PIS EOT ee cone arte UC 4-6 | Light loam......... 

Hianavanvers eo en 5-6. | Clay-loams: 20 40% Rich, level, sandy 

iildige ares oa ee Os PHeavyclayae cone Heavy clay 

SADC Et ge cs See 6 | Sandy loam.........| Sandy loam 

1 Royston ra pe epee eee 5: |) Dark claytloam- 2+: 

Hantineton..>s. 2): G 4s {LAB eae ee Heavy 

Murtehinison: eee Ar\ Light loames > 3c Light 1 loam, but damp 

INere ond Gress a gee 2-4 | Sandy loam.........| Light loam, not heavy 

Miaees 7c, oe eau oslo: ee 4 | Sandy loam... ..| Rather light to heavy 

Munsell. evcicicticns “oe 4-5 | Sandy loam......... 

Rea Oss teva ee e oat il ab pe ay A SRT eg mgs 

NERS HOLLER need eee tee 6-8 | Sandy loam......... 

Richardson. . 6 | Sandy loam.........| Light loam 

de Ruyter & Hogewonig tee 1% inches sand...... Sandy for most; plants are 
healthier 

SPENCER ate. | ee ee 4-6 | Sandy loam.. Sandy loam 

WLEWalbste. wsetes See 3-5 | Gravelly loam... .| Loam 

21 ee ee AAT Ager. LF sos cee Bee Sandy loam 

ANatesoavbaboeineedr oy gamle o.c 4-6 | Light, not very sandy| Rich, deep, well-drained, not 
too heavy 

racy sotto tee tie ok 6. /2Gravelly 2 meee Gravelly or sandy 

Warrtllecteteu. as acti: Fla 6 (Sear pe re oA Any soil good for potatoes 

Witte as, ee et aes 3=6 .| Sandy leamir-co.. <2 Moist loam, porous subsoil 

Walmare. 2.04: bot ake 6 | Sandy loam......... Well-drained swamp with 
sandy loam bottom 

Via ati ben: <a meee 21 SatiG sas he ee Clay for some, sand for 
others 

Leestratens 275 eee Bf AAI Wises otic note eee Sandy soil, well drained 


GLADIOLUS STuUDIEs — II 201 


It is seen that many of the growers consulted prefer a sandy loam. 
E. H. Cushman says that the gladiolus does equally well on any soil, 
if given the proper culture. The commercial grower, however, who must 
produce stock at a profit, will choose soil as nearly ideal as possible—in 
other words, a light loam. 


FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE 


Fertilizers applied to plants are valuable in proportion to the amount 
of the needed plant-food that is available. Only such nutriment as is 
soluble can be taken into the plant, and therefore much food is locked 
up, or unavailable. Some fertilizers are applied for their value in 
unlocking, or freeing, plant-food, rather than for their actual fertilizer 
value. 

The production of gladiolus corms is very analagous to the production 
of acrop of potatoes. A good standard special potato fertilizer is therefore 
recommended. Such a fertilizer will be rich in phosphoric acid and 
potash. The gladiolus is a rank grower and a gross feeder, and responds 
. to any treatment that increases the available plant-food. Either manures 
or chemicals may be applied as a fertilizer, both of which are valuable 
in their way. The first kind, stable manure, is of prime importance, 
but each year it is getting more difficult to obtain this. When possible 
it is well to use cow, pig, sheep, or poultry manure, rather than that 
from the horse. It must be borne in mind that sheep manure and 
poultry manure are especially strong and cannot be applied too abundantly 
without danger of causing too great vegetative growth, watery corms, 
or perhaps even a burning of the whole plant. It is thought that the 
gladiolus is very susceptible to the presence of any manure in contact 
with its roots. All manure, then, should be thoroughly incorporated 
with the soil, rather than left in lumps. This is best accomplished by 
application in the autumn. 

Burrell (1898) writes: 


I avoid as much as possible adding anything to the soil likely to create an excess of 
humus, which is harmful, in generating disease. It is generally supposed that gladioli 
require a light sandy soil, but . . . I would prefer to plant in heavy yellow loam. 

. Corms raised on well- prepared heavy loam I find have greater life and vigour 
than the large, soft, watery ones from light sandy soils, and that the size of flower 
and spike in no way suffers on the former, I think our exhibits over a long number of 
years fully bear out. 


The general opinion has been that a sour soil is injurious to the gladiolus, 
but Chamberlain (1914 b) doubts this. He says: ‘‘ Some plants thrive 
best in a sour soil, and is Mr. [.......... |] dead sure that the gladiolus 


is not one of these? I have heard an experienced grower assert that 
the gladiolus prefers the acidity.” 


202 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


All humus-making material produces acidity when rotting in the soil. 
This can be easily overcome, or neutralized, by the use of lime. B. C. 
Auten is emphatic in his denunciation of lime. He writes: ‘‘ Two years’ 
planting upon ground limestone nearly put me out of business.’’ Cooper 
(1914 c) believes that it will be necessary to use lime “‘rather freely where 
heavy applications of stable manure are made or where green manure 
crops are plowed under, to prevent possible excessive acidity and fungoid 
or scab diseases.” 

A method of soil treatment and enrichment is outlined by W. P. 
Wright substantially as follows in Popular Garden Flowers: In autumn 
remove the top soil and break up the subsoil, turning in a dressing of 
three inches of decayed manure. If the ground is very stiff, leaf mold 
and sand may be added. Leave the surface lumpy. In February, 
spread on a coat of wood ashes, with an additional quantity of bone 
flour, at the rate of three ounces per square yard, and fork it in. This 
operation will simultaneously reduce the lumps to small particles. 

H. H. Groff has used the same land for fifteen years, and the only 
fertilizer he has needed is stable manure and hardwood ashes applied 
in the autumn before plowing. Hardwood ashes are rich in potash and 
phosphoric acid as well as in calcium. 

B. C. Auten prefers dried blood and steamed bone, with a top-dressing 
of nitrate of soda and potassium sulfate or muriate. The fertilizer is 
applied in the seed drill at the bottom of the furrow. Steamed bone 
and bone meal are to be strongly advocated, since they possess the 
necessary phosphoric acid and potash. 

Luther Burbank has used a complete fertilizer. 

G. B. Babcock uses a 4—9g-11 Bowker’s Market Gardener’s Fertilizer 
at the time of planting. 

N. L. Crawford has used an application of five hundred pounds of 
potassium sulfate per acre at the time of planting, and from three to 
five hundred pounds more in July or August. 

L. M. Gage applies barnyard manure in the fall, and a complete 
potato fertilizer (4-7—10) in the drills at the time of planting. / 

J. M. Bassett manures the soil thoroughly either in spring or in fall, 
and at planting time a commercial fertilizer is scattered along the furrow. 

S. E. Spencer places a little sheep manure in the furrow at the time 
of planting, and works a chemical phosphate into the soil when the 
buds start. 

C. W. Brown has used seven cords of manure per acre in the late fall, 
plowing it under at once to kill the witch grass. 

C. Hoeg distributes hardwood ashes at planting, and nitrate of soda 
two or three times during the growing season. 


GLADIOLUS StupiEs — II 203 


W. C. Bull, of Ramsgate, England, uses “ stable dung dug in during 
the winter, and superphosphate of lime at the rate of a double handful 
per square yard, dusted over the surface of the soil immediately after 
planting.” 

Mrs. K. Atkinson applies bone meal two weeks before planting. When 
the growth is about an inch and a half high, and again when the plants 
are ready to flower, they are dressed with Bull’s Mixture for Plants. 

J. L. Moore uses hen manure and stable manure once in three years. 
Besides this, he sows a cover crop of rye after the bulbs are dug, and 
plows under the green growth in the spring. 

C. Betscher also seeds rye at the time of the last cultivation, the earlier 
the better. This he would, no doubt, plow under when in greatest growth 
and full of sap, for the green crop should not be allowed to get woody, 
thereby losing its greatest value as a humus maker. 

W. W. Wilmore, jr., recommends bone meal and sheep manure (one 
part of bone meal to four parts of sheep manure) at the rate of two tons 
per acre, using it when the plants are about a half foot tall, thoroughly 
mixing it with the soil by hoeing and cultivating. 

B. H. Tracy suggests the use of bone meal and lime applied in the 
early spring. 

H. A. Richardson applies a good grade potato phosphate at the rate 
of one thousand pounds per acre, spreading it broadcast after the spring 
plowing and harrowing it in. 

E. T. Barnes prefers well-rotted stable manure, applied either in the 
fall or in the spring before planting, often after planting and used as 
a mulch. 

C. Zeestraten, besides applying cow manure, has used Chile saltpeter 
when the flowers are grown for cutting. 

M. Crawford uses a complete fertilizer in the grain drill before planting, 
and believes nitrate of soda a valuable substance if used properly. For 
small areas he dissolves one ounce of nitrate of soda in ten quarts of water. 
When using the dry crystals, he distributes it evenly over the surface 
of the soil at the rate of one pound to a square rod. It is best not to risk 
applying the fertilizer along the row. 

F. C. Thomanf has used, besides sheep manure and hardwood ashes, 
a great deal of soot. It seems impossible to account for the freedom 
from disease of his Rochester White gladioli in any other way than by the 
probability that the soot prohibits the spread of the infection. 

W. Van Fleet applies a 4-4-8 potato or truck fertilizer broadcast 
in the row at the rate of six hundred or one thousand pounds per acre, 
and works it in well before planting. He recommends the avoidance of 
an excessive use of tankage. 


x 


204 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 r 


J. F. Munsell uses a 2—-8-10 or a 46-10 fertilizer placed in the furrow 
before dropping the corms, or on top of the soil when the corms are 
partially covered. 

Maurice Fuld advises sheep manure only, applied after the plants 
have made their appearance above ground. : 

Hamilton (1913) writes as follows: ‘‘ Those who mix their own fer- 
tilizers use the following formula, in many cases varying it somewhat to 
suit individual needs: nitrate of soda, too pounds; sulfate of ammonia, 
too pounds; tankage, too pounds; acid phosphate, too pounds; sulphate 
or muriate of potash, 200 pounds.”’ 

Coleman (1914 b) writes: ‘‘ We make our own fertilizer, so do not 
have to pay freight on ‘ filler.’ A formula that has given us the best of. 
satisfaction and that the Glads respond to, is represented by 50 per cent 
sulphate of potash, 25 per cent sulphate of ammonia and 25 per cent 
nitrate of soda, by weight.” This is applied sparingly along the top of 
the row at planting. 

Summarizing, it is seen that fertilizers may be applied (a) a year before 
planting, (b) immediately before planting, (c) in the furrow when half — 
filled, (d) on the surface of the soil at planting, or (e) throughout the 
season, especially when the buds are developing. It is interesting to note 
the wide range of chemical fertilizers advocated by the various growers, 
for each of whom his particular mixture is perhaps the best. 


TIME AND MANNER OF PLANTING 


In the Northern States gladiolus corms may be planted in April or 
May, according to the season, or they may be kept until July if they 
do not sprout in their place of storage. They should not be planted until 
the danger of hard frosts is passed, although a slight frost when the shoots 
are still below the surface of the soil will not injure them. It is necessary 
to wait until the soil is somewhat dried, especially with clay soil. A corm 
naturally begins sending out shoots at the approach of spring, so that 
if the storage conditions are rather warm the corms must be planted 
before these growing shoots have exhausted their resources. They must 
be planted so as to allow the shoots to emerge readily from the soil. The 
shoots often grow around the corm and are difficult to manage, so that 
the corms need to be planted properly. 

When possible a succession of bloom should be planned, the corms 
being planted in lots every week or ten days until July. In this way an 
excellent yield of blooms from a favorite variety may be obtained 
throughout the season. 

Corms that are to be grown for rapid increase in size should be planted 
as early as possible, so that they may have a longer growing period and 


GLaDIOLuUs StupiEs — II 205 


make good vegetative growth as well as mature a large corm. Seeds 
and cormels also need to be planted as early as possible, so that they 
too may have a long growing season. 

Dombrain (1873) describes a method of planting individual corms for 
the home garden. With a trowel he digs a hole six or seven inches deep 
and about five inches across, and fills this hole “‘ with a mixture of sand, 
powdered charcoal, and light soil in about equal proportions, so that the 
bulb, when it begins to start and throw out its rootlets, has a light and 
dry material into which to penetrate, and thus is likely to be saved from 
rotting, and taking care that the top of the bulb is about four inches 
beneath the surface.’’ This method, although slow and laborious, might 
be adaptable in the planting of choice seedlings. Usually, however, for 
small beds the corms may be planted with a dibber, or the bed may be 
dug out evenly from a depth of from six to eight inches and the corms 
put in place and covered evenly. 

The commonest commercial method is to plant in rows, the corms 
being placed a little more than their own diameter apart; that is, two-inch 
corms are placed two and one-half or three inches apart. All bulbs over 
an inch in diameter are placed right side up; others are merely sown in 
the row as seed. B. F. White (1911) recommends setting the corms with 
the eyes lengthwise of the row. Many of the corms send up two or three 
flower stems, which will not lean over crosswise of the row as they would 
if the corms were planted promiscuously, for in the way suggested they 
help to support one another. 

In large plantings the rows are frequently three feet apart. This allows 
for horse cultivation. The furrows are made with the plow. The fertilizer 
may be applied at the bottom of the furrow, which is leveled with a hand 
hoe. Two or three rows of corms are frequently placed in each furrow 
by bulb growers, since they do about as well as if planted otherwise, and, 

_“as Gage (1914 b) suggests, “it is surely much more economical to plant 
100,000 bulbs on one acre than the same number using two acres or more.” 
When planted in single rows, however, the blooms usually become larger, 
so that for cut-flower or exhibition purposes this method is the better. 


SPRING AND SUMMER CULTURE 


While the gladiolus does not require a great deal of care, it responds 
to good culture by increase in size of both flower and corm. After the 
corms are planted it is very essential that the soil be stirred frequently, 
in order to keep down weeds and to destroy any crust through which 
the young shoots cannot burst. Weeds are especially difficult to pull 
in a rather heavy soil after they have attained any size. By cultivation 
air is permitted to enter to the roots, making more plant-food available. 


206 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I0 


‘ 


Shallow cultivation results in a dust mulch, which conserves the moisture 
by lessening the evaporation from the soil. M. Crawford says that 
cultivation cannot be overdone; a crop can be cultivated every day, 
provided the soil is in a favorable condition. It is best not to touch 
a clay soil when it is too wet. Care should be exercised that the culti- 
vation be shallow. When the corms are not planted deeply, many of 
the main roots will be near the surface, and hand weeding may be 
necessary; otherwise the roots are easily injured. 


Fic. 13. THE TRIAL GROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN GLADIOLUS SOCIETY 


The rows were three feet and six inches apart, and the bulbs were placed nine inches apart in the row. 
Each stake marks a separate variety 

Instead of cultivating the gladiolus a mulch of strawy manure may 
be applied, or some other loose material used to imitate the same condi- 
tions as cultivation. This is not believed, however, to be as beneficial 
as cultivation. 

When grown commercially for corms in vast acreages, it is not profitable 
to use any form of stake for the gladiolus. When cut flowers are wanted, 
it sometimes becomes necessary to employ a method of support which 
shall be inexpensive and efficient. Gladioli break at the union of stalk 
and corm. It is in order to prevent this that stakes are used. L. M. 
Gage places upright posts five feet apart, with two strands of cheap 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — II 207 


twine to which the plants are tied. C. Zeestraten uses stout stakes, 
with a string around the plants at a height of twelve inches. J. L. 
Moore prefers a “‘ heavy cord both sides of the row every ten feet, and 
cross twining.’’ For individual plants slender bamboo stakes are best, 
the plants being tied to them with raffia or green string. 

The value of deep planting in holding the plants erect has already 
been considered, and it has been stated that close setting of the corms 
will help to maintain a good, strong, self-supporting row. Many growers 
throw up the soil on both sides of the row. This is only done after the 
plants have reached a good height, and it helps to keep the blooming 
spikes from the mud. 

An excellent method for the amateur is described by Rexford (1910). 
He advocates the use of green-painted barrel hoops, across which coarse 
binder twine is laced. This support is placed at the height of eighteen 
inches above the ground. In early growth the shoots can be properly 
directed into the meshes. 

The majority of growers agree that the modern gladiolus should stand 
alone without support. But many varieties that are excellent in flower, 
color, and form do not possess a good upright habit. They must therefore 
be encouraged. 

W. W. Wilmore, jr., of Wheat Ridge, Colorado, grows his gladioli under 
irrigation. This he feels to be necessary, since the early spring rains 
start the crop into good vigorous growth, which is checked by the heat 
and drouth of July and August, the only resource left being the nourish- 
ment stored up for the next season. This makes weaker corms, which 
in turn may be expected to produce smaller flower stalks. By the use 
of irrigation the plants are kept in continual growth. Wilmore (1914 a) 
describes his system of irrigation as follows: 


For irrigation the streams are tapped by canals, which carry water into adjoining 
sections. The canals are tapped at intervals by sub-canals, and these in turn spread 
out into laterals which distribute the water directly to the fields or into reservoirs 
which are generally located on the highest point of the farms in order that the water 
may have a natural flow to all parts of the premises. It is sometimes necessary to 
build dikes or flumes to convey the water to these points, and in cases of long distance 
the water is piped in ordinary sewer pipe which is carefully cemented. 


* * * * * * * * * * 


At the blooming season cultivation ceases, so well defined ditches may be made 
to carry water for the balance of the season. At the lower extremities of the rows, 
waste ditches are made to catch and carry off the surplus water as it passes out at 
the end of the rows. The waste is conveyed by this means to other plots of land or 
in some cases to the main lateral where it is again used. 

Irrigation water is measured by inches and feet. One inch of water is that amount 
which will continually flow through a hole one inch square under a five inch water 
pressure. Ten inches of water is generally allotted to a ten acre tract of land or an 
approximate number of inches to each acre in a tract of larger or smaller proportions. 

In extremely dry seasons irrigation is carried on by means of pumping from wells. 
These wells vary in size according to the amount of water needed. One of the best 


= 


208 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I0 


I have seen is on our farm at Wheat Ridge. It is made of boiler iron in four sections, 
each section being four and one-half feet long and six feet in circumference, making 
the well eighteen feet deep. At the location of this well the water level is only six feet 
below the surface which gives a standing body of water twelve feet deep. When 
pumping, the engine throws a stream of nearly ten inches (irrigation measure) which 
continues almost two hours as the water runs in nearly as fast as the pump can take 
it out. Three pumpings can easily be made per day. For convenience wells are much 
more satisfactory but are more costly to operate. 

On the approach of frost the gladioli must be dug up. Many of the 
varieties will not be very much ripened by that time, so that it is 
advisable to allow the plants to remain in the soil as long as possible. 
An ordinary frost is not injurious to the corms, but if left in the ground 
during a freeze they may be injured. The stock is much easier to handle 
if the tops are green. 

Two methods are used in giving the proper treatment after digging. 
Some growers cut off the tops about an inch and a half above the corm, 
while others leave the tops on for a month or two. It is held by the 
latter that the leaves contain much plant-food, which they continue to 
deposit in the corms even after these are dug. Cutting off the tops thus 
produces a more poorly matured corm. Those who remove the tops 
immediately contend that the leaves, in trying to continue to grow, 
exhaust the food from the corm, and poor corms are thus produced. 
It is a difficult question to settle. The writer has tried both methods, 
and with the comparatively small number handled has preferred to let 
the tops remain, storing the plants in an airy place until October or 
November. Then the tops, the old corms, and the cormels are removed, 
and the whole stock is thoroughly cleaned for winter storage. For small 
lots, ten-pound sacks left open at the top have been used. 

If the weather is favorable, it is well to allow the stock to lie on the 
ground to dry a little before taking it indoors. The heavy dews of autumn, 
however, may make the stock more moist if it is allowed to remain out 
over night than it would be if taken directly under shelter. A great. 
deal of the soil can be easily shaken from the corms in the field, especially 
if the soil is sandy or loamy. 


THE GLADIOLUS BLOOM 


The gladiolus bloom consists of six perianth segments fused at their 
bases. There are an outer and an inner row, the outer row being con- 
sidered as sepals, the inner as petals; collectively they form the perianth.? 
The flower may be divided also into upper and lower segments. 

The perianth segments are variously arranged. The most frequent 
arrangement is that in which the uppermost segment is without, over- 
lapping the adjoining segments, the lowermost is within, embraced by 


2 The horticulturist often applies the term petal to any segment of the perianth. 


y 


GLADIOLUs StTuDIES — II 


209 


the contiguous segments, and the upper pair of laterals are overlapped 


by the lower pair of laterals. 
arrangement, in which the upper segment 
of the perianth is within. This arrange- 
ment of the various segments has been 
called anthotaxy by Jackson (1889), who 
styles the differences in arrangement A 
and B. The term should be @stivation, 
and the various arrangements designated 
as one-, two-, and three-spotted estiva- 
tion. Jackson says: 


A single spike may be composed of flowers of 
the first arrangement (A) wholly, or it may have 
flowers of both arrangements in varying numerical 
proportions; but the first (A) as far as noted 
always predominates. Flowers of the second 
arrangement (B) may be the first, last, or scatter- 
ingly intermediate on the spike. The two arrange- 
ments are fundamental in the flower, they are not 
brought about by twists in the segments. The 
arrangement of the cell in the ovary coincides 
with the varying relative position of the segments. 


In Gladiolus dracocephalus and G. pur- 
pureo-auratus, the arrangement is of the 
second type. G. psittacinus is the only 
species noted in which there was a vari- 
ation in arrangement. In this species 
most of the flowers are as in the first 
arrangement, but a few follow the second 
type of ezstivation. 


The segments may have a directly opposite 


Fic. I4. LONGITUDINAL SECTION 


OF GLADIOLUS BLOOM 


The outer part of the flower is made up of 
perianth segments (H), commonly called 
petals, to which are attached the stamens, 
which are made up of anthers (B) and 
filaments (D). At the center of the flower 
is the pistil with its feathery, three-lobed 

(A), the long thread- like style 
(C), and the ovary, or ovulary (FP), which 
bears the ovules, or potential seeds (G). 
The base of the flower is surrounded by two 
leaf-like spathe-valves (E) 


Jackson states that the existence of two types of 


perianth arrangement on a single spike in a true species would be 


Fic. I 5. 4ESTIVATION IN GLADIOLUS 


A, two-lipped, the upper inner segment is a trifle arched. B, one-lipped, 
the outer segments are frequently somewhat reflexed 


of the other type being due to other species. 
is borne out by the hybrids of G. purpureo-auratus, for 


gestion 


anomalous, and its 
occurrence in hy- 
brid gladioli should 
be considered as 
the inheritance of 
a mixed blood, the 
occurrence of the 
one-spotted lip 
being due to one 
type or species, 
and the inheritance 
He thinks this sug- 


210 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


both arrangements are found in hybrids although the two-lip is 
characteristic. 

J. G. Baker suggests terming the various lip markings as monospite 
when one-spotted and dispite when two-spotted. ; 

It is quite possible that by studying this character 
one might find out the original parentage of many of 
the garden hybrids. Perhaps closer relations could 
be found between certain species by this means. 

Bliss (1916) considers that there are four types 
of gladiolus bloom, as follows: 


laa 


The zygomorphic, or normal, form 
2. The reversion form 

3. The actinomorphic form 

4. The semi-peloriate, or florist, form 


He believes these forms to have appeared due 
to variations caused by exceptional or changed 
culture, rather than by genetic origination. In other 
words, they are not the results of the influence of 
the parent species. He differentiates the various 
forms as follows: 

The normal flower is zygomorphic, or bilaterally 
symmetrical. All the flowers face in one direction 
and rather horizontally. The three outer seg- 
ments of the perianth are about equal in size and 
are larger than the inner segments. The inner seg- 
ments are unequal in size and vary in form and 
color. The upper segment is usually considerably 
hooded, while the lower segments are convex and 
have markings characteristic of the variety. The 
zygomorphic flowers seem ideal in form and color 
for attraction of insects. It is thought that they 
have been developed from a more primitive form — 
the actinomorphic, radiating, or regular form. 

In the reversion form the outer segments are 

Fic. 16. EUREKA similar in shape and color. The inner segments 
pe ey et dieake also are similar, and all three have markings charac- 
Rapes teristic of the variety. The flowers of the acti- 
nomorphic and reversion forms are erect and face in two directions, while 
the normal, or zygomorphic, form and the florist form are front-facing. 

The florist form seems intermediate between the zygomorphic and 
actinomorphic forms, but it is still zygomorphic. In the florist form the 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — II 211 


flowers are partly horizontal-facing, and are more erect than in the normal 
and less so than in the actinomorphic form. At the same time the flower 
often varies a little, in that one segment only is blotched. Flowers that 
are naturally irregular but 
become regular through a 
symmetrical repetition of 
the irregularity, are known 
as peloric,. or peloriate. 
The florist form is thus 
semi-peloric. 

Careful observation will 
determine whether this is 
a fair explanation of the 
forms. Varieties differ 
much in their arrangement 
of the various forms of 
flowers found on a single 
spike. According to Bliss 
(1916), there are fewer 
florist type flowers ‘‘ when 
young, or crowded, or in 
poor soil, and more when 
at full size and under most 
favourable conditions. 

If the stem of a 
variety which usually pro- 
duces all or many semi- 
peloriate flowers is partly 
cut through and bent over, 
the flowers, when they 
open, will be chiefly, if not 
all, of the norma] form— 
and some even of the 
reversion form.”’ 

Among the varieties on 


the trial grounds at Cor- FIG. 17. BIRD OF PARADISE 


nell University, Eureka This variety illustrates the extreme Gladiolus oppositiflorus char- 
aie acters in the arrangement and large number of its flowers 


and Chalice seem excellent 
examples of the reversion form. In both cases the flowers are lily-like 
and erect. The variety Dandy produces many flowers of the acti- 
~nomorphic form. Bird of Paradise follows rather closely the arrangement 
of Gladiolus oppositiflorus. 


212 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


It would seem that this variation in form of flower is due to hybridity, 
or the mingling and blending of forms from various species, rather than 
to the external influence of ecological factors. The angular bloom of the 
typical Gladiolus gandavensis crossed with the more bell-shaped bloom 
of G. purpureo-auratus would seem to offer a possibility of getting the 
semi-peloriate form, which would be intermediate and should face nearly 
front, due to its parents G. psittacinus and G. purpureo-auratus, though 
often tending toward the decidedly opposite or two-direction facing of 
the parent G. oppositiflorus. G. cruentus and G. oppositiflorus seem 
to have been potent influences in eliminating the hooded character, or, 
in other words, to have caused a greater symmetry, or actinomorphy. 
It must be admitted, however, that neither solution explains the mixed 
arrangement of forms on a single spike. - 


IDEALS IN FLOWER AND IN GROWTH 


The ideal form for the gladiolus bloom may now be considered. In 
most cases the bloom should be nearly round in outline, the upper segments 
broader than the three lower ones, the central segment slightly arched 
but not enough to be really hooded. Usually the segments should be as 
broad as long. The three lower segments, according to some ideals, 
should be equal in size and symmetrical; the lip segment or segments 
should not be narrow or pointed, nor smaller than the others. It must be 
remembered that the species Gladiolus primulinus is hooded and seems to 
transmit this quality to its seedlings. These should not be condemned 
for this, however, but admired. Certain other varieties, though much 
admired, are faulty in having extremely small and narrow lower seg- 
ments. 

The gladiolus is remarkable for its range of color, which varies from 
the most brilliant scarlet to pure white, from bright rose to clear yellow, 
gorgeous purple, and rich velvety maroon, beside all the intermediate 
shades, tints, and colors in endless combinations, together with the most 
unique markings. These markings are described as dots, stippling (very 
fine dots), splashes (long, irregular patches of color, or dashes), feathering 
(fine markings originating at the outer edges of the segments), mottling 
(irregular spots), blotches (regular, large areas of color found on the lower 
segments in Lemoinei varieties and other groups), penciling (fine lines in 
the throat, found especially in gandavensis and Childsii varieties), suffusion 
(colors laid on as though painted over another color), marbling (inter- 
mixed or clouded effects), blends (gradual transitions of one tone to 
another), and flecking (small dashes). Each of the wild species has’ con- 
tributed to this motley array of beauty. Where is there a flower with 
such a range of diverse markings? 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — II 213 


For commercial use, the general consensus of opinion is that the bloom 
should be white, pink, scarlet, yellow, or red, or perhaps blue. Maurice 
Fuld objects to blue in that it does not appear to good advantage in 


\ 


| 
W 


ie 
Wd 


Fic. 18. MARKINGS FOUND IN PERIANTH SEGMENTS OF VARIETIES OF THE GLADIOLUS 


A, flecks (very small dashes); B, dashes or splashes (long irregular dashes); C, feathering (dashes or 
fine markings that originate at the outer edges of the segments); D, mottling (irregular spots wider and 
more prominent than dashes); E, suffusion (colors laid on as though painted on another color); F, blend 
(gradual transition from one tone of a color to another of the same color, or from one color to some 
other different color); G, clear throat (unmarked in any way); H, dots; I, stippling (very fine dots in the 
throat); J, penciling (lines of the throat); K, mottling (irregular spots in the throat); L, blotch (regular, 
large areas of color, on lower segments); M, marbling (an intermixed or clouded effect); N, the loz- 
enge blotch found in many of the nanus varieties in which the center is clear and the outer edge much 
deeper in color. 

, B, C, D, E, F, and G are found in various parts of the perianth. H, I, J, K, L, M, and N are 
throat markings 


artificial light. Matthew Crawford writes: ‘‘ The color should be choice, 
high-priced, more like carmine than vermillion. Colors may be tinted, 


but should not appear bleached, washed out or faded.” B. C. Auten 
emphasizes the importance of having the colors lively, rather than dull. 


214 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


FIG. 19. LA LUNA 


This is an excellent white variety attractively blotched on the lower seg- 
ments with maroon. For straightness of spike, regularity of form, and 
clearness of the glistening white color, few varieties excel this one 


F. C. Thomann’s 
ideal is a color that 
does not fade when 
the flowers are cut. 
Most ‘growers 
agree that clear, 
decided colors are 
the best, and the 
nearer the con- 
color typemume 
better; G. B. Bab- 
cock and G. D. 
Black say that the 
blotch is very 
often objection- 
able. Florists de- 
mand a light-col- 
ored bloom, usu- 
ally because it can 
be used for a 
greater variety of 
purposes; but 
there seems to be 
a difference of 
opinion as to this. 
E. T. Flanagan 
says, that bie 
darker colors are 
in demand only 
when the lighter 
ones are: scarce. 
J. F. Munsell uses 
more than one- 
half red varieties, 
and H. A. Richard- 
son finds only from 
fifteen to twenty 
per cent as great 
a demand for the 
darker colors as for 
the light. Several 
growers agree that 


GLaDIOLUs StupiEs — II 215 


the darker colors are especially valuable for decorations when quanti- 
ties of color are needed. Mrs. K. Atkinson, secretary of the National 
Gladiolus Society of England, writes that scarlet is one of the best selling 
varieties in England. Dombrain (1873) states that when colors are not 
clear they should be without splashing, and E. T. Flanagan adds that 
the variegated blooms are not to be so widely admired. M. Crawford sums 


FIG. 20. DIVERSE MARKINGS OF VARIETIES 


A. Estella G. Minnesota L. Papillon 

B. Herold H. Tavistock M. Sultane 

C. Paul Bohme I. Hazel Harvey N. Nezinscott 

D. Winsome J. Sanguine O. Halley 

E. Wilhelm Steinhausen K. Marie Lemoine P. Hofgartener Stapf 
F. Stewart No. 573 


These segments are reduced to approximately one-half natural size 


up the color question by saying that fine coloring is the one requirement, 
without which all other perfections go for naught. 

In considering the value of colors for landscape use, B. F. White con- 
siders all colors admissible so long as they are bright and brilliant. 
Burbank prefers the solid colors. Mrs. A. H. Austin and Mrs. K. Atkinson, 
and Messrs. Van Fleet, Macomber, Burbank, Bassett, Black, Spencer, 


216 _ CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Brown, Hoeg, Tracy, Wilmore, Richardson, and Moore, agree that bright, - 
brilliant, and distinct colors are demanded for a landscape variety. 

As to size, most growers prefer a medium large bloom — one large 
enough to show the color well. Perhaps the bloom of the variety America 
is large enough. However, the craving for monstrous flowers is mani- 
fested among the gladiolus enthusiasts. Large blooms are especially 
admirable when associated with long spikes and extreme vigor in growth. 

The general opinion is that the blooms should be as wide open as pos- 
sible. However, W. C. Bull, of Ramsgate, England, prefers a bloom not 
too open, though the tips of the petals may recurve somewhat. 

The substance of a bloom should be tough, thick, and leathery, not 
brittle, but firm and not easily damaged. For landscape purposes the 
blooms need to be ‘‘ atmospheric in outline,’ as H. A. Richardson 
expresses it. Keeping quality is associated with substance, and is of 
prime importance in the consideration of either landscape or commercial 
cut-flower varieties. 

The spike should be long enough to allow cutting of the bloom ten 
inches below the lower flowers. C. W. Brown says, ‘‘ The stem should be 
only strong or stiff enough to hold up all buds till they open.” A stem 
that is rather thin and wiry, rather than thick and stiff, is to be preferred; 
but it must be strong. One of the greatest advances to be made is in 
just such an ideal stem. C. Betscher and M. Crawford emphasize the 
fact that the stem must be large enough to take up sufficient water. This 
defect is present in some Lemozinez varieties. . 

The question as to the number of blooms that should be open at one 
time is a perplexing one. A great mass of bloom out at once may be 
desired, or one may prefer to have a few flowers only, so that the spike 
may bloom for a longer period. Van Fleet says “ three or four ’’; Fuld, 
‘as many as possible ’’; N. L. Crawford, ‘“‘ two each day ”’; Gage, “ several, 
and if large, three or four ’’; Moore and Huntington, and Mrs. Atkinson, 
‘many.’ In the landscape varieties, Fuld, Burbank, and Moore con- 
sider that it is better to have a large number open at once; and Moore 
adds that the blossoms should remain open for some time before they 
wilt. N. L. Crawford considers that from six to eight should be the right 
number. 

The old Gladiolus oppositiflorus (fig. 17) type of inflorescence has now 
passed out, and it is desired that the blooms shall face in one direction only. 
W. W. Wilmore, jr., and Mrs. Atkinson, consider that the flowers should be 
closely set on the spike, while many others prefer the looser arrangement. 

A subject of further controversy is the matter of branches and their 
value to either a commercial or a landscape variety. Hoeg, Babcock, 
Betscher, White, Thomann, Wilmore, Bonvallet, and Hutchinson consider 


GLADIOLUs StupIEs — II 


PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY MRS. B. H. TRACY 
Fic. 21. NIAGARA 


This is one of the finest creamy white varieties, for it is beautiful in all stages of bud and bl! 
The lower segments of the flower are faintly penciled with lavender. This variety makes a 
strong growth 


218 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


branches of value in the garden varieties in that they indicate stronger ~ 
growers. Burbank remarks that they improve the appearance of “ the 
dwarf, sturdy varieties’’; Auten believes them of value because they 
heighten the effect ‘‘ when they bloom at the same time as the main,” 
and Betscher because they may “‘ extend the season.”’. Bonvallet values 
branches chiefly because they relieve the stiffness of the plant, Brown, 
Spencer, Bassett, N. L. Crawford, Stewart, Flanagan, Van Fleet, M. 
Crawford, Zeestraten, Moore, Bull, Tait, and Mrs. Atkinson are of much 
the same opinion — that branches are of a decided advantage for cut- 
flower use. Branches may, however, be considered of value to the florist 
who uses the individual flowers in design work. On the other side, there 
is a group of growers who believe that branches are objectionable; some 


T'lG. 22. TRANSFORMATION OF A STAMEN INTO AN EXTRA PERIANTH SEGMENT, OR PETAL 


A is a normal stamen, which in B shows a tendency of the filament to widen. _C, D, E, F show 
successive stages of the transformation of the filament, in each step of which the anther area is 
plainly visible. G is a stamen fully converted into a perianth segment in which the blotch repre- 
sents the anther area. These forms were found on one spike of a seedling 


of these believe that the branches reduce the vigor of the main, and others 
hold that branched spikes are difficult to pack properly. . 

Fuld notes that commercial varieties should be those that may be cut 
when only one blossom is open, with the ability to open the others in the 
dark. A requisite of a commercial variety is also that it may be packed 
without bruising and shipped easily without injury. 

The qualities of a good variety adapted to landscape planting are as 
follows: First of all, the color should be bright, striking, and distinct; 
the markings, if any, should be decided. The spike should be straight, 
stiff, upright, and stronger than in commercial varieties. Branches are - 
rather advantageous. There should be tall, medium, and dwarf varieties, 
so that few varieties would be objectionable for this reason. The blooms 
should be larger than in the commercial varieties, provided the plants 
have the power of producing flowers of uniform size all the way up the 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — II 219 


stem; they should be of good form, well open; the growth should be erect 
and remain so; and the plant should be compact in habit, due to heavy 
foliage. Varieties adapted to landscape planting should further be of 
such constitution that they stand the sun without fading. 

There is a great difference of opinion in regard to the value of curved 
spikes. Fuld, Macomber, Van Fleet, Betscher, Richardson, . Fischer, 
Zeestraten, Tait, Wilmore, Brown, Spencer, Stewart, Auten, and Burbank 
commend them, believing them to be more graceful and artistic than the 


@ 


Fic. 23. DOUBLE FLOWER OF KLONDYKE 


This flower has six stamens, two pistils, and twelve perianth segments 


straight. Tait limits their value to the varieties bearing small flowers. 
Auten thinks them valuable for funeral sprays. Many growers consider 
them good for vases. It is the common complaint, however, that the 
florists do not want them. 

Would doubling be an improvement, was the question asked of two 
hundred gladiolus enthusiasts. The answers were varied. Bull thinks 
the idea ‘‘too horrible to contemplate.’’ Richardson writes thus: 
“Simplicity rather than complexity is one of the most desirable char- 
acteristics to be sought for. The simple spacing arrangement and abandon 


220 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


of the single flowers on the spike of such varieties as Peace and Rosella, 
add greatly to their artistic value.’ Hutchinson, Zeestraten, Tracy, 
Krelage, Tait, Barnes, Fischer, Van Fleet, Betscher, M. Crawford, Wilmore, 
White, Hoeg, Babcock, Black, Macomber, Gage, Huntington, Munsell, 
Fuld, Flanagan, and Mrs. Austin believe that doubling would not be an 
improvement. Bonvallet argues that doubling would make the flowers 
more durable. Spencer says: ‘“‘ Any new feature would add greatly to 
the popularity of the flower, as did the cactus dahlia.”” Thomann 
thinks a semi-double variety might be an improvement. Auten believes 
that it depends on what form the flower takes in doubling. 

The following card has been devised for use in describing varieties 
of gladioli on the trial grounds of the American Gladiolus Society at the 
Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station :* 


CORNELL VARIETY TEST OF GLADIOLI No... 

NAME O._p Nos 
SyNONYMS 
ORIGINATOR Date INTRO DONATED ae 
SPECIES OBSERVER DATE 
BLOOM — Size — Very large-large-medium-small. 

GOTOR aod ok hice. Saeahd eae wtzaactete oie Ee oecaees marking 

SEGMENTs — Equal-unequal; connivent-separate. 


Upper — Horizontal-hooded-reflexed; broad-narrow. LOWwER—straizht-refex; broad-narrow. 
STAMENS — Color of filament;..............005+ of style; 


TusBe—Straight-curved; slender-stout; long-short; compact-loose. 


REMARKS ON BLOOM — Compact, loose; keeping quality.................; ; substance 22ers 

HABIT OF PLANT— Erect-drooping; tall-medium-dwarf. Height of plant............ SEM ac 
Spreading-compact. 

GROWTH — Good-medium-poor. SEASON—Early-mid-season-late. 


PROLIFICACY — No. Corms— Many-few. SizE— Large-small. No. CorMELS— Many-few. SIzZE— 
Large-small. 


FOLIAGE —Well-furnished-medium-poor; broad-medium-narrow; veins prominent-obscure. 

COMMERCIAL VALUE -— Cut Flower — Extra good-good-medium-poor, 
LANDSCAPE—Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

VALUE AS A WHOLE-— Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

REMARKS. 

ZESTIVATION 


Noscorms:sents.cie samen abi eitels 4.2 No. that‘ grew’ f0..2% oces eons No. bloomed). i. s.:...%., a0 etelepienton 


3 The introductory paragraphs of Cornel! Extension Bulletin 11, Gladiolus Studies — III. Varieties of the 
Garden Gladiolus, explain the methods used in describing varieties. 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs —II ~* 2 


bo 
ll 


It will be interesting to note the score card devised by the Gladiolus 
Society of Ohio. 
ScoRE CARD, OHIO GLADIOLUS SOCIETY 


The ideal, or perfect Gladiolus combining all the qualities here enumerated, should 
score 100 points. Approximation to the ideal standard, which is all that can be looked 
for at this time, should be designated by the award of points ranging from 0 to the full 
total in each case, according to the excellences of the specimen under consideration. 


I, SPIKE — 20 Points. 

Long, 5; Straight, 5; Many blooms, 5; Facing together, 5.............. 20 
2. FLOWER — 25 Points. 

Large, 5; Widely opened, 5; Broad, round petals, 5; Substance and tex- 

sIke ps5 7 SCAU LY, SOF MDUG tS s Fach, bai) a eR eae ee ees a Ee 25 
3. COLOR — 20 Points. 

Attractive, 10; Either clear self, or strikingly marked, 5; Adapted to cut 


mevece Wane OF TOTSUS. USE, 5-.,) O-- 5 ane tare Se sR ees ae 20 
4. FOLIAGE — 15 Points. 

Dark; healthy ‘green; 5; Broad, 5; Abundant 5: .25 2... se ee 15 
5. DURABILITY — I0 Points. 

Continuance of bloom on spike, 5; Lasting qualities as cut flower, 5..... 10 
6. GENERAL EFFECT — 10 Points. 

iin amass,-bed or field, 5; In vase or cui tdisplay, 5.9 sia. aS oh. ee eet 10 

100 


At the annual meeting of the American Gladiolus Society at Baltimore 
in 1911, a scale of points was adopted to be used in conferring an Award 
of Merit. Mrs. Frank Pendleton is the only variety that has been ex- 
amined according to this standard and has received the Award of Merit. 


AMERICAN GLADIOLUS SOCIETY SCALE OF POINTS FOR CONFERRING 
AWARD OF MERIT 


Reesienatice: tO disease f-25 5303 85s OY: GR Eagageewe oe need oe ee 5 
Mexiure OP PlOOMs 7173.81. cero she. oct ee EO eo Ne 10 
Mhiiraadeor, loons... 5.) ni 65. ale eed Re ee Re 10 
SIZCs Olix POO ake. Ve ta coh noe ase a ea ee RE, a RE Le 10 
GoOlOrOr DOOM Se) Che eS Ee oe ks ee en rns a 15 
orn Ola OO LAG puaite Sesh wte ieee cateer et gG ene MMe era coe ches Teena sac ors 10 
MUM MALEEA SERS ee rar a Rate ae his RE Rees ae eB ath agon fio ae 10 
Seecet MCD bil PAE GEARS ol 2x rN rae Pe er Lc aur els biatetsie Ga ac IO 
ING Dersehol OOS ONVSPIKe Gites Set eee Gc wales cance eoske erais 15 
Ravan (asice tron disease Tesistance) 5, 60 ao. i. al Dee ss 5 

100 


In the enumeration of ideals, adaptability to a great range of soil, 
disease resistance, blooming entirely around the stem, variegations of the 
leaves, fragrance, greater value for indoor culture, hardiness, keeping 
qualities, number of blooms on the spike, and color of the stem, have 
been omitted. Certain of these ideals are at present fulfilled, others 
will be attained, and some are not worth seeking. 


22D CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN Io 


Groff (1907 a) said: ‘If the breeder uses his full opportunity, this 
ideal will be a progressive quality, and his standard will advance yearly 
~ — as he sees the results attained by 
unlocking the treasuries of ages of 
the past in scientific, though unre- 
corded, practical plant-breeding.”’ 


HYBRIDS AND HYBRIDIZATION 
GENERAL DISCUSSION 


The first record of the crossing 
of plants was in 1719, when Thomas 
Fairchild, an English gardener, 
crossed a carnation (Dianthus caryo- 
phyllus) with sweet william (Dianthus 
barbatus). David Fairchild (1912) 
writes: 


This seems a long time [referring to the 
two centuries since the first hybrid was - 
made] if measured in the terms of mechan- 
ical invention, but when it is remembered 
that with most plants such a cross as that 
first one produced can be made only once a 
year, the accomplishments of plant hybridi- 
zation appear truly remarkable. A me- 
chanic makes a new machine and tests it 
at once; a plant breeder makes a new cross, 
but must wait for the following season, and 
if his plant is a tree or shrub he must wait 
for many seasons before he knows whether 
he has obtained from his cross something 
worthless or a new hybrid which is an 
improvement over that which the world 
already has. 

The inventor makes his machine, patents 
it, or keeps some feature of its manufacture 
secret, and on the basis of his secret or his 
patent convinces capital that some kind of 

FIG. 24. MRS. FRANK PENDLETON a monopoly can be maintained by which 

One of the superb pink varieties. The lower the exploitation of the invention can be 
segments are gorgeously blotched with French made profitable. The plant breeder, on the 
ean The growth is strong, and the fowers other hand, can not patent his new variety, 
Peta si neither can he keep its origin secret to any 
material advantage; consequently he must take the risk of growing a stock of his new 
plant on the ground of his personal conviction that it will be profitable, and then, if 
he can, he must sell this stock of plants to the public at paying prices. How difficult 
is his task of making a large amount of money out of a single new plant hybrid becomes 
apparent when we consider how easily any one can obtain a few seeds or cuttings by 
dishonest methods, from these produce the identical plant, and in a few years have a 
stock of plants of the same kind for sale, and even claim to have himself originated 
it by crossing. Coupled with this difficulty, which seems to be inherent in the creation 
of plant hybrids, is a still greater one, that of adequately testing the new variety before 
putting it on the market. One can therefore see the reason, or at least one of the 
reasons, why even more has not been done to make new forms of plants which com- 
bine old characters or bring into expression new ones. 


GLapDIoLus Stupies — IT 223 


Perhaps few words have been so universally discussed as the term hybrid. 


Many definitions state that a 
hybrid is the result of the 
crossing of two species. Since 
Mendelism has gained promi- 
nence, a hybrid is defined as 
the offspring of crosses be- 
tween individuals of a dis- 
tinctly different nature. The 
word cross is now used inter- 
changeably with the term 
hybrid. 

A sport, or mutation, is a 
sudden departure from the 
type of the race, and is cap- 
able of breeding true to seed. 
It is to be remembered, in 


considering so complex a hy- ™ 


brid as the garden gladiolus, 
that all sorts of unusual forms 
appear from time to time, 
which are not mutations but 
are hybrid forms that would 
logically be expected from 
such crosses. New forms that 
arise from seed should not be 
considered sports; a careful 
study of the constitution of 
the parents will determine 
their character. It is possible 
that forms such as Colvillet 
albus can be considered mu- 
tations, but perhaps they are 
merely recessive forms in 
hybridization. 

Stewart (1914) illustrates 
and describes a_ gladiolus 
sport from the variety Black 
Beauty which has the normal 
red flowers on one side of 


Fic. 25. MRS. MONTAGUE CHAMBERLAIN 


This white bloom is most daintily penciled. The openness 
of the bloom adds to its attractiveness 


the spike and several white flowers, resembling La Luna, on the other 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


FiG. 26. CHICAGO WHITE 


This 1s one of A. E. Kunderd’s varieties. It is exceptional in having a long spike of white blooms 
penciled with Tyrian rose. A good commercial variety and very attractive as a cut flower, being 
of good substance and attract color, and having many blooms open at one time 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — II 225 


side. This is known as a bud sport, and, being localized, would not be 
expected to be propagated (fig. 27). 

Except for examples of this sort mutations would be very difficult 
to recognize, since in order to be propagated a sport must originate in 
the corms or the cormels, in which case it might easily be taken as being 
due to a mixture in the corms. The greatest care is necessary to keep 
varieties from getting mixed either by allowing a few corms or cormels to 
remain in the soil or by their 
becoming mixed in storage. 

The fact that some white 
varieties become heavily 
feathered with pink is not 
attributed to sporting and 
should not be so considered. 
This condition is due to an 
environmental influence and 
is not permanent. 

There are a few fundamen- 
tals that seem essential for 
intelligent breeding to-day. 
Breeding that is haphazard 
may produce results, but if 
properly directed thought is 
given, the work will be 
crowned with greater success. 
The practical breeder and the 
scientific man both deal with 
the same materials, but in 
vastly different ways. The 
practical breeder is concerned 


Fic. 27- BUD SPORT OF BLACK BEAUTY 


with the maintenance and E. E. Stewart found among the stock of Black Beauty, 


= s : a deep crimson variety, one spike which produced four or 
improv ement of his crop. The five blooms much resembling La Luna. This is a remark- 


=o Beat a able case of a bud sport. The blotch on the lower seg- 
student of heredity 1s inter- ments differs widely from the more or less intermixed throat 


ested in how the characters ™2"*i8s of Black Beauty 


are transmitted. He often places the idea of improvement in the back- 
ground, preferring to study the factors related to his problem; while the 
practical breeder is not concerned in the interpretation of the results, 
but centers his attention on the ultimate attainment of an ideal.* 
Although men have bred plants for years, it was not.until 1900 that 
a scientific explanation was offered for the behavior of plants in crosses. 


4 These ideas are inspired from reading the introductory words from Breeding and the Mendelian Dis- 
covery, by Darbishire (1911). 


226 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


In that year a very important paper by Gregor Mendel, the Abbot of 
Brann, was discovered. Although the paper was published in 186s, 
the facts were not known nor appreciated during the intervening thirty- 
five years. Previous to the knowledge of this publication, generalizations 
only were made as to the result of crosses. Breeders noted that in many 
cases the offspring was rather intermediate in the first generation, and 
that later crossings gave some plants like the original parents but mostly 
of a very heterogeneous nature. Unlike his predecessors, Mendel did 
not consider plants as a whole, but studied individual characteristics. 
He illustrated by experiments with the garden pea that there are law 
and mathematical proportions in the results to be obtained. He first 
found that crosses between tall varieties and dwarf varieties gave tall 
forms, but that on propagating from these the tall forms broke up so 
that seventy-five per cent of the offspring were tall and twenty-five per 
cent were dwarf. Of the seventy-five per cent tall forms, one-third were 
pure; the remaining two-thirds were impure and apparently of the same 
constitution as their hybrid parents. The dwarf forms continued to 
breed true. Two facts were brought out in this experiment. The first 
is dominance, or the complete resemblance of the first generation to 
one parent, the characteristics of the other parent being entirely masked; 
the second is segregation, or the separating in the second generation into 
definite proportions of the characters concerned in the cross. Obviously 
all cases are not so simple. | 

As stated by the writer in a previous article (Hottes, 1915 a), the gladiolus 
offers an excellent example of a genus of plants that has been improved for 
garden purposes by the incorporation of a number of species into more 
complex multiple hybrids than in the case of most garden flowers. The 
china aster (Callistephus hortensis), the sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus), 
the peony (Paeonta albiflora), and the Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata 
var. bostoniensis) have been improved solely by the selection of variations 
and mutations within a single species. Phlox, German iris, larkspur 
(Delphinium), dahlia, columbine (Aquilegia), begonia, and chrysan- 
themum varieties have arisen from the hybridization of several species. 
The rose, the orchid, the pelargonium, and the gladiolus, however, 
often have in the make-up of their best varieties from three to seven 
species, each contributing characteristics to the modern degree of 
perfection. 

It is thus seen that every gladiolus variety dealt with is at the start 
a multiple hybrid. The variety Princeps is at least a fifth-generation 
hybrid in which are resident the characters from at least six species. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — II 227 


The wild species have in most cases come to be looked upon as “‘ pure 
types,” that is, plants that when self-fertilized will produce the parental 
characters identically. In hybridization these types are crossed, and, 
as before mentioned, the result is a new type bearing the characters of both 
parents, the characters of the weaker, or recessive, being at first masked 
by the predominating influence of the stronger. It is this type that is often 
preferred, and when it is self-fertilized the result is a mixture of seedlings, 
of which some are identical with one of the two parents and others possess 
the parental characters in combination. It is therefore advantageous 
that the gladiolus propagates vegetatively, for only in this way could 
a pure strain of the first-generation hybrid be preserved or any other 
subsequent forms be obtained. 

Jackson (1889) published an account of hybrids made between Gladiolus 
purpureo-auratus and G. gandavensis, and it is truly remarkable to see 
how close his results are to true Mendelian proportions. It must be 
remembered that it is very doubtful whether Jackson had ever seen 
Mendel’s paper, which was not widely known until 1900. To appreciate 
his results the parents may best be briefly described. 

In G. purpureo-auratus the flower is deep, bell-shaped, and tubular. 
The two lower petals are marked with broad, elongate blotches of maroon- 
crimson. At the base of the blotch near the center of the flower, the 
color heightens to a deep, rich crimson over a very small area. This 
rich coloring is an important factor in the result obtained in the colors 
of hybrids, in which the whole blotch is commonly a rich crimson. On 
the margin of the blotches is a lip-like splash of golden yellow. The 
color of the remainder of the flower is pale yellowish green. The plant 
has foliage narrower than that of the gandavensis varieties. The spikes 
are graceful and subarcuate, or bow-like. The flowers are rather far 
apart, all facing one way; and in view of the arcuation of the flower 
stalks, and the pendant bell-shape of the flowers, their interior is not 
easily seen. 

Van Houtte, in his catalog for 1841, the year of its introduction, 
describes G. gandavensis as follows: ‘‘Its dimensions surpass ramosus; its 
majestic flowers, to the number of eighteen or twenty, are of a most 
charming vermilion, their inferior petals adorned with chrome, amaranth, 
and brown, are relieved by anthers of an azure blue which descend to the 
center of the flower.”’® The lower petals are usually penciled by lines 
of amethyst or maroon, this being one of the most prominent character- 
istics of the variety. 


5 Translation from the original French. 


228 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


The results of Jackson’s crosses are here noted, without the knowl- 
edge whether these hybrids are the results of selfed individuals. The 
results approximate a second-generation 1:2:1 ratio in the inheritance 


of markings. 


Inheritance. of markings 


Theoretical 
amount that 
should have Actual result 
obtained 
(per cent) 
25 26 per cent marked on lower segments with purpureo-auratus blotch; 
in many cases not maroon-crimson but a rich crimson. (A 
color found at the base of the blotch in the parent species.) 
50 53 per cent possessed a combination of the linear stripe of ganda- 
vensis and a blotch-like stripe of purpureo-auratus. 
25 18 per cent had gandavensis penciling. 


The occurrence of a white patch in the petalage seems to be the effect 
of an inheritance of the pattern. The yellow splash at the margin of the 
maroon blotch is often wanting, but usually inherited, showing that. 
this yellow splash and maroon blotch are not inseparable, but are trans- 
mitted independently. 

In the case of the other characters noted, which may be due to multiple 
factors, the results are not of the simple 1:2:1 ratio, but are of interest 
to note: 


Inheritance of shape of bloom 


80 per cent, form sub-open or flaring; an intermediate between the two 
parents. Some were as widely flaring as the magnolia. This proportion 
may be a little large since the shape is difficult to determine. 

8 per cent were of the bell-shaped bloom of the purpureo-auratus. 


Inheritance of foliage and habit of plant 


go per cent of cases intermediate. ; 
10 per cent, tendency toward the greater size and increased rigidity of foliage; 
a character of the gandavensts. 


Inheritance of stoloniferous habit 
Generally inherited. Contributed by purpureo-auratus. 


Inheritance of zstivation 


This character concerns the arrangement of segments of perianth which are, 
in most species, disposed so that there are two inner lower petals; but often 
there is but one. 

Most of the flowers show the two-lipped type of estivation; at least 75 
per cent should have done so, for the species purpureo-auratus is character- 
istically so and the species psittacinus, a parent of gandavensis, possesses 
bothforms. The one-lipped estivation occurred only as scattering individ- 
uals upon a spike. 


Fischer (1914) writes: 


I see no reason why we should not benefit by the use of the Mendelian method in 
the practical side of gladiolus breeding; that is in the creation of new types by the 
recombination of pre-existing characters. To begin, one must have an ideal form or 


GLaDIOLus StupIEs — II 229 


variety in mind, and then choose parents having characters, that being combined, 
should tend to produce this ideal result. These parents are then crossed. 

The cross-bred seeds thus produced are sown. . 

These hybrids must be self-fertilized, and it is important to lay stress on 
the necessity of sowing a large amount of seed from which your family of the second 
generation is to be grown. There must be enough to give a chance for the combination 
of your desired qualities, and the possibility of other rarer combinations to appear 
in order to obtain novelties. 

Fischer has noted dominance and the recombination of preexisting 
characters. For example, “in crossing a large red flower with a small 
white one, the offspring all came in different shades of red in the first 
generation, and all were large sized flowers; in the second generation 
the majority again came red, but a few came light colored and white 
with large sized flowers.”’ 

Growers have noted that the colors in certain varieties change, due 
to an external influence of various heat, moisture, or soil conditions. It is 
known that when the hydrangea flower is given a treatment of iron it 
becomes a clear blue; and the red flower of Primula sinensis var. rubra, 
when grown in a temperature of from 15° to 20° C., yields white flowers, 
while it will again produce its red flowers under normal conditions. 
Obviously, the variety alba, which has white flowers, produces them 
at any temperature. When a transplanted variety is again grown in 
its original locality, the old characters should return. Growers who have 
contended that there are various types of certain varieties due to the 
locality in which they are grown, can easily determine whether or not 
these varieties are identical by growing all of them on trial grounds for 
several years and observing whether they resume their normal or identical 
appearance. If not, the varieties are different. 

It must not be forgotten that, as J. A. S. Watson (1912) suggests, for 
the breeder of plants the environment is of first-rate importance, for it often 
sets a very definite limit to what he can accomplish. Our better varieties 
of apples and carnations can reach their full perfection only under closely 
regulated conditions; and improvement is frequently made possible only 
when we find means of improving the environment. Nurture, in the 
wide sense, must remain a matter of extreme importance for the race, 
even if, as seems likely, its effects pass away with individual life. 

Weismann, the great German biologist, has given the basis for this 
belief in the non-inheritance of acquired characters, in pointing out the 
fact that germ and body plasm are quite separate, the germ plasm depend- 
ing on the body plasm only for its nurture. The body plasm responds 
quickly to external changes, but this tissue is but temporary and lives 
for one generation only, while the germ plasm is carried over from one 
generation to the next. Characters to be inherited must be impressed upon 
the germ plasm. At present no way is known by which the body cells 
can influence the germ cells other than by transfer of food. 


230 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Modern observation, through experimentation, has established the 
fact that hybridity does not necessarily mean weakness. On the contrary, 
in many cases hybrids have attained greater vigor than their parents. 
The modern gladiolus, with its great size of bloom and vigor, is superior 
to any species as yet employed in hybridization. Very probably this 
progress in vigor is due to hybridity and continued selection rather than 
to the inheritance of any acquired character resulting from modified 
culture or ecology. Plant breeders in the main have rejected the theory 
of Lamarck that races are developed by the accumulation of the effects 
of use and disuse, because experimental data are lacking to substantiate 
the contention. Colors do change, often due to a changed environment; 
but, as Goodrich (1912) explains, each variety will reproduce its like 
in its own locality; but seeds of an alpine plant (he has been speaking 
of a divided dandelion plant, one-half planted in alpine altitudes, the other 
half wpon the lowlands — each has developed new characters) will produce 
only the lowland form if sown there, and vice versa; the seeds of the low- 
land form will grow into the alpine form in the mountains. This change 
is accomplished by the new growing tissues, for the old and already-formed 
tissues are no longer capable of altering. Once fully differentiated, they 
are fixed. So we see the organism is moulded by its environment. It is 
not the developed result which is transmitted; it is not the modification 
which is inherited, but the capacity for modification in certain directions — 
the modificability. : 

Besides white, which is due to the absence of color pigments, there 
are three classes of colors in flowers — the plastid, the cell-sap, and the 
combination colors. Plastid colors are resident in chromoplasts, the colors 
of which vary from yellow to red (Bailey and Gilbert, 1915) according 
to the predominance of yellow xanthophyll or orange-red carotin. 

Cell-sap colors are often due to a chemical substance known as antho- 
cyanin, which is (Bailey and Gilbert, 1915) 


blue in an alkaline and red in acid reacting cell-sap, and, under certain conditions, 
also dark red, violet, dark blue, and even blackish blue. . . . The different colors 
of flowers are due to the varying color of the cell-sap, to the different distribution 
of the cells containing the colored cell-sap, and also to the combinations of dissolved 
coloring matter with the yellow, orange, and red chromoplasts and the green chloro- 
plasts. There is occasionally found in the cell-sap a yellow coloring matter known 
as xanthein; it is nearly related to xanthophyll, but soluble in water. 


Xanthophyll is the yellow pigment in chloroplasts. To summarize the 
nature of these colors, Bailey and Gilbert (1915) write: 


Yellow, cream, and related colors are due to a yellow pigment either associated 
with green in the chloroplasts or found alone in the chromoplasts, generally the latter. 
Yellow may sometimes come from the cell-sap. 

Red color may, under certain circumstances, be due to the presence of that pigment 
in the chromoplasts, but it is ordinarily a cell-sap color. 

Most of the remaining colors, purple, blue, generally red, pink, etc., are due to pig- 
ments in the cell-sap. 


_—_" 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — II 231 


The colors in the third class are the result of both cell-sap and plastid 
colors. They are termed combination colors. Judging by cases of Gladiolus 
primulinus hybrids noted, this species seems capable of altering the colors 
in such a way that the bright reds are subdued to salmon, apricot, écru, 
and cream yellow, no doubt traceable to a dilution of the cell-sap reds 
by the yellow plastid colors from G. primulinus. The resulting colors are 
combination colors. 

Reciprocal crosses are crosses in which both the male and the female 
functions are served by each plant; in other words, crosses in which each 
parent is used alternately as a seed bearer and as a pollen producer. 
Naudin (1866), in describing crosses between Datura ferox and D. laevts, 
says that the two groups of offspring of this reciprocal cross were so identi- 
cally like each other that the two sets might easily be regarded as one. 
In other words, either species could be alternated as pollen or as seed parent 
without an appreciable difference in result. Darwin (1888) writes: 
“Hybrids raised from reciprocal crosses. . . . . rarely differ in 
external characters.’ Colonel Trevor Clark found no difference in 
reciprocal crosses between Begonia Dreger and B. heracleifolia, or B. 
ctnnabarina and B. Pearcet. 

With gladiolus the results seem to differ from the above-mentioned 
cases, perhaps due to the extreme hybridity. Lemoine obtained Gladiolus 
nancetanus by crossing G. Saundersi and G. Lemoinei, G. Saundersit 
being the seed parent. The reverse cross gives many fine flowers, but 
none so rich in color nor so characteristic in shape. G. Colvillei is the 
result of crossing G. cardinalis on G. tristis concolor, and the reciprocal 
cross is not mentioned as being identical. In R. T. Jackson’s hybrids 
between G. gandavensis and G. purpureo-auratus, the latter was used as 
the male parent; the reverse order gave little success, but no notes were 
kept. It is generally considered that G. gandavensis is a good seed parent, 
as results were better when it was so used with G. purpureo-auratus, G. 
dracocephalus (figs. 28 and 29), and G. Saunderst1. Perhaps in all these 
cases the species were not pure types, but hybrids; in which event seed- 
lings of the generation first observed would vary among themselves as 
much as they would in reciprocal crosses. When one parent is stronger 
or more vigorous than the other, obviously the stronger one should be used 
as the female because of a supposed superiority for seed production. In 
many cases a morphological characteristic causes an incompatibility 
between the parents. The style of the pistil may be so long that the 
pollen tube of another species cannot fertilize the ovules. 

In A. E. Kunderd’s mind the ideal was a strain of gladioli which should 
have ruffled segments. For more than twenty-five years varieties showing 
a tendency toward ruffling have been in existence, such as White Lady 


DS Sata ahitl 


232 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


FHOTOGRAPH LENT BY ERNEST BRAUNTON 


FIG. 28. GLADIOLUS DRACOCEPHALUS HYBRID 


A. Gladiolus dracocephalus, a wild species characterized by having a dull yellowish green bloom finely 
marked throughout the verianth w'th brownish red. 

B. A scarlet seedling jesignated as No. «1 Scarlet by Ernest Braunton. ? 

C. The hybrid between G. dracocephalus and No. 1 Scarlet. It is intermediate in color, the perianth 


bearing the characteristic G dracocephalus markings and the larger flaring form of the pollen parent, 
No. 1 Scarlet 


GLADIOLUS STubDIEs — II 233 


and especially Safrano. Kunderd has for a number of years selected 
such varieties, and has bred them together until he has a type that is 
rather distinct from any of the others, not only in the matter of ruffling 
but also in shape of bloom 
(fig. 30). 

There are several ways of 
explaining the origin of these 
varieties. There is a possi- 
bility that they are progres- 
sive mutations; in other 
words, that a tendency 
toward waving arose by a 
sport and continued to in- 
tensify. Another explana- 
tion is to consider ruffling as 
due to several factors vari- 
ously combined to cause a 
gradual progression in the 
degree of variation. 


A | ry 
Ey! 


j t 
bist Bes 
1 be 


i 
| 


] 
A 
4 
| 
| 
4 


CROSSING TECHNIQUE 


The normal, complete 
flower of the gladiolus con- 
sists of a showy six-parted 
perianth, of no _ practical 
value in the production of 
seed. Attached to the peri- 
anth are three stamens, 
with rather fleshy filaments, 
and anthers which in many 
cases are rather large; the 
varieties differ widely in 
this character. Most varie- 
ties are abundant pollen 
bearers, but the variety 


Rochester White, because yc, 29. AMERICA X GLADIOLUS DRACOCEPHALUS 
of its compiete albinism. The hybrid is indian red penciled and_ flecked with yellow 


and bronze. This is one of Ernest Braunton’s hybrids 
produces no pollen. The 
pollen is of various colors ranging from white to almost blue. From the 
center of the flower rises the long pistil, bearing aloft the three-forked 
stigma. When the stigma is mature, which is a little time after the 
stamens begin to shed pollen, the surface becomes rather feathery and 


234 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


is then receptive to pollen. The flowers are usually protandrous, which 
means that the stamens and pistil mature at slightly different times. It 
is interesting to note that in Gladiolus segetum the pistil curls down to 
receive the pollen, the stamens and pistils being ripe simultaneously. 

The first operation in 
crossing is to protect the 
pistil from foreign pollen 
or pollen not wanted as a 
parent of the cross. This 
is done by taking out the 
stamens or removing the 
whole corolla to which the 
stamens areattached. This 
process is known as emas- 
culation. Unless the sta- 
mens are removed when 
they are undeveloped, 
which is before the bloom 
opens, the purpose of this 
operation will be defeated. 
W.C. Bull and L. M. Gage 
consider emasculation un- 
necessary, but the fact 
remains that pollen often 
retains its fertility until 
the pistil is ripe. In many 
cases the top of the spike 
is removed in order to con- 
centrate the energy of the 
plant on the flowers re- 
maining. 

At the time the spike is 
removed, the emasculated 
flower is usually bagged, 
in order to keep out bees. 
The method of bagging 
differs greatly.. E. N. 
Fischer uses a special hood consisting of a wire frame covered with 
cloth, the wire projecting at the bottom and the hood closed by 
a piece of tape fastened to the cloth. Much experimental evidence is 
presented to show that cloth bags do not absolutely keep out foreign 
pollen, so that for scientific results a waxed paper bag should be used, 


FIG. 30. AZALEA, A RUFFLED VARIETY 


GLaDIOLUs StupDIEs — II 


235 


which will admit the sunlight and will also protect against contami- 


nation by other pollen. 

The various methods of pollination are best 
tabulated for comparison. The significant points 
to be borne in mind are: (1) that the pollen is 
shed almost as soon as the flower opens, which 
is as soon as the sun is up; (2) that perhaps 
self-fertilization takes place much more readily 
than one thinks, since it is a rather easy matter 
for the pollen to reach the pistil either by the 
action of insects or by the wind. This makes 
emasculation in the case of the gladiolus more 
necessary than for some other flowers. 

The workers in the Bureau of Plant Industry 
at Washington, D. C., according to Dr. C. E. 
Leighty, carry the pollen in a small vial, which 
is secured to the thumb of the left hand by 
means of a rubber band, thus allowing full play 
to the fingers. In the right hand the worker 
‘carries either a pair of forceps with which to 
remove the stamens from the vial, or a small 
brush to be dipped in the pollen. 

Douglas (1885) dusts the seed-bearing parents 
about four times. ‘It is easy to do this,” he 
writes, ““ because at the time of setting the 
blossoms we go over the flowers twice a day. 
In the morning between nine and ten, and in 


AAl\ Ny tee 
bis |}))) 
== di \ Alle L \ 
Pe a an SELEY Milles 
Ss NW (7 ~ Cg, 
SYA wl i < Pros 
tenth Zi m\. ¥ 3 1 
\ hy ES Tas: Zi 


CROSSING TECHNIQUE 


Fic. 32. 


A small vial is secured to the thumb of the left hand by means of a rubber 


band; the fingers are thus left free to hold the flower. 


It is always desirable to carefully label the crosses. 


: With the right hand the 
stamens are easily removed by the use of forceps, and dropped into the vial 


FIG. 31. 


CROSSING TECH- 
NIQUE 

By reference to figure 14 one 
may see that the stamens are 
attached to the perianth tube. 
Therefore, if the perianth is 
removed, the stamens are re- 
moved. This is a simple method 
of emasculation 


the afternoon between 
two and three.” 
After pollina- 

tion the bags 


\\\. should again be 


placed over the 
blooms, in order 
that foreign and 
undesired pollen 
may not come 
into contact with 
the stigma and be 
more congenial to 
the pistil than the 
pollen applied 
previously. 

This is best done 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I0 


236 


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GuapioLus Stupies — II 237 


by using small watch tags and placing on them the time of emasculation 
as well as the date of pollination, together with the name of the pollen 
parent. Perhaps a number which refers to a record book will be sufficient 
and more satisfactory than writing the full name of the parent. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the number of seed capsules to be 
allowed per spike, some growers holding that as many should be allowed 
to develop as will, others that the strength of the plant should be con- 
centrated into a few seed capsules only. Seed production is thought 
to exhaust the corms, so that few capsules should be allowed to develop 
if they are not wanted. 


POSSIBILITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT 
USE OF WILD SPECIES 

In the hybridization of the gladiolus only about a dozen species have 
as yet been incorporated into hybrids. For some years many hybridists 
have been working on the use of other species. Some think that great 
future progress is to be made by their use; others feel that the species 
thus far used include all that are of value. When one considers the value 
of the various species in producing new types and diverse blotchings 
and stripings, it is difficult to believe that there is no further possibility 
along this line. 

The first species to be used extensively in hybridizing was Gladiolus 
cardinalis, which gave the excellent white throat lozenge to the G. Colvillet 
hybrids. The next species of great importance was G. oppositiflorus, 
a form contributing height, length of spike, arrangement of flowers, and 
markings, to its hybrids G. ramosus and G. gandavensis, for this species 
attains a height of six feet and bears from twenty-four to forty blooms, 
which are arranged so as to face in two directions. It has taken years 
of breeding to eliminate this last character, which is rather objectionable. 
Most of the gandavensis varieties are also marked with the characteristic 
stripes or penciling from the G. oppositiflorus. 

Another species concerned in the gandavensis strain is G. psittacinus, 
which has given its rich scarlet and chrome yellow to the hybrids, G. 
oppositiflorus being a white species. Some years previous to 1878, 
G. purpureo-auratus was used in crossing. This introduced, through the 
Lemoinei forms, the bell-shaped, hooded blooms facing in one direction, as 
well as the diamond-shaped, rich maroon blotch characteristic of the 
varieties at present so popular. G. Saundersii has had its influence on the 
Childst1, nanceianus, and turicensis varieties in making the blooms large 
and exceedingly well open. G. cruentus has contributed the charming white 
throat and fine dots found in the variety Princeps. G. papilio is usually 
credited with the production of the finest blue varieties. Recently there 


238 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


has come to the attention of the breeder the Maid of the Mist gladiolus 
(G. primulinus), a pale yellow, primula-scented, -hooded species which 
has toned down the deeper colors of the other varieties and impressed 
its hooded character on the majority of its seedlings. 

The foregoing discussion covers only a few of the species used. In the 
practical hybridist’s mind, each species represents certain desirable char- 
acteristics to be incor- 
porated into a hybrid. 
Too often there are 
many unfavorable 
features, the consider- 
ation of which should 
not be entirely neg- 
lected. 

Dr. Van Fleet and 
Maurice Fuld are op- 
timistic of the results 
in using new species 
in the future. H. A. 
Richardson writes 
that the ‘‘ infusion of 
new blood at any time 
offers a promising field 
as a basis for further 
selection and improve- 
ment.” S. E. Spencer 
feels that the wild 
species are valuable 
“to a limited extent 
to get vigor and hardi- 
ness and develop new 
types and colorings.” 


Tic. 33. RUFFLED PRIMULINUS- SEEDLING FROM L. M. 


GAGE W. W.- Wilmore, jr., 


The color of this variety more closely approximates orange than any notes that “the wild 
other variety seen. It shows the characteristics of its parent Gladiolus 
primulinus in the hooded bloom and penciled throat, as well as in its species may be used to 


color. It is beautifully frilled and ruffled r 
develop some lacking 


quality,” otherwise a backward step is taken. W. C. Bull thinks it is very 
doubtful, so far as form and color are concerned, whether the gladiolus can 
be improved by the use of wild parentage, but “‘if constitution could 
be improved it would be worth any amount of time and trouble.” B. F. 
White feels that at present the species are not promising, as all “the 
good ones have been tried. Should new ones be discovered, it would pay 
to try. The farther we get away from the species, the better the flowers 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — II 239 


are.’ C. Betscher believes that ‘‘few species are needed, for quite as 
many points can be secured without them.’’ Luther Burbank writes that 
“it is slow, uncertain work when using wild species.’ 

Groff (1907 a) believes the only system to follow for the production 
of the highest types for commercial value, is that 


of breeding from domestic specific types as sires on selected females. . . . The 
use of wild species with the hope of attaining a similar ratio of such results is relatively 
absurd, as the only value that any wild species can have to a breeder for practical 
results is as foundation or laboratory stock, to be discarded yearly with their early 
hybrids as he advances step by step towards his ideal. 


* * * * * * * * * * 


ares By using all obtainable species he multiplies the possibilities for practical 
results and increased diversity in the material to be evolved from the product of future 
years, and yearly discarding species and early hybrids as they are superseded in the 
course of his operations. 

Wild species are only of value so far as they may supply some desirable quality 
for incorporation into a domestic type containing other good qualities, such as size, 
vigour, vitality, and adaptability. nr 

ac a Breeding from wild species is therefore of little practical value, as the farther 
our removal from their many objectionable features the better, when by proper 
selection their best qualities can be controlled and applied according to our knowledge 
and discretion. 


* * * * ca * * * * * 


How many animal-breeders would be satisfied with sires whose progeny were largely 
weeds? How were these high-class animal sires produced? How are new domestic 
races and strains of cattle, sheep, dogs, poultry, pigeons, and other animals and birds 
obtained? Certainly not by the general practice of plant-breeders. 

Of what practical value is the knowledge of the component ratios of life forces in 
simple hybrids, in comparison with that knowledge giving results in the highest ratios 
of useful and valuable qualities? — thereby saving labour, time, space, and expense, 
and giving, in the place of curios, the highest possible percentage of quality in economic 


types. s 
Select and develop domestic races and sections of such high quality, vitality, 


~and general adaptability, that their progeny will not only be of higher quality than 
the parents, but that this quality will be produced in quantity in the highest possible 
ratio. This is practical plant-breeding. 


Again, before the American Breeders’ Association, Groff (1907c) 
expresses his opinion “that no simple or limited crossing can produce 
the value, quality and satisfaction equal to those resulting from unlimited 
removals from the wild species on the lines of scientific selection, guided 
by learned human intelligence.” 

As has been stated by the writer in a previous paper (Hottes, 1915 a), 
it must be admitted that greater progress can often be made by inter- 
breeding established varieties; but when new features are to be added, 
the employment of new species is advisable, or even imperative. These 
should be the basis of hybridization. As years pass, the inferior seedlings 
may be discarded, and the ideal form may be far removed from the wild 
species; but the ancestor is necessary. 


240 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


THE MOST NEEDED IMPROVEMENT 


In answer to the question, What is the improvement most needed, 
M. Crawford, Van Fleet, Spencer, Fischer, Richardson, and Bonvallet 
consider clear and self colors a great ideal for which to strive. Richardson, 
M. Crawford, Flanagan, Burbank, Black, Spencer, White, and Fischer 
consider it necessary to make an effort to greatly increase the substance 
of the bloom. Healthier plants should be the only ones retained; all 
those of inferior quality should be barred from distribution and destroyed. 
Slender, graceful spikes should be developed, write Mrs. Austin, Zeestraten, 
and Fischer. Wide-open flowers are preferred by Mrs. Austin and by 
Van Fleet and Richardson. Mrs. Austin, Koerner (1911), and Spencer 
welcome the introduction of new and unusual forms. Kunderd (1911) 
writes: 

In addition to the reported foliage with white striping, great improvement may be 
expected with the normal color. For a number of years I have been selecting and 
breeding with this object in view, and find the gladiolus as susceptible along this line 
as in the improvement of its flowers. We should have tall, wide, rich green foliage; 
tall, slender and graceful foliage, of forms best suited to the usual straight-stemmed 
varieties, and some beautiful, slender and drooping foliage, best suited to blend with 
what are known as bent or crooked-stemmed varieties. That there is a future of 


usefulness for the last named form of stem, I feel confident, if the flower is specially 
attractive. 


Another feature of promise is the colors of the stem. Some of the stems are almost 
white and others are fine cream or yellow. This, no doubt, will become a feature of 
usefulness in the gladiolus of the future. 

. . . Iam confident the long wished for sweet-scented varieties will be perfected 
in the hands of Lemoine, Burbank, or Van Fleet. 

Fuld emphasizes the value of having an ideal toward which to work. 
N. L. Crawford wishes that growers would attain a higher ideal before 
putting their varieties on.the market. Zeestraten would have a better 
shape in the gladiolus. Gage thinks the whole Lemoinez class needs 
improvement. 

As to the type of bloom the hybridists are using as the parents to attain 
the high degree of perfection desired, Groff (1907 a) writes: ‘‘ For practical 
and valuable economic results it is therefore not sufficient that the breeder 
should be able to produce types of symmetry and beauty, but he must 
add the qualities of stability and adaptability to changed conditions 
to ensure due satisfaction for the ultimate grower.’’ Wilmore thinks 
the variety America is the best type of parent, as it produces seed freely, 
is vigorous, and is of a color that blends well. Thomann uses light colors 
only as parents. Mrs. Austin, Burbank, and Betscher use seedlings, 
mostly of their own origination, which combine the different types. Van 
Fleet believes ‘'G. primulinus and the garden varieties to be’ most 
promising.” Fuld is breeding for size, and therefore uses the larger- 
blooming varieties. Zeestraten uses the most vigorous growers and the 
best multipliers. 


a 
GLADIOLUS STUDIES 


America 
Badenia 
Baron Joseph Hulot 


— II 241 


The following varieties are mentioned as having possibilities when 
used as parents: 


Mastodon 
Mrs. Frank Pendleton 
Mrs. G. W. Willock 


Blanche Niagara 

Blue Jay Panama 
Canary Bird Parure 

Chicago White Peace 

Cordelia Princepine 

Dr. Dotter Princeps 
Elizabeth Kurz Princess Louise 
Europa Prophetesse 
Glory Rochester White 
Golden King Schwaben 
Halley Sparta 

Harvard Sulphur King 
Heliotrope Victory 

Isabel White Excelsior 
Lady Howard de Walden White Lady 
Liebesfeuer 


GATHERING AND PLANTING SEEDS 


After the fertilization of the ovules the capsules soon begin to develop, 
and when they have attained their full size they ripen speedily. The 
pods crack from the top downward, and the seeds can be gathered as 
soon as this takes place. They should be dried in an airy room. The 
pods or the seeds may be placed in cloth sacks to which air can be admitted. 
It is necessary to remember always that seeds are young plants and for 
their proper germination should be stored in a cool, not too dry, place. 

Opinions differ as to the proper time for sowing. Fuld prefers to sow 
the seeds in December in the greenhouse, and then have some young corms 
to set out in May, thereby saving a year in the production of new varieties. 

Douglas (1885) writes as follows: 


My plan is to prepare a hot-bed for them, and to sow about fifty seeds in a seven- 
inch pot, using good light compost. The seeds vegetate in two weeks, and the way 
to be successful is to keep the young plants growing on without any check. The 
plants grow very rapidly, but it is best not to disturb them. As they increase in size, 
gradually admit more air, until by the end of May the lights may be removed entirely; 
placing them over the frames only in very rough and frosty weather. By the end 
of September or not later than the middle of October, the young seedlings have 
completed their growth, and the pots will be full of bulbs varying in size from a marrow 
pea to a filbert. The pots may be laid on their sides until the leaves decay, when the 
next step will be to shake the bulbs out, wrap them up in paper, and store the packages 
in a dry place where frost cannot reach them. 


242 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Somewhat the same system is in vogue with Jackson (1889), who writes: 


The hybridized seeds were planted in April, 1886, in shallow boxes, and so grown 


throughout the summer. 


About midsummer, when the leaves attained a considerable 


height, fine sifted cow-manure was spread over the soil in the boxes to the depth of half 


FIG. 34. 


Note the thick roots at the base and the large cormels. This is shown’ 
after six months’ growth from seed 


GLADIOLUS "SEEDLING 


an inch Or more. This proved beneficial as a mulch and 
source of liquid-manure at each watering. In autumn the 
bulbs were sifted out of the earth. The second year 
the seedlings were planted thickly inrowsintheopen ground. 


Gage (1913 ?) gives the following directions for 
the care of the seed bed; he recommends sowing 
out-of-doors about May 15, when the ground has 
become warm: 


Many growers place their gladiolus seed bed under shade 
during the first year, but I think that this is wrong, for 
after testing both methods I am convinced that seedlings 
grown under shade do not produce as large or as strong 
corms as those grown under the open sunshine. 

It is, of course, desirable to keep the seed bed covered 
with matting or other suitable material for two or three 
weeks after planting, to conserve the moisture and facili- 
tate germination; but after the seeds have started to grow 
and roots are formed, the bed should have an abundance 
of air and sun; also plenty of water should be added if 
the bed is liable to suffer from drought. 

I prefer to have the soil in my bed rather sterile, because 
the weaker seeds will not survive long in a poor soil and 
much of the struggle for existence — for the survival of 
the fittest —is ended in the seed bed and I am thus 
saved the labor and bother of growing weaklings; but after 
the plants are well started I begin to feed them, giving 
them an occasional top dressing of some good commercial 
fertilizer, and later I apply hard-wood ashes. 


Hendrickson (1911) writes that seed 


will have to be carried over until the following 
spring, when it can be planted in shallow drills, 
covering about one-eighth to one-fourth inch 
with soil, they will only make a slight grass like 
growth the first year, 
and must be taken up 
in the fall and housed 
away from frost; the 
following spring they 
we can be planted as one 
iN would sow garden peas 
and covered about one 
and one-half inches 
deep; they will make a 
little more growth and 
perhaps a small per- 


Ca ; centage will flower, but 


the bulbs will ‘have to 
be lifted and planted 
once more before a 
good showing of flowers 
can be expected. 


GLADIOLUS StubIEs — II 243 


Betscher (1914 a) gives the following excellent suggestions regarding 
seed beds: 


Presuming that one has good soil to begin with the next step is the right handling 
of it. Where possible to do so, it is very good to have the plot planted to clover — alsike 
planted about July 15 or rye later on — and given a good mulching of manure, but 
not heavy enough to ruin it. This will feed the clover and leave the ground in extra 
fine shape. When severe freezing sets in about November 15, or later in an open winter, 
spade the plot about eight inches deep, turn so top soil and clover is at bottom, leaving 
rough so that freezing will penetrate deeply. About January when an open spell comes 
as soon as it gets colder and the top is frozen two or three inches deep, dig this plot 
up with mattock or pick about three to four inches deep so that it will freeze deeply, 
leave as rough as possible. We do this a number of times during the winter but not 
after severe freezing is at an end. . . . When a severe change to colder, about 
March 15 or later rake it level, and even if a bit wet the freezing will leave it very fine. 
This will bring out early weeds so that when the soil is ready to plant about April 15 
or later it may be hoed and raked thoroughly. It will be in fine shape to plant any 
time after April 15 in central Ohio. 

Granting that the soil is in very fine condition — perfectly level — we now begin 
to plant. Very often ground is not what it should be, and seedlings do not turn out 
well. For this reason we plant several rows of large bulbs alongside and if soil is wrong 
the large bulbs also will show it. 

Our beds are about forty feet long. We take several eight inch boards to walk on. 
Then take a wide flat shovel and scoop out the soil about three-quarters to one inch 
deep. Make perfectly level with back of rake. Make beds from four inches to twenty- 
four inches wide. Plant seed quite thick so ground-is covered; then scoop soil and cover 
seed carefully. We level carefully before moving boards ahead so rain does not form 
puddles on the beds. In this way we plant thirty-five to fifty pounds of seed. 

These beds may be covered with old carpets, old sacks or burlaps, and left on until 
plants are two inches high. Mats or straw may be used. 

Until seed is pretty well up it should be kept damp say for four or five weeks after 
planting. Water evenly and thoroughly. 

Whenever the beds partially dry out we give them a thorough watering. Never let 
the seedling bed get dry. 

We prefer watering very early in the morning, but in hot dry weather about sun- 
down. When done thoroughly it may be done any time during the day. 

Pignted so thickly it soon requires feeding. We have a heap of well rotted manure 
to which has been added bone flour, wood ashes, soot and lime mixed one part to which 
we add two parts good soil — mix thoroughly — sieve through fine sieve and put evenly 
through the plants about June 20 and July 15. This must be done with care. We 
water as fast as we get several beds mulched so ammonia, etc., does not escape. Do 
not put on too thickly. 

Go over the plants often. Do not let weeds get a start; once a week is best. 

When planted April 15 to April 30, they will be ripe enough to dig August 15. Earliest 
types August 1 — latest types about August 30. 

Do not sieve or rub much. We loosen the soil with a stiff trowel then pull the plants 
out, sieving the balance lightly, although it is better to pick out all that do not pull out. 

Put in shallow boxes about two inches deep, then put in a dry cool shed or cellar. 
Do not leave where winds or drying occurs as often they harden easily, especially so 
when bruised in sieving. Rub roots off lightly when ready to plant. 

* * * * * * * * * * * * 


Do not keep near fire heat as they deteriorate greatly. 

Plant about April 10 to May 15 three inches deep below soil level. Draw the rake 
through them when coming up. Do this every week or after every rain until plants 
are about eight inches high. Keep soil loose about them until August. Many perish 
if ground becomes crusty. 


Thomann sows his seeds in flat trays in early March and takes the 
trays out of doors when the weather permits. The plants should be 
disturbed as little as possible. Van Fleet uses six-inch pots, or if sowing 


244 CorRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


in May he prefers seed beds. N. L. Crawford scatters the seeds in three- 
foot rows, six inches wide, covering the soil deeply with leafy boughs 
until the sprouts appear. He protects the seedlings with a cheesecloth 
screen, placed about one foot above them, during the heat of the day. 
Burbank sows his seed both in beds and in boxes. Huntington keeps 


his seedlings under lath screens. Wilmore drills his seed in trenches, , 


which are made ten inches deep to allow for irrigation and hoeing. Black 
covers his seed with a layer of sandy soil. M. Crawford believes straw 
to be the best material to use for covering in order to insure germination. 

About 1906 Frederick Roemer, of Quedlinburg, Germany, originated 
what he called a new group, giving to it the name Gladiolus praecox. By 
some growers the varieties in this group are called Annual gladioli. This 
term should not be used, since annuals are plants that live for only one 
year, whereas the meaning in this case is that the plants are brought 
into bloom in one year from seed. The praecox strain is obtained by 
intercrossing the earliest plants of G. gandavensis, G. Lemoine, G. Childs, 
and G. nanceianus. The seeds (Anonymous reference, 1907 d, should be 
started in a temperate frame the first of March. They germinate 
in from three to four weeks. As growth advances and weather permits, 
ventilation should be given in order to get good, sturdy plants. A trans- 
planting, although not essential if the seeds have been sown thinly, is of 
great benefit. Soon the seedlings are strong enough to stand feeding, 
and a mulch of bone dust or sheep manure should be applied. During 
the first year the corms attain the size of a crocus bulb; the second year 
they are as large as those usually offered in commerce. Two-yeats-old 
corms produce two or more spikes of normal size. 

Burpee seems to have evolved a strain much like the praecox, which he 
calls Fordhook hybrid gladioli. Some of these seedlings seem to be very 


excellent both in color and in size. It is of great value to get such precocious | 


varieties. 

Kerr (1913) prefers to sow the seed where it can be left to bloom, as 
the seedlings do not transplant well. He states that great pains should 
be taken to give the bed a careful preparation before planting the seeds. 


THE CORM 


The underground stem of the gladiolus is not a bulb, but a corm. 
A corm is defined as a thickened base of a stem, usually subterranean, 
in which food is stored. It differs from a bulb in that the greater share 
of the bulk of a bulb is not stem, but bulb scales, which are really thickened 
bases of leaves, the stem being merely a much-flattened plate from which 
roots and bulb scales arise. Corms also are covered with tunics, or scales, 


GLADIOLUS StupDIEs — II 245 


but these are scarious, and are called husks, or tunics, in the case of the 
gladiolus. These scales are bases of leaves, but are not thickened as they 
are in bulbs. Botanically considered, a bud 
or the potentiality for a bud exists in the 
axils of all leaves. There should be one bud 
for each layer of tunics, or husks. Because 
of the manner of growth of the gladiolus, 
which is in one plane, these buds should 
have an opposite arrangement, thus causing 
them to lie in one straight line through the 
center of the corm. 

It takes from one to four years, according 
to the variety, for a seedling to produce a Fyc. 35. GLADIOLUS CoRM 
corm of blooming size. It takes one year less Fie bask, piglet amelie 
for a cormel to flower. Gladiolus purpureo- 
auratus has the character of blooming quickly from seed, and has trans- 
mitted this character to its offspring; it was therefore a great factor 
in the production of the praecox strain. 

Every stem that makes vigorous growth has at its base a corm. Each 
corm has several buds, of which each one that grows will produce a new 
corm on top of the one planted. Seven bulbs of blooming size in one 
season are reported by Higgins (1912). In this way the grower’s stock 
is not only reproduced each season, but also rapidly increased, provided 
good soil and proper cultivation are given. 

The vigor and the thickness of a corm 
depend much on the proper growth of 
foliage. If in cutting the spike little 
vegetative growth is left above the soil, 
only small quantities of food can be 
AN) manufactured by these abbreviated 
leaves, and the base of the stem, or 
corm, in which the food is stored, suffers. 
The failure of amateurs to carry over 
stock is often due to cutting the shoots 
near the surface of the soil, the corms 
thus being able to make little or no 


Tic. 36. GLADIOLUS CORM FROM ee Th p h : 
WHICH THE TUNIC HAS BEEN CeVvelopment. e suggestion, «then, 1s 
REMOVED that if one wants an annual renewal of 


Note the scars due to the bases of the old : 
leaves. The buds are in a straight line, and COTMS, Care must be exercised to leave 


there is one bud for each ring on the corm 


sufficient foliage after cutting the spike. 
It is the general opinion that corms which have been allowed to bloom 
every year for three or four years become thinner and thinner. These 


246 


FIG. 37. 


When the corms have produced flow- 


FIVE CORMS FROM ONE 


ers for a series of years, they become 
flatter. When corms of this kind are plant- 
ed, they often produce five or six small- 
sized corms instead of one or two of bloom- 
ing size 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN Io 


thinner corms do not produce long- 
blooming spikes. So that in order to 
maintain the quality of the bulbs and 
the correlated quality of the blooms, 
very old corms should not be allowed 
to bloom, or else new stock must be 
grown from cormels. The more nearly 
spherical corms, in other words the 
thicker ones, are the better. With age 
the flat corms frequently send up five 
or six shoots, causing the production of 
not one or two blooming-sized corms, 
but small ones that need a year’s growth 
before they will bloom again. However, 
corms vary greatly in size, it being the 
characteristic of some varieties to pro- 
duce small corms. It is usually blooming 
age, rather than blooming size, that is 
important. In choosing corms from mix- 
tures, therefore, it is not wise to select 
only the large ones. Some of the blue 
hybrids produce small corms, and this 
color might be omitted if large corms 
only were purchased. The variety Baron 
Joseph Hulot never produces as large a 
corm as do some of the other varieties, 
and many varieties, for example Mrs. 
W.E. Fryer, produce flowers from very 
small corms. 

Corms are graded officially by the 
American Gladiolus Society as follows: 


Grade Diameter 
1st, or no. I...... 1% inches and up 
wt: OR 110: 2.2 eee 14+ to 13 inches 
2G, OF NOAS ane t to 14 inches 
4th, or 10. 4%:=S.2.c7 40 4 nes 


eth, Of nG."57-5 =. 2 to 32 inch 

Graded in this manner, numbers 1, 2, 
and 3 are of blooming size. Number 4 
often blooms, but is usually sold only to 
the wholesale trade. Number 5 is not 


GLADIOLUS StupDIEs — II 247 


supposed to bloom, but often does. The smaller sizes are sorted with sieves 
of from 3-inch to 13-inch mesh. The other sizes are sorted by hand. 

Endicott (1886) mentions the division of individual corms as a method 
of more rapid multiplication. He writes: “One way of propagating 
varieties is by cutting the bulbs into pieces. If a bulb be stripped of 
its husks, there will usually be found two large buds at the top and 
smaller ones in a line down each side, every one of which may be made 
to grow and form a bulb.” 

Mr. Banks, of England, according to Dombrain (1873), divides the 
corms into several pieces in the case of scarce varieties. If the corm is 
left entire, it often happens that one of the shoots will not start because 
of a decay, which infection may spread through the whole corm, causing 
its entire loss. 

Woodruff (1915 b) takes the precaution to dust the cut surface with 
soot, although he is not persuaded that this is of real value. 

It is a common opinion that gladioli change from one color to another 
after having grown for a few years, as already stated (page 225). This 
may be due to the rapid multiplication of some varieties and the more 
tapid deterioration of others. The slower propagation of certain ones 
merely increases their proportions. There is a greater tendency, it is 
thought, for the lighter-colored varieties to run out first; and the white 
ones are in all cases of rather weaker constitutions. 

In the spring one often observes certain corms which have not been 
stored in the best conditions and which have turned brownish; though 
not diseased, they are considerably changed in color and dried. While 
actually the corms are not so good as normally colored ones, their change 
is due to a conversion of some of their starch into sugar. When planted 
they generally bloom well. 

Regarding a correlation between color of corm and color of bloom, 
Cowee (1915 a) says: 


Although we are able, from years of experience in handling gladiolus bulbs, to sort 
out from mixtures many named varieties by reason of color of bulb and other charac- 
teristics, I believe it is quite impossible to determine with any degree of accuracy the 
shade of bloom bulbs of certain colors will produce. From our experience we find 
that red shades produce a larger proportion of yellow bulbs, light, medium and dark 
(about 50 per cent), about 25 per cent of red bulbs, and about 25 per cent divided 
equally between white, flesh and pink. Pink shades rarely produce red bulbs, the 
shades of yellow predominating about 50 per cent, the balance being divided between 
pink and white bulbs, the latter predominating. White shades produce about equal 
quantities of white and yellow bulbs, a smaller proportion of pink bulbs, and a smaller 
proportion of red bulbs. Yellow shades rarely produce other than yellow and pink 
bulbs. Blue shades rarely produce other than yellow or white bulbs. 

You will note from the above, which is a careful record of investigations made that 
it would be quite impossible to determine the color of flower from the color of the bulb. 


The writer’s observations show further that some of the corms are 
intermediate in color between red and yellow, while many can truly be 


248 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


called white. For example, Blue Jay, Golden King, and Viking, respec- 
tively blue-, yellow-, and French-purple-flowered varieties, have white 
corms; while White Excelsior, Frilled Pink, Scarsdale, Lemon Drop, and 
Independence, although they are white-, pink-, magenta-, yellow-, and 
carthamin-red-flowered respectively, all have yellow corms. 


STORAGE OF CORMS® 


Gladiolus corms should be stored in a cool, airy place, not too moist 


nor too dry. The temperature should range between 35° and 50° F. 
in the coldest weather. If the storage house is protected sufficiently by 
dead-air spaces in the walls, little artificial heat is required. Large 
corms may be placed in crates; the depth is of less importance than when 
storing the smaller corms or the cormels, which become somewhat packed 
together, causing a heating due to fermentation. The small corms should 
be stored in shallow flats not over 2 or 3 inches deep. 

Commercial growers handling bulbs on a large scale construct special 
storage houses. B. H. Tracy has a building that is thought to be fireproof. 
It is 80 feet long and 60 feet wide, and is constructed of concrete and 
terra cotta blocks with a ‘‘ slapdash ”’ finish. Enough space is afforded 
in the second story for a showroom, offices, and bulb storage space. The 
first floor contains the wholesale flower room, garage, Ct shop, 
and additional space for bulb storage. 

J. L. Childs has constructed his storage house of hollow cement blocks 
covered with stucco. The temperature during the winter is maintained 
between 40° and 50° F., a temperature which not only keeps the bulbs 
in good condition but is not too cold for the men to work about the building. 
The bulbs are placed in flats 3 inches deep, 30 inches wide, and 4 feet 
long. Throughout the entire room used for storage, racks are constructed 
8 feet high, each rack holding seven flats: The first flat is placed 18 
inches above the floor. 


Oberlin (1891) writes substantially as follows of his storage method . 


and the trays he uses: The cellar joists are 9 inches wide and 20 inches 
apart. It is this space that is used for storage purposes. Roofing laths 
are nailed 20 inches apart at right angles to the joists. The laths for 
another row should be placed 4 inches from the first so as to leave room 
for shifting and moving the trays. The trays are of plastering lath also, 
unplaned, 13 inches wide, 4 feet long. Nine and one-third laths are 
required for each tray. If the following measurements are used there 
will be no waste material, the remaining two-thirds being used to make 
the next tray. Two laths are taken for the sides and 313 inches are 
sawed from these; the other two pieces left for ends should be 154 inches 


6 The proper condition for the storage of cormels is considered under the discussion of cormels (page 250). 


ee ee 


GLADIOLUS STupDIEs — IT 249 


long. The end pieces are nailed, thin 1-inch nails being used. One 
lath makes three pieces for the bottom. From six laths eighteen pieces 
15% inches long are sawed. These are nailed to the bottom with a space 
between them equal to the thickness of one lath. The tray is finished 
by nailing two pieces at the bottom lengthwise. It is then lined with 
paper, and is ready to receive the corms. In this cellar three trays may 
be placed one above another. The work should be done in the spare 
moments of the dull season. In such a place the bulbs are away from 
dampness, and are in a temperature a few degrees higher than on the 
floor, as the living-room above communicates the heat to a stratum of 
air beneath the floor. 

Many of the smaller growers feel that storage in the home cellar is 
as effective as in a special bulb storage house. Any place adequate 
for the proper keeping of potatoes over winter will be admirable for the 
storage of gladiolus corms. 

It is best not to store in too deep boxes or in bushel baskets, since under 
such conditions the corms easily ferment and become heated. 

Kunderd (1915 a) recommends the use of sand to cover the corms when. 
small lots of each kind are maintained. It serves to prevent them from 
shrinking and keeps them in a good, plump condition. This seems espe- 
cially advisable when frost may possibly enter the storage place. Further- 
more it is a protection against too much moisture under damp storage 
conditions. Henry Youell advocates mixing fine, dry soil with the corms, 
which is sifted out at planting. He remarks that, according to the con- 
dition of the soil, some growers recommend dampening the soil imme- 
diately before planting. 

CORMELS 


Soon after the base of the growing stem of the gladiolus has begun to 
thicken, small corms are found to have formed between the old and the 
new corm. These are properly called cormels. They are covered with 
a hard shell, thus differing from seedling gladioli of the same size, which 
have a covering more like a husk, composed of the dried bases of the 
previous season’s leaves. 

To keep up the standard of the stock and for rapid propagation, repro- 
duction by cormels is essential. Cormels range from one-sixteenth to 
three-fourths inch in diameter, and will produce corms of blooming size 
in a year less time than will seeds. According to the variety, they flower 
in from one to four years. A single corm has been known to produce as 
many as two hundred cormels in a season. 

Regarding the growing of cormels, Crawford (Crawford and Van Fleet, 
rgtr) recommends having the soil as rich as possible at corm-planting 


250 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN Io - 


time. A bed four feet wide should be laid out and raked smooth. Drills 
should be made one inch deep and far enough apart to allow for hoeing 
(six inches). The bulblets should be placed one inch apart, and covered 
at once with sifted sand about two inches deep, then pressed down to 
the level of the surface. Sand is preferred to most kinds of soil, because 
it never bakes and also because it shows where the rows are so that hoeing 
can be done before the 
plants are up. 

Peeled cormels grow as 
much in one year as un- 
peeled ones do in two 
years (Falconer, 1891), 
and every cormel grows. 
M. Crawford’s experience 
is that it is better to peel 
cormels the same day 
that they are planted; a 
number of his corms 
molded one year. It is 
essential that great pains 
be taken not to injure 
the cormels when peeling 
them, for any abrasion in 
the surface offers a place 
for the entrance of dis- 
ease. If they are not 
peeled, they should be 
soaked for a day before 
planting. 

The cormels should be 
planted early so that 

they may have a long 

At the base of the large corm are usually found small corms, or re 
een re palaaans ei unlike young corms; they are covered witha Season of growth, 1n 

order that they may gain 
a large size. Although it is advantageous for the same reason to allow 
them to remain in the soil until late in the fall, commercially they can be 
much more easily handled if taken up when the tops are somewhat green. 

This leads to the question of proper storage, which is about the same 
as for mature corms. Cormels are often stored in soil (Moore) just as 
removed from the parent corms, in a place where the temperature is 
approximately from 40° to 45° F. (Wilmore), where they are always 


Fic. 38. GLADIOLUS CORM AND CORMELS 


GLaDIoLus Stupies — II 251 


moist and cool (Flanagan). Under these conditions they start much 
better than if dried out. C. S. Tait, a Georgia grower, writes: ‘‘ When 
dug I pack them in dry sand, and they keep finely. I left them in the 
ground this season as we seldom have frosts that freeze deeper than one 
inch. They are coming up now [October 31, 1913].” 

Cormels are frequently stored in cheesecloth bags, but oftener in trays. 
Thomann spreads the cormels on trays, grading them in three sizes by the 
use of sieves. 

Summarizing, it may be said that cormels should be either peeled 
before planting, or soaked in rather warm water to soften their hard, 
dry coats. Besides this treatment, covering the bed with a burlap sack 
will result in a greater percentage of growth. 


INDOOR CULTURE 


Almost since their introduction, gardeners have grown gladioli as pot 
plants. The nanus varieties, Gladiolus Colvillet, or the standard gandaven- 
sts and Lemoinei hybrids, may be planted with equal success. It seems 
inadvisable to use the term forcing in this connection, since that word 
often carries with it the idea of high temperatures causing a premature 
blooming. The gladiolus apparently does not stand such treatment. 

The following species are mentioned by Endicott (1888) as being adapted 
to pot culture: G. tristis, G. recurvus,G. gracilis,G. cuspidatus,G. Watsontus, 
G. villosus, G. Mullert, G. alatus, G. sulphureus, G. carneus. Each of these 
species has small corms producing dwarf plants and small flowers. In late 
autumn they should be placed in four- or five-inch pots, in a light, rich soil. 

G. Colvillet and its white variety, The Bride, have been grown under 
glass to a considerable extent, but the whole vanus group has been neg- 
lected. Many of the uanus varieties are three weeks earlier than the 
Colvillet. Moreover they are not quite so rigid, and in many of them 
the foliage maintains its deep green color to a much greater extent than 
does the foliage of Colville varieties, since the latter is very likely to turn 
brown, at least at the tips. As the season begins with the first of April or 
May the plants bloom at a time when few others are in their prime. 
The flowers do not all come at one time but their blooming periods vary, 
thus extending their season of usefulness for the florist. 

The corms should be potted not later than the first of December, and 
preferably in October or November. If the corms are placed five or six 
in a five-inch pot or individually in smaller pots, they can be shifted to 
larger pots or transplanted to the greenhouse bench. If preferred, they 
may be planted directly in benches. Fuld (1912), in describing cultural 
methods, says: 


Many commercial growers to-day plant it right between the carnations without 
giving it any extra.space, thus getting two crops where formerly they reaped but one. 


262 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


They are exceedingly slow in showing growth and actually make but little growth ~ 
until spring when the sun rises higher. At that time carnations are plentiful and cheap 
and many growers throw them out, thus making room for the gladiolus, but that is 
not at all necessary. While the above method may perhaps be handiest, these gladioli 
can be better grown if planted in flats and stored away in a cold frame and brought 
in during February or March when even then they should be forced with only moderate 
lea ATS 

A slow growth produced by gentle forcing allows the foliage to develop perfect but 
if much forced the tip becomes yellow and brown and injures the sale of the flower. 

This type is often called ‘‘ early flowering ”’ and this is right because the flowers appear 
from two to three weeks earlier than the earliest variety of any other type. 


The corms may be placed in flats twelve by twenty-four inches in 
size, and when planted in this way fifty or seventy-five corms are required 
for each flat. 

It seems best to afford some method of staking the plants when they 
are not grown among carnations. Several stakes, one at each end of 
the rows crosswise of the bench, with string stretched between, are 
sufficient. 

The nanus varieties are very susceptible to attacks of red spider, and 
unless thoroughly and frequently syringed the crop gets badly dried up, 
resulting in a poor development of the spikes. 

A few sorts that have been tried by the writer and found inexpensive 
as well as pretty are: 


Apollon — fine deep pink. 

Mathilde — white, faintly suffused with lavender; early; rather dwarf; said by many 
to be superior to The Bride. 

Pink Perfection — a very robust variety. 

Blushing Bride — lilacy white (7-1)’, the throat sulfury white (14-111), bordered by 
rosy magenta (169-1:1); a fine, well-open bloom; early. 

Peach Blossom — a dainty rosy pink (118-1) bloom with a Rose Neyron red (119-11) 
throat blotch, and sulfury white (14-1) medial lines; a little larger bloom than 
most of the Gladiolus nanus varieties, and early; one of the best varieties in the 
group. 

Minerva — an intensely bright geranium lake (89-1v) bloom with splashed blotches 
of deep cherry red (91-IV) and carmine (116-11) medial lines; seems inclined 
to have rather poor foliage. 

Jeanne esi good dark pink or deep cerise (123-1), blotched carmine-purple 
(156-11), fading lighter toward the center; produces a ‘large number of blooms, 
and is well furnished with foliage. 

Duchesse de Parma — a good, bright poppy color (84-1), with throat of lemon-yellow 
edged with crimson-carmine; blooms possess excellent substance and are well 
arranged on the spike; rather late-blooming; tall. 

Virginie — an exceedingly dainty pure white bloom, with faint markings of Rose 
Neyron red; a compact bloom of good substance; excellent- -appearing spike. 

Bertha “Johannsen — excellent rosy pink (118-11), more salmony in appearance than 
Peach Blossom; there is no blotch on the lower segments, but a slight marking 
is often found on the upper lateral petals; blooms of good size. 

Roseus Maculatus — excellent Rose Neyron red (119-1), blotched with deep cerise 
(123-1v), the medial line of which is lighter; good substance, but rather loose. 
Ackermanni — rich salmon-orange or rosy scarlet (90-1) flowers, very large and hand- 

some; spikes very strong. 

Ko6nigan Wilhelmina — lilacy: white (7-1), lower petals blotched with deep rose-pink 
(120-1V), medial lines of blotches lighter. 


7 These numbers refer to plates in Répertoire de Couleurs published by Société Francaise des Chrysan- 
thémistes and René Oberthir. 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — II 253 


The taller-growing and late-blooming varieties also are grown under 
glass to a great extent. Varieties are chosen for forcing which bloom 
early, have clear, light colors, and are vigorous and healthy. As before 
mentioned, one of the best methods of commercial culture is to place 
the corms among carnations. When planted in the short rows crosswise 
of the bench, they do not seriously interfere with the proper cultivation 
of the carnations. Cowee (1907), writing on this practice, says: 


Most florists who force gladioli are apt to cut the spike too near the soil. 

The bulb is damaged and will not the next year, either under glass or if grown 
outside, do as well. I have found that to give the forced bulbs one year in the ground 
before forcing the second time increases their vitality. . . In solid beds I have 
produced excellent spikes in ninety days with the earliest varieties, but among car- 
nations it usually takes from ninety-eight to one hundred and five days. 

While the roots are forming on the bulbs, the temperature should not be over 50° 
at night, 60° during the day, but after they are well established 55° at night and 65° 
during the day is not too warm. . . . A light dressing of three parts of ashes 
and one of bone meal applied at the time of lasing the bulbs will more than repay 
for the trouble and expense. 


It is not necessary to first plant in pots, but most growers prefer to 
give the plants a good start by placing the potted corms underneath 
the bench in the carnation houses until good root systems are formed 
and tops are well started. If planted directly in beds the corms should 
be placed at a depth of two inches or more, for it is well to let the depth 
of planting provide a means of support. 

Taft (1913) writes: 


The bulbs need to complete their period of rest before they are started into growth, 
and nothing will be gained by planting them before the last of December, unless bulbs 
are used that have been forced the previous year. They can be grown either in beds, 
boxes or pots, but one of the latter will generally be found preferable, as it admits of 
keeping them in a cool place until the roots have formed, which is desirable. 

It will be best to start them in pots and transplant them to the beds after the pots have 
become filled with roots. 

They can be grown in the boxes about the same as Holland bulbs, using rather heavier 
and richer soil. The bulb should be barely covered with the soil, and as there is danger 
of the damping off of the shoots if over-watered, it is a good plan to have the surface 
half-inch of sand. Water thoroughly and place under the benches, where the tem- 
perature will be 50°, until the roots have filled the soil and the leaves have started. 
Gradually increase the heat to 60° and to 75°. When the buds begin to form, give 
liquid manure once a week. If properly handled, the flowers will be ready to cut 
by Easter. 


Bebbington (1907) prefers to maintain a temperature of 50° at night 
and 60° in the daytime, and holds that a temperature of 70° is too high. 

John Thorpe (Allen, 1911, pages 121-122), of Pearl River, New York, 
writes as follows of his experiences: 


To force gladiolus successfully, however, requires attention at just the right time, 
and its wants should always be anticipated and supplied. Here is the routine of my 
practice: The bulbs I forced this year were also forced last year. They were then 
planted February 8, and the first twenty-five flowers were cut May 30. This year’s 
work began December 27 by potting each bulb in a four-inch pot, using sandy loam, 
. without manure, and fleatige the bulb on the top, pressing it down to hold it without 
any other covering; they were watered and then placed underneath the benches of 


254 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


a carnation-house until the beginning of February. At that time those plants which 
had grown to the height of four inches were brought to the light and again watered. 
Placing them close together on a bench near the light, a little water was given from 
time to time, retarding the top growth, and encouraging root-action as much as possible. 
By the twentieth of the month the plants were gone over, and all those of an even size 
were planted together in rows about a foot apart, and nine inches apart in the rows. 
After planting those of one size, then another batch a size less was handled. This 
selecting into sizes pays for all the trouble it costs in preventing strong plants from 
overcrowding the weaker ones. My soil is rather a heavy sandy loam, and in this 
the bulbs were planted, the depth of the entire bed being a little more than four inches. 
The bulbs were scarcely covered even at this time, and this, I find, prevents the damping 
off of the plants during dull days, when they have commenced to grow rapidly, and 
are checked either by dark weather or by a cold spell. By the middle of March each 
plant was tied securely to prevent its falling over, which is generally ruinous to the 
flower-spike; a light mulching of stable-manure was then put on and well watered. 
From that time until the flowers were cut a good soaking of liquid manure was given 
each week. The gladiolus delights in moisture when well along in growth, but in 
its earlier stages too much water is death to it. The first twenty-five flowers were 
cut for Easter, or six weeks earlier than last year. The temperature was never higher 
than 50° at night, and during the daytime the house was ventilated whenever it could 
be kept above 70° F. 


Another object of indoor culture is to extend the season of bloom in 
the conservatory. For this purpose the method of culture described 
by Kelway (1913) is substantially as follows: If it is desirable to have 
gladioli late, for decorating the conservatory, they may be grown with 
tolerably good effect. The corms should be potted singly in six-inch 
pots about the end of May, using a rich compost of yellow loam, old 
hotbed manure, and silver sand. They should then be plunged in a 
bed of very rich soil the rims of the pots being placed about two inches 
below the surface. In dry weather they will require to be kept tolerably 
moist with frequent waterings. As soon as frosts commence the pots 
should be lifted and placed in a cold greenhouse or vinery, and they 
should be brought into the conservatory as soon as the buds begin to open. 

It is frequently recommended that some bulbs be potted of such 
varieties as are useful early in the spring or summer, four or five corms 
being placed in a six-inch pot and started in a temperature of 50° F. 
These can later be planted in the ground, and four or five weeks can thus 
be gained in blooming. Often, however, this method does not prove 
successful. It is difficult to handle the plants without breaking the 
tops, and they should be staked immediately on being placed in the 
garden. 


INSECT AND ANIMAL PESTS 


It seems safe to say that there is really no insect that is seriously 
injurious to the gladiolus. Dombrain (1873) reports serious damage in 
England due to wireworms. He believes that freshly turned-up sod 
should not be used, and writes as follows: ‘‘ Three years ago I planted 
mine in a part of my garden which had up to two years before that been 
a meadow, and the previous season had potatoes in it. Half my roots 


GLaDIOLus StupiEs — II 20 
5 


were devoured by wireworms, the destructive little things eating through 
the shoot just as it appeared above ground.”” W. P. Wright also mentions 
wireworms, in Popular Garden Flowers. He states that the grubs fasten 
on the corms in myriads, and soon make short work of a large collection. 
He recommends that if the corms are planted on new land from pasture, 
the turf should be taken away, not turned in, however deeply, and in 
the spring before planting Vaporite or Aporite should be ate in nine 
or ten inches below the surface. 

The writer has seen no reference to injury from wireworms in this 
country. Weathers (1911) recommends trenching three feet deep in 
autumn, burying the topsoil containing the worms, and perhaps other 
grubs, at the bottom of the furrow. By this practice the worms are 
completely stifled and deprived of their vegetable diet; the subsoil will 
thus be free from the pest, and if well manured and exposed to the weather 
it will be in a good fertile condition in the spring. 

The writer has noted a slight amount of injury due to the small wiry 
millepede, a Chilognatha. This may be the “wireworm”’ already referred 
to. The millepedes may be observed in the ashes under pots of 
gladioli grown indoors, and many of them are also noticed on the outdoor 
corms at the time they are being overhauled for winter storage. The 
condition known as scab may be due to these millepedes, but this is not 
definitely proved. If the corms are left to dry in a barn for some time, 
the holes bored by the millepede are filled with a jelly-like substance 
which one might at first think is frost. The injury due to these millepedes 
differs from diseased corms in that the areas of their attack are of regular 
shape and are metallic in appearance. 

Most of the damage to gladioli caused by insects is on the parts of 
the plant above ground. The black aster beetle seems troublesome to 
many growers, the damage being to both buds and flowers. This is 
especially true late in the season. 

H. A. Richardson reports the occurrence of arctiid moths, undoubtedly 
a species of the genus of tiger moths, Eyprepia. These moths are 
gregarious in habit, and they injure the flowers and spikes, but mostly 
the cuticle of the leaves. Grasshoppers and katydids have been reported 
as eating the blooms. 

The red spider (Tetranychus telarius Linn.) is especially troublesome 
in a very dry season. This is a small mite, one-fiftieth of an inch long, 
which spins minute threads that are scarcely perceptible to the naked 
eye but that when very abundant give a grayish appearance to the leaves. 
The insects are rather reddish, though somewhat orange-tinged. Their 
principal injuries are to indoor plants, but they are also found in the 
open. When only a few are present they are not noticeable; but when 


256 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


they are abundant, the leaves become pale in color and stunted. They 
effect their injury by sucking the juices from the leaves. Indoors they 
are more resistant to fumigation than are aphids or thrips. As they 
are very sensitive to moist conditions, the main method of control is 
by a thorough syringing with water. Sanitary methods of keeping down 
all weeds harboring them, and burning infested parts of the plants, are 
of prime importance. 

A number of cases of injury by a black blister beetle have been reported. 
This is no doubt a beetle of the genus Epicauta, or possibly Meloe. 

Van Fleet and others report the occurrence of a Diabrotica beetle. 
These are yellowish green, much like the cucumber beetles. On the trial 
grounds at Cornell they caused some injury by eating the unopened buds. 
If very plentiful they may be shaken on to sticky paper, as recommended 
by the California State Commission of Horticulture. 

In Success with Flowers (Anonymous reference, 1901), a subscriber who 
inquires as to effective treatment for a root aphis, or root louse, which it 
is difficult to reach with insecticides, is answered as follows: 


The piece of ground to be planted with gladiolus may be cleared of the insects by the 
use of coarsely ground tobacco that can be purchased at about ten cents a pound. 
A heavy dressing of the tobacco can be spread on the ground and forked in immediately 
before planting, or it may be dug in between the plants laterintheseason. . . Potash 
salt in the form of kainit has been found to be injurious or destructive to the insects; 
nitrate of soda produces similar effects. If, therefore, these substances should be 
used as fertilizers, . . . they would at the same time destroy the pests, or at 
least lessen their number to the extent of rendering them harmless. 


Cutworms have been especially abundant of late. They are the noc- 
turnal larvee of owlet moths, and according to Powell (1915) ‘‘ start their 
depredations early in May, or even in late April, and continue until about 
the middle of June.” The best remedy seems to be a poisoned bait made 
in one of various ways. For small garden spots a little paris green is 
mixed with some bran, the mixture then being made into a thick mush 
by the addition of sufficient molasses and water. This is sprinkled 
along the rows of gladioli. Munroe (1915) states that when large 
fields need to be treated, it is best to spread the bran, perhaps about a 
hundred pounds, on a barn floor, and sprinkle it with sweetened molasses 
water (enough to make it crumbly); over this is then scattered a pound 
of paris green, and the whole is mixed together thoroughly. 


GLADIOLUS DISEASES ® 
Dr. L. M. Massey, of the Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell 
University, contributes the following brief résumé of the gladiolus diseases: 


8 The Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University is investigating the diseases of the 
gladiolus, and all samples of diseased plants or corms, as well as all correspondence concerning treatment 
for the prevention of disease, should be addressed to that department. 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — II 257 


There are at least three important diseases of the gladiolus, namely, 

hard rot, dry rot, and scab. The first two are characterized by necrotic 
lesions of various sizes in the corms, the diseased area blending more 
or less gradually into the healthy tissue. Scab lesions have a sharp line 
of demarcation, a distinct ridge being formed around the border of the 
depression. The surface of the depression has a somewhat metallic luster. 
In the older scab spots there is a cavity beneath the metallic film, appear- 
ing as if eaten out by some insect. 
The lesions of hard rot and dry rot are usually small in the autumn, 
when the corms are dug. The diseases advance while the corms are in 
storage, until by spring many corms are reduced to dry mummies. Scab 
lesions do not enlarge after the corms are placed in storage. 

Hard rot and dry rot are caused by fungous pathogenes whose life 
histories do not materially differ. The two fungi live over winter in the 
corm and are thus carried to the soil at planting time. The fungi do not 
grow from the old corm directly into the offspring, but either grow out 
into the soil, whence they attack the corms, or else work along the sheath- 
ing leaf bases. In the majority of cases a diseased corm may be expected 
as a result of planting one that is diseased. 

The cause of the scab disease is unknown. Attempts to connect some 
fungus with the diseased areas on the corms have failed. The lesions 
may be due to the attacks of certain insects, such as wireworms or milli- 
pedes, but no experimental data are at hand to prove or disprove this 
suggested possibility. 

Various soil and corm treatments have been used in an effort to control 
the hard rot and the dry rot of the gladiolus. Corms have been treated 
with formalin, corrosive sublimate, hot water, dry heat, and so forth, 
at strengths as high as the corms would permit without injury. None of 
these treatments have proved effective. Soil has been treated with lime, 
acid phosphate, sulfur, lime and sulfur, and iron sulfate, in strengths as 
high as the grower could afford to use them, without protecting the 
corms from the attacks of these fungi. 

The selection of healthy corms, which are planted in soil in which no 
gladioli have ever been grown, is the one process that has unfailingly 
resulted in the production of healthy offspring. This requires*a rigid 
selection. No corms should be planted which show any signs whatsoever 
of disease after the husks are removed. Care should be exercised during 
the growing season to see that no infested soil nor diseased plant parts 
are carried to the soil in which the healthy corms are growing. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — II 2 


Lo at 
\o 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 
(Anonymous) 


1892 Hardy hybrid gladiolh. Garden 41:542. 

1894 Gladiolus Saundersi hybridus. Garden 46:116. 

1898 Studies in stiff flowers. Amer. florist 14:337-338. 

1901 Gladiolus and root lice. Success with flowers 11:186. 

1906 Gladiolus nanus. Florists’ rev. 18:583. 

t907-a Gladioli. Florists’ rev. 20: Oct. 3:6. 

1907 b Gladioli. Florists’ rev. 20: Oct. 17:10. 

1907c¢ Gladioli. Florists’ rev. 20:July 4:11. 

1907d Gladiolus praecox. Florists’ ex. 23:803. 

1908a_ Ruffled gladioli. . Florists’ rev. 21: Jan 23:10. 

1908 b Gladiolus The Bride. Florists’ rev. 21: Feb. 20:6. 

1908 c Gladiolus praecox hardy. Florists’ rev. 21: Feb. 27:36. 

1908 d_ The soldier-flower. Sat. rev. 106: 202-203. 

1908 e Hardiness of Gladiolus praecox. Florists’ ex. 25:215. From Hort. trade 
journ. [Englandj. 

t908f Black spot on gladioli bulbs. Amer. florist 29:614. 

1909 a Gladioli for Memorial Day. Florists’ rev. 24: Nov. 4:17. 

1909 b- Gladioli on Pacific coast. Florists’ rev. 25: Nov. 25:59. 

t910a_ Gladiolus bulblets. Florists’ rev. 26: May 26:17. 

1910 b Gladioli in California. . Florists’ rev. 26: July 7: 49-50. 

Ig10c Gladioli as a winter crop. Florists’ rev. 26:Sept. 15:7. 

Igitra_ Fertilizer for gladioli. Florists’ rev. 27: Feb. 2:15. 

1911 b Gladioli for outdoors. Florists’ rev. 27: Feb. 23:11. 

Igtrc Gladiolus Colvillei. Florists’ rev. 28: Aug. 3:13. 

1911 d_ Gladioli in benches. Florists’ rev. 29: Dec. 21:17. 

tg1re Gladioli a second year. Florists’ rev. 29: Dec. 28:56. 

t914a_ Early gladioli in California. Mod. glad. grow. 1: Io. 

1914 b Forcing gladioli for florists. _Mod. glad. grow. 1:18. 

1914¢ Gladioli bloom for market. Mod. glad. grow. 1:34. 

1914 d International registration of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:98—99. 

IQI5 Diseased gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:99. From Rural New-Yorker. 


Adams, J. M. 
1914a Planting gladiolus seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 106. 
1914 b Whatisanamateur? Mod. glad. grow. 1: 158. 


Allen, C. L. 
1911 Bulbs and tuberous-rooted plants, p. 101-130. 
Andres, Orfa 
1914 Gladiolus, columbine, and petunias. Mod glad. grow. 1:4. From Park’s 
floral mag. 


Atkinson, Mrs. K. 
1914-15 Gladiolus growing for the amateur. Nat. Glad. Soc. Glad. annual, 


p. 29-31. 


Austin, A. H., Co. 
1914 Cutting spikes of gladiolus bloom. Mod. glad. grow. 1:29. 


Austin, Mrs. A. H. 
I9g1ra_ Variegated gladiolus leaves. Florists’ rev. 28: Oct. 5:22. 
1911 b Gladiolus topics. Florists’ rev. 29: Nov. 30:24. 
1914a Selection. Mod. glad. grow. 1:23. 
1914b Beready. Mod. glad. grow. 1:37-38. 
1914c Preparation of soil and planting. Mod. glad. grow. 1:53-54. 
1914 d Weeding and later plantings. Mod. glad. grow. 1:69-70. 
1914e Gladioli and hardy plants. Mod. glad. grow. 1:85. 
1914f The cut flower shipping package. Mod. glad. grow. 1:1o0!. 


260 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN Io 


Austin, Mrs. A. H. (continued) : 
1914g Gladiolus improvement and exhibitions. Mod. glad. grow. 1:117-18. 
1914h Gladiolus seed.— Digging bulblets— Army worms.— Asters as a sideline. 
Mod. glad. grow. 1:134. 

1914i A day in October. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 149-150. 

1914j The season of thankfulness The $1,000 bulb. Mod. glad. grow. 
1:163-164. 

1914 k Is gladiolus growing a success? Mod. glad. grow. 1:177-178. 

1915 a Gladioli in the window garden. Mod. glad. grow. 2:5. 

1915 b Naming gladiolus seedlings. Mod. glad. grow. 2:17. 

1915 c Gladiolus gardens. Mod. glad. grow. 2:61-62. 

1915 d_ Gladiolus digging in October. Mod. glad. grow. 2:138. 

1915e The gladiolus everywhere. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. 
Exhib., p. 37. 


Auten, B. C. 
1914a Photographing flowers. Mod. glad. grow. 1:104. 
1914 b Inducing rapid increase. Mod. glad. grow. 1:121-122. 
1915 a Does the gladiolus sport through its cormels? Mod. glad. grow. 2:66. 
1915 b Period of rest. Mod. glad. grow. 2:80. 


Bailey, L. H., Cushman, E. H., and Groff, H. H. 
1909 Gladiolus. Cyclop. Amer. hort. 2:646-649. 


Bailey, L. H., and Gilbert, A. W. 
1915 Mendelian inheritance of color. In Plant-breeding, p. 185-187. 


Bailey, L. H., and others 
1915 Gladiolus. Stand. cyclop. hort. 3:1339-1346. 


Baker, J. G. 
1892 Handbook of the Iridez, p. 198-229. 
1896-97 Gladiolus, Linn. Flora capensis 6:135-165. 


Banning, Frank 
1899 The gladiolus. Florists’ rev. 3:614. 


Barber, C. F. 
1914a A multiplicity of gladiolus types desirable. Mod. glad. grow. 1:72. 
1914 b Hybridizing gladioli for amateurs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:133, 136. 


Barron, Leonard 
1913 The most gorgeous summer flowering bulb. Gard. mag. [New York] 
1'7: 241-242. 


Beal, A. C. 
1914 International registration of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:103. 
1915 Gladiolus registration. Mod. glad. grow. 2:38. 
1916 Gladiolus studies—I. Botany, history, and evolution of the gladiolus. 
Cornell extension bul. 9: 89-188. 


Bebbington, J., & Sons 
1907. Growing gladiolus with carnations. Florists’ ex. 23: 318-319. 


Betscher, C. 
1914a_ Growing of gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:15-16. 
1914b Forcing gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:36. From Florists’ ex. 
1914c Gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:45. 
1914 d Behavior of bulbs in dry weather. Mod. glad. grow. 1:62. 


Black, G. D. 
1914a Testing new varieties. Mod. glad. grow. I:I1. 
1914 b Some observations on the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 21-22. 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — II 261 


Black, G. D. (continued) 
1914c¢ Treating diseased gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:35. 
1914d Holland-grown gladiolus bulbs.— Treating with formaldehyde.— Damage 
from sprouting and root growth. Mod. glad. grow. 1:111. 
1914e Gladiolus exhibits. Mod. glad. grow. 1:123, 129. 
1915 a> Gladiolus ‘“‘ Independence.” Mod. glad. grow. 2:6. 
1915 b Treating gladiolus corms with formaldehyde. Mod. giad. grow. 2:69-70. 
t9g15c_ Life history of the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:92, 102. 


Blair, Gertrude 
1904 Vase arrangements.— II. Gladioli. Florists’ rev. 14:703. 


Bliss, A. J. 
1916 The florist’s gladiolus. Gard. chron. ser. 3:59:25. 


Braunton, Ernest 
1914 Breeding new plants. Method by which this may be accomplished. Mod. 
glad. grow. 1:162. From Los Angeles times. 


Brown, C. W. 

1914 Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow. 1:1I0. 
Bull, W. C. 

1903 The gladiolus. Garden 64:252—253, 265. 
Burrell, J. 


1898 Gladiolus gandavensis hybrids. Garden 53:210. 


Chamberlain, Montague 
Igtr_ Fertilizers. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 3:27-28. 
1914a The gladiolus in design and decorative work. Mod. glad. grow. 1:14. 
1914b Acidity. Mod. glad. grow. 1:28. 
1914c The status of the amateur. Mod. glad. grow. 1:176. 


Charlton, Ralph, jr. 
1914 Gladioli from seed the first year. Mod. glad. grow. 1:137. 


Childs, J. L. 
1907 Leaf blight of gladiolus. Florists’ ex. 23:541. 


Chittenden, F. J. 
1907 The influence of the parents on the colour of the hybrid. Roy. Hort. Soc. 
[London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 213-217. 


Christy, W. A. 

1908 Ruffled gladioli. Florists’ rev. 21: May 7:29-31. 

Igtr1_ Hybridists and hybridizing. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2:12-16; cont., Bul. 
3:13-19. Also (1912), Nat. Glad. Soc. [Englandj. Handb. 1912: 39-48. 

1912 Hybrid vs. cross-breed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 5:4. 

1914a Staking gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:61. 

1914b Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 110-111. 

1914¢ Developing bulblets in small quantities. Mod. glad. grow. 1:128—129. 

IQI5 Gladioli on same ground successively. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 39-40. 


Clute, W. N. 
1915 Do varieties run out? Mod. glad. grow. 2: 109. 


Coblentz, P. O. 
1908 Ground for gladioli. Florists’ rev. 22: Oct. 8:33-34. 


Cole, Norman 
1915 Do bulblets sport? Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 


262 


= 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN to 


Coleman, Joe 


1914a 
1914 b 
I9I4c 
19g14d 


1914e 
IgI5 a 
1915 b 


Gladioli in a dry season. Mod. glad. grow. 1:3. 

Acidity.— Liming. Mod. glad. grow. 1:60. 

Fertilizer. Mod. glad. grow. 1:72. 

Selling cut flowers.— Prices.— Shipping packages, etc. Mod. glad. 
grow. I:9I-92. 

Growing gladioli for cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow. 1:127-128. 

A prophecy and a plea for gladiolus popularity. Mod. glad. grow. 2:78. 

Securing early bloom. Mod. glad. grow. 2:105. 


Cooper, Madison 


1914a 
1914 b 
IQI4 Cc 
1914 d 


19gi4e 
tg14f 
1914 g 
1914h 
1914 i 


1914 j 
I9gi5a 
1915 b 
IQI5c 
1915 d 


I915e 
Ig15f 


1915 g 
1915 h 
Igi5i 


Raising gladiolus seedlings. Mod: glad. grow. 1:13-14. 

Cut flowers vs. bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:24. 

‘“‘ Starved or fed.’’ Mod. glad. grow. 1:24-25. 

Planting bulblets in cold frame.— Gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 
1:45-46. 

Growing the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:66-67. 

Curing, storage, and forcing of gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 1:71. 

Distance for planting gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:92. 

Hardy gladioli? Mod. glad. grow. 1: 161. 

Harvesting, curing, and storing.— Gladiolus bulbs and bulblets. Mod. 
glad. grow. 1:168. 

Wood ashes as fertilizer for gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 182. 

Fireproof bul’) storage. Mod. glad. grow. 2:7. 

Do bulblets sport? Mod. glad. grow. 2:8. 

Forcing gladioli in California. Mod. glad. grow. 2:12. 

Exhibiting gladioli at fairs—— Suggestion for staging, etc. Mod. glad. 
grow. 2:23. 

Packing gladiolus corms for shipment. Mod. glad. grow. 2:33. 

Angle worms in soil.— Various questions on growing gladioli.— Fertilizers, 
etc. Mod. glad. grow. 2:69. 

Quantity of fertilizer to use on gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:83-84. 

Gladiolus corms produce plurality of sprouts. Mod. glad. grow. 2:115. 

Removing tops from gladiolus corms at digging time. Mod. glad. grow. 

2:140. 


1915 j Cold storage of cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow. 2:150. 

1915 k Testing of varieties. Mod. glad. grow. 2:158. 
Cowee, Arthur 

1904 The gladiolus. Florists’ rev. 13:814-815. 

1905 Forcing gladioli. Florists’ rev. 16:1405-1406. 

1907 Growing gladiolus with carnations. Florists’ ex. 23:453. ; 
1908 a Cultivation of gladioli. Florists’ ex. 26:48; also, Amer. florist 30:1220- 
1221; also, Florists’ rev. 22: July 9:6-8; also, Hort. 8:40-41. 

1908 b Rust on gladioli. Florists’ rev. 22: July 30: 10-11. 

1910 Mulching gladioli. Florists’ rev. 25: Feb. 24:8. 

IQII Gladiolus nomenclature. Florists’ rev. 27: Apr. 6:42. 

I9giz2a Renaming varieties of gladioli and the disposition of synonyms. Nat. _ 
Glad. Soc. [England]. Handb. 1912: 49-53. 

I912b White gladioli. Nat. Glad. Soc. [England]. Handb. 1912:54-55. 

I9gi2c Wilting before packing. Florists’ rev. 29: Mar. 28:40. 

1914a_ Branching habit gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:16. 

1914b Treatment of gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:40-41. 

t914c Rustin gladioh. Mod. glad. grow. 1:154. 

1915 a Color of bulbs and color of blooms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:40. 

1915 b Packing gladiolus corms for shipment. Mod. glad. grow. 2:65. 


Crane, May B. 


IglI 


Gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2:7-8. 


Crawford, Matthew 


1914a 
1914 b 


I9I4 cc 


Fertilizer at blooming time. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 111-112. 

Rapid multiplication of gladioli— Pollenating and hybridizing. Mod. 
glad. grow. 1:128. 

Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow. 1:154. 


GLADIOLUS StTupIEs — II 263 


Crawford, Matthew, and Van Fleet, W. 
1911 The gladiolus, p. 1-98. 


Cushman, E. H. 
1896 Packing gladiolus flowers. Amer. florist 12:11. 
1906 The gladiolus.— A summer cut flower. Florists’ rev. 17: 1401-1402. 
I91t Cutting gladiolus spikes. Florists’ rev. 28: Aug. 3:14. 
1915 Commercial cultivation for stock or bulbs. In Gladiolus. Stand. cyclop. 
hort. 3: 1342. ; 


Darbishire, A. D. 
I911_ Breeding and the Mendelian discovery, p. 1-2 


Darwin, Charles 
1888 The origin of species by means of natural selection. Sixth ed., 2: 14-15. 


Dombrain, H. H. 
1873 The gladiolus, its history, cultivation, and exhibition, p. 1-56. 


Douglas, James 
1885 Raising new varieties of gladiolus. Gard. monthly 27: 166. 


Endicott, W. E. : 
1886 Gladioli. Amer. florist 1:214-215. 
1888 The species of Gladiolus. Gard. and for. 1:363-365. 
1891 Some hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 4: 403. 


Errey, Gilbert 
1915 Gladiolus growing from an Australian viewpoint. Mod: glad. grow. 
2: 4360-137. 


Fairbanks, C. F. 
1914 The standing of an amateur. Mod. glad. grow.-1:175-176. 


Fairchild, D. 
I9gi2 Plant introduction for the plant breeder. U.S. Agr. Dept. Yearbook 
IQII: 411-422. 


Falconer, William 
1891 Peeling gladiolus bulblets. Amer. florist '7:227 


Field, Henry 
1909 Gladioli. Florists’ rev. 24:Sept. 2:34—-45. 


Fischer, E. N. 
t9g12 The classification of the gladioli. Am. Glad. Soc. Bul. 4:8 
1914 The application of Mendel’s law in the breeding of vintiol, Mod. glad. 
grow. I: 100, II2. 


Fuld, Maurice 
Igi2 Gladiolus nanus. Amer. Glad. Soc., Bul. 4: 16-21; also, Hort. 15: 458-459; 
also (1914), Mod. glad. grow. 1: 107-109. 
1915 a How to have succession of gladioli in the garden. Amer. Glad. Soc. 
Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., p. 27. 
1915 b How to produce the best blooms for exhibitions. Amer. Glad. Soc. 
Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., p. 40. 


Gage, L. M. 
t910a Thegladiolus. A few observations from my 1909 notebook. _ Hort. 11:71. 
1910 b More gladiolus notes. Hort. 11: 182. 
1913(?) The gladiolus seed bed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 7:3. 
1914 a_ Packing bulbs for shipment. Mod. glad. grow. 1:7. 
1914 b Gladioli in rows. Mod. glad. grow. 1:46. 
1915 a Good gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., p. 34. 
1915 b Potato fertilizer for gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:70. 


204 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Gerard, J. N. 
1894 Gladioli. Gard. and for. 7:296-297. 


Gilbert, A. W. 
1915 Heredity of color in Phlox drummondii. Journ. agr. research 4:293-301. 


Goodrich, E. S. 
1912 Changesin coloration due to environment. In Evolution of living organisms, 


p. 36. 


Groff, H. H. 

1906a Culture and care of cut spikes. Florists’ rev. 17:1565. 

1906 b The modern gladiolus. Florists’ ex. 21:558-559. 

1907 a Practical plant-breeding, more especially in relation to the gladiolus, 
Roy. Hort. Soc. [London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, 
Pp. 421-425. 

1907b Results in growing gladioli. Florists’ ex. 24:171. 

1907c Breeding gladioli. Florists’ rev. 19:707-708. 

1907 d_ Groff’s hybrid gladioli. Florists’ rev. 19: 1349-1350. 

1908 Ruffled gladioli. Florists’ rev. 21: May 14:32-33. 

IQII The modern gladiolus. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2:8-9. 

1914 Care of gladioli as cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow. 1:70. 


Guihéneuf, D. | ; 
1895 Les plantes bulbeuses, tuberculeuses, et rhizomateuses ornementales de 
serre et de pleine terre, p. 276-290. 


Hamilton, S. A. 
1913 Gladiolus culture. Country gent. 78:718-719. 


Hatfield, T. D. 
1897 . The hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 10:335-336. 


Henderson, Peter 
1890 Gladiolus. Jn Handbook of plants and general horticulture, p. 166-167. 


Hendrickson, I. S. 
IQII Gladioli. Amer: Glad. soc. Bul. 3:5-13. 
1914a_ The gay gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:2-3. From Florists’ ex. 
1914 b Gladiolus praecox. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 168. 
IQI5 Culture of the gladiolus. Jn Gladiolus. Stand. cyclop. hort. 3:1341-1342. 


Herbert, William 
1837. Amaryllidaceae, p. 365-366. 
1847. On hybridization amongst vegetables. Hort. Soc. London. Journ. 2:81-107. 


Hicks, D. C. a 
1906 Notes upon gladiolus and its culture. Vermont Hort. Soc. Rept. 1906:34. 


Higgins, E. A. 
1912 Marvellous grace and beauty. Elmira telegram, Feb. 2. 


Hildreth, Mrs. H. A. 
1914 Remedies for cut worms. Mod. glad. grow. 1:138. 


Hinkle, C. R. 
1915 The gladiolus; why and how. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 161-164. 


Holben, F. J. 
-1915 Fertilizing value of wood ashes. Mod. glad. grow. 2:126. From Penn- 
sylvania farmer. 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — IT 265 


Hottes, A. C. 
t914a_ Trial ground work. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 19-20. 
1914 b Experiments with gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:50-52. 
i915 a Garden gladioli. Journ. hered. 6:499-504; reviewed im Gard. chron. 
ser. 3:50:34. 
1915 b Gladiolusideals. Amer.Glad.Soc. Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., p. 31-34. 
t915c Indoor culture. Jn Gladiolus. Stand. cyclop. hort. 3:1342. 


Jackson, R. T. 
1889 Hybridization of gladioli. Gard. and for. 2:88-91. 


Jacob, Joseph 
1915 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:135. From British nurseryman and 
seedman. 


Jones, C. R. 
1915 Cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:122. From Farm news. 


Kelway, James, & Sons 
1913) Manual of horticulture, p. 318. 


Kerr, G. W. 
1913 Gladiolus blooming the first year from seed. Gard. mag. [New York] 
17 :260. 
1915 Gladioli — Flowering the first year from seed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program 
Nat. Glad. Exhib., p. 35-36. 


Keur, C., & Sons 
1915 Artistic effects in floriculture. Mod. glad. grow. 2:106, I17. 


King, Mrs. Francis 
1911 Garden color combinations with gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2:5. 
1913 New gladiolus. Gard. mag. [New York] 17:242. 


Kirscht, Herman 
1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:142. 


Koerner, H. W. 
1908 Some more about gladiolus. Florists’ rev. 21: Feb. 27: 36-37. 
1911 Hybridizing and culture. Florists’ rev. 29: Dec. 21:12. 


Krelage, E. H. 
1892 Hybrid gladioli. Garden 41: 190-192. 
1896 The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. and for. 9:446. 


Kunderd, A. E. 
1908a_ Ruffled gladioli. Hort. 7:165. 
1908 b_ The ruffled gladiolus. Florists’ rev. 22: June 4:7-8. 
IQII Gladiolus and its future. Florists’ rev. 29: Dec. 21:12-14; also, Florists’ 
ex. 32: 1263. 
1914a A pure white gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:11. 
1914b Foliage of the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:26. 
1914c Planting gladiolus bulblets. Mod. glad. grow. 1:62. 
1915 a Covering bulbs with sand while in storage. Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 
1915 b Do gladioli deteriorate? Mod. glad. grow. 2:157. 


Landis, I. H. 
1914 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 160. 


Larousse, Pierre ; ; 
1872 Glaieul. Jn Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX® siécle 8: 1290. 


266 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I0 


Lawrence, J. R. 
1914 Some of the newer gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:9-10. _ From Florists’ ex. 


Le Moyne, F. J. 
1912 Raising gladiolus from seed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 4: 11-12. 


Lounsberry, A. ad 
1914 Beauty, individuality, and: variety of the modern gladiolus. Craftsman 
26: 486-496. i 


McNeely, W. M. 
1914 Gladioli and ferns. Mod. glad. grow. 1:58. 


Massey, L. M. 
1915 Diseased gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:99. From Florists’ rey. 
1916 Gladiolus corm diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 3:70-73. 


Massey, W. F. 
1914a Rot in gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:4. From New York tribune farmer. 
1914b Growing gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:60. From Progressive 
farmer. 


Mead, T. L. 
1915 Gladioli from seed in Florida. Mod. glad. grow. 2:81, 86. 


Meader, H. E. 
IQII From a gladiolus specialist. Florists’ rev. 29: Nov. 30:24. 
1912a_ Ideals in gladiolus growing. Florists’ rev. 29: March 28:40. 
1912 b Keep up the standard. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 5:3-4. 


Miller, C. C. 
1915 Petal arrangement of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 160. 


Miller, E. S. 
1910 Crooked gladiolus stems. Florists’ rev. 26: Sept. 15:7. 


Mitchell, S. B. 
1915 Culture in California. In Gladiolus. Stand. cyclop. hort. 3:1342. 


Morton, F. S. 

1914a Planting suggestions. Mod. glad. grow. 1:36. 

1914 b Growing gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:54. 

1914c Many new varieties of gladioli produced. Mod. glad. grow. 1:159-160. 
From Portland (Maine) evening express and advertiser. 

1914 d Storing bulblets in small quantities. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 181. 

1915a An experiment with weak bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:20. 

1915 b Planting, fertilizing, and marking. Mod. glad. grow. 2:68. 

1915 c. Cultivation.— Cut worms.— Watering, &c. Mod. glad. grow. 2:82. 

1915 d_ Growing gladioli from bulblets. Mod. glad. grow. 2:94. 

1915 e Digging, storing, and curing gladiolus corms.— Other fall suggestions. 
Mod. glad. grow. 2:143. 


Munroe, J. E. 
1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:116. 


Naudin, M. 
1866 Reciprocal crosses. Roy. Hort. Soc. [London]. Journ. 1866:2. 


Oberlin, T. J. 
1891 Cheap trays for gladiolus bulbs. Amer. florist 6:534. 


Parkinson, John 
1629 Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris, p. 189-191. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — II 26 


~s 


- Patterson, R. J. 


1914 Gladioli and cut worms — how to prevent them. Mod. glad. grow. 1:137- 
138. 
Perkins, L. A. 
1914 An inexpensive grader. Mod. glad. grow. 1:38. 


Powell, E. C. 
1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 111. 


Pryal, W. A. 
tg1r Gladiolus topics. Florists’ rev. 29: Nov. 16:33-34. 


Putnam, Bessie L. 
1914 Gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:116. From The national farmer and stock 
grower. 


Rand, E. S. 
1873 Bulbs, p. 179-193. 


Reading, H. G. 
1915 a Harmony or discord in a vase of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:108. 
1915 b Cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:141-142. 


Reddick, Donald 
1915 a _ Gladiolus diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 2:19. 
1915 b Gladiolus diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 2:41. 
1915 c Controlling fungoid growths on gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:79. 


Re Shore, Grace 
tg1r_ Gladioli for amateurs. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 3:23-26. 
1912 New ruffled gladioli. House beautiful 31:sup. 38. 
1915 Preparing and selecting gladiolus corms for planting. Mod. glad. grow. 
2562: 


Rexford, E. E. 
Ig10_ Four seasons in the garden, p. 79-81, 90-91. 


_ Roemer, Frederick 
1906 Annual gladioli. Florists’ rev. 18:778. 


Rose, Jack 
1911 The gladiolus. Market grow. journ. 8:308-309. 


Rudolph, Jules 
1902 Culture forcée des oignons 4a fleurs, p. 92-96. 


Scott, William 
1899 The florists’ manual, p. 109-II0. 
t901a_ Forcing gladiolus. Florists’ rev. 8: 449. 
1901 b Gladiolus The Bride. Florists’ rev. 8:512. 


Seliger, Mrs. Wilhelmina 
1914 The modern gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:167. From Hartford times. 


Skinner, J. H. . < 
1915 Lice on gladiolus corms.—Wild cucumber to be avoided. Mod. glad. 
grow. 2:95. 
Société francaise des Chrysanthémistes and René Oberthiir 
1905 Répertoire de couleurs, p. I-82, I-11, 1-365. 


Stewart, E. E. 
1914 A rare gladiolus sport. Mod. glad. grow. 1:146 


268 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 10 


Swanson, A. S. Z 
1914 A flower for everybody’s garden. Mod. glad. grow. 1:78-79. From 
Northwest. agr. 2 


Taft, L. R. 
1913 Forcing the gladiolus. Jn Greenhouse management, p. 101-103. 


Thomann, Jacob 
1914 ‘‘ Rochester White ’’ and ‘‘ White Lady.’”’ Mod. glad. grow. 1:60. 


Thorpe, John 
Forcing the gladiolus. From Gard. and for. Reprinted in Bulbs and 
tuberous-rooted plants (Allen, I911, p. 121-123). 


Tracy, B. H. 
1911 Forced gladioli are too little known. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2:10. 


Tracy, Mrs. B. H. 
1915 Competitive brotherhood. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., 


Dp, ki: 


Tubergen, C. G. van, jr. 
1907 Hybrids and hybridisation among bulbous plants. Roy. Hort. Soc. 
{London}. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 438-445. 
Tull, R. E. 
1910 Propagating gladiolus. House and garden 17:77. 


Umpleby, J. H. 
1914a Cultural hints on the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:68. 
1914b Growing gladioli from seed.— Storing bulblets, etc. Mod. glad. grow. 
¥* LOO: 
1914c Leaves of gladioli turning brown. Mod. glad. grow. 1:153. 


Van Fleet, W. 


1904 Hybridizing gladiolus species. Jn Proceedings International Conference on 
Plant Breeding and Hybridization, 1902. Hort. Soc. New York. Mem. 
1:143-149. 

1908 Hybrids of Gladiolus primulinus. Florists’ ex. 25:684. From Rural 
New- Yorker. 


1914a_ History of Princeps. Mod. glad. grow. 1:79-8o. 
1914 b Gladiolus types. Mod. glad. grow. 1:93. 


Vos Mz, P. 
1914 Some gladiolus history. Mod. glad. grow. 1:124-126. 


Wallace, E. A. 
1907 Gladiolus The Bride. Florists’ rev. 19:550. 


Ward, P. L. 
1914a The gladiolus has arrived. Mod. glad. grow. 1:63-64. From Rural 
New- Yorker. 
1914 b Gladiolus notes. Mod. glad. grow. 1:155. From Rural New-Yorker. 


Warncke, Mrs. F. C. 
1914 Rapid increase of stocks. Mod. glad. grow. 1:94. 


Watson, J. A. S. 
1912 Heredity, p. 43. 


Watson, W. 
1892 Gladiolus oppositiflorus. Gard. and for. 5:545-546. 
1893 Hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 6:243-244. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES — II 269 


Weathers, on 
1911 The bulb book, p. 1-471. 


Wheadon, E. T. 
1915 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:2-4, 14-16. From Guernsey Growers’ 
Assoc., Yearbook 1914. 


Whetzel, H. H. 
1g1r_ Gladiolus bulb rot. Florists’ rev. 27: Apr. 27: 10-11. 


White, A. 
191s The gladiolus in Australia. Mod. glad. grow. 2:154. 


White, B. F. 
Ig1r_ Gladiolus growing. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bul. 2: 10-11. 


White, E. A. 
1915 Gladiolus. Jn Principles of floriculture, p. 432-435. 


Whitney, G. A. 
1915 ‘‘ Treating ’’ cedar marking stakes. Mod. glad. grow. 2:79-80. 


Wild, H. 


1914 Gladioli for every garden. Amer. homes 11:153-155. 


Williams, C. L. 
1915 Lice on gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 


Wilmore, W. W., jr. 

1914a_ Growing gladioli under irrigation in Colorado. Mod. glad. grow. 1: 
55758. 

1914b_ Breeding gladioli scientifically... Mod. glad. grow. 1:83-84. 

t9g14c “ Forcing” gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:144-146. 

1915a Treatment of old bulbs to restore and preserve vitality. Mod. glad. 
grow. 2: 1I-I2. 

t915b Loss of vitality in old gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:23-24. 

tg915c Gladiolus species. Mod. glad. grow. 2:58-60, 72-74, 84. 

1915 d_ The scientific structure of the plant. Mod. glad. grow. 2:120-122. 

1915 e Soils and fertilizers. Mod. glad. grow. 2:134-135. 

1915 f Planting and harvesting. Mod. glad. grow. 2:152-154. 

1915 g Curing and storing corms and cormels. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 166-167. 


Woodruff, G. S. 
t915a_ Planting forced gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:66. 
1915 b Cutting gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:80. 
1915 c White gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:168. 


Wright, M. F. 
1914 Securing early gladiolus bloom. Mod. glad. grow. 1:118. 


Wright, W. P. 
1903 Pictorial practical bulb growing, p. 106-113. 
—— Popular garden flowers, p. 186. 


Youell, Henry : 
IQII The gladiolus. As we knew and grew it fifty years ago. Hort. 13:420. 
1915 a _ A plea for flower shows. Mod. glad. grow. 2:30. 
1915 b Looking backward. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat, Glad. Exhib., 
p. 15. 


INDEX 


PAGE 
Acidsphosphater2 coast eee een her ee neck 204 
Acquiredicharacters. ii section ole 230 
Actimomorphic) blooris = teeeee (2 eee 210 
VADISY SAIN (Ok ns PAIR We. §, SES Pe PS ee EE rE 209 
Moanwaltaladtliwrpeemee ee a ee eee ae 244 
AnthocyaninicolonSeas eek s ey ise aes 230 
ADTs CLOOU hoy Ree ere eRe Poo cere ek 256 
Aeetiidlme tise nis Sie sci oehe ls dene ue che iene 255 
Aster beetle black 07 ee thecal ae «he 255 
Ward (OLimMmenittemytapcal tern.) ae hoes een Aer 221 
Bagging flowers for crossing................ 234 
Beds 
SEGA coat trek shiek, 5 eee ee eee wie ne 242 
Bibliopraplivey mis. as.s cece rie rience De 259 
Blends, a form of marking in blooms......... 212 
Blister beetle? ty caer aa eee ene 256 
Blooms 
AGHNOMOTD DIGS sy aait). wane Sree ae REE SC 210 
Gharacterssober feos ae ioe ees 208, 233 
Doubling, value and disadvantages of...... 219 
ideal Torm Orne ee aie ce pe eeten ee eee 212 
indoor arrangement ob: .2... 000 soe tee 196 
Number openationtes 4. ......0.. 6. steno ae 216 
PELOLICN SS a iicyrte ere ee eee be tee ae 2II 
AVE VELSIOM MOLI Me seve tie, sen eo eer 210 
Semi-peloriate........ Me ake Soi oro ee 210 
Visif@sxoyeotoyno) oh (hres SRS hd EOE Citon Born 210 
Blotches, a form of marking in blooms....... 212 
Bone foun sie fe eet oe ato sf cae alae 202 
iBone mealecyh- escent oti ees us ween 202, 203 
Branches 
vantages Or emenespeta ante, pr keane 216, 218 
Disadwanitagesioteen ryipatesctt a cial wees 218 
Bulbs 
DehinitiGmiol vaya ccss see Coes as cee eee 244 
Difference between bulb and corm......... 244 
(See also Corm.) 
Capsules, number to allow to develop........ 237 
Gell-san colors eerie forme en ee ee 230 
Chilesalipetersuseiobs sb cisn5 ch cece pees 203 
Chilopnathaitnerteceieenais sis seseebaeoeee 255 
Color 
Bloom, color of, not correlated with color of 
CONTIGS rt te Pam Noha: ea tec eae 247 
Changes due to environment......225, 229, 230 
Cominercial es eros. tie Gane 213 
Nabireloreiiillowers tate.) Sceeeneniet, ee 230 
Range found inigladioli:-<. 0 . Seemed. 212 
Contmerctalatypesceaeessc. Jc + ache ene 213-218 
Corm 
Characteristics of a good corm............ 246 
Correlation in color with that of bloom..... 247 
Definitioniolsis.. cesta cee eee 244 
Dividtnexcorms. 4 erect te. <o.s cei Gee 247 
Gradin gig Mie action tes See «chen ior ooeae ee 246 
Multiplicationloterr-s-mire). che at. . eee 245 
Olds conms = etre are esse susleneke see 246 
Relative value of sizes of.......-.......... 246 
SIZES OL anh ce oe RE EE OR eae eee 246 
SEOTAP CIOL pan) ec sees esi eaten keene oe eee 248 
Cormels 
Culbareohs i aca oe hier ore 249 
Ree lines it fest a ste soe eee eit ee 250 
Reproduction byaa his sos alee Satter abr 249 
peasoniolierowihhvtols ec) ee een ceca . 250 
SIZESIOL go cacti. mais Pein ee ee ees 249 
Solenghi ae ee ee 251 
Storagelolvc cee te «0k cae 250 
Limesto: loom eas. ae Oe 240 
Wale tobe tite thie a cio 240 
Cornelitwaniety test cardinnel. ==. «eee 220 
COVER GEO Drs, ashe caicr tere ine sae eno 203 
Crosses 
Wehnitionon.2en cahieact we cn 6 taken ee 223 
Possible reason for lack of................ 231 
Reciprocalt..¢ fice eee ee ee oe ee 231 
Lechnique ofanalcing .; sac). ass scene 234 


/ 
tn 
Cultivation PAGE 
Wine WO ss aes abi asiele ened We cee eee 205 
Vialueiote: ieee ons oaietenten ie. ote eee 205-206 
With irrigation...) 4% bt oc a eee 207 
Culture 
Of Colwiller-varieties.. 0. <2 ee 251 
Ofsindoor eladioli-)-) ...0.. ate 251 
Of manus «varieties: <4 es..2 see 251 
To extend season of bloom............... 254 
Curved 'spikes.".'s. 5. 0.a. ste eae eee 219 
Cut flower 
Gladiolus as'a.f cass Uhre ee ee 195 
Cutting : 
Blooms, method iok..": ).0 5... See 196 
Cormis:. Neco os Soe. Be ce dart eee 247 
Cutworms; poison bait fob.n. «109. eee 256 
Dashes, a form of marking in blooms......... 212 
Diabrotica beetle ...’. 0.02405...) 256 
Digging ).!2 3/13). ete- outa ete een oe 208 
Dots in throatiof Aower =..4=. 25. ee eee 212 
Double flowers: ..U. Y) csnie. ote 219 
Dried“blood #2 s..55. shea eee 202 
DEY: TOt i ono fatten oe ee en eee 257 
Bmasculation =: | yee k= eee 234, 236 
Bpicatta tc. osc k hea te ce ns eee 256 
BYP DlaclesS hap.a ok dws hin sae yao ee 255 
Feathering, a’form of marking in blooms..... Te 
Fertilizer «= 
Commercial oe yh. ccb the hoe 201-204 
Mantre-asias. ss Sil.< ce. a 2 oo ee 201 
Mme toipply, ak. cin seis ie 5 ote oie 201-204 
Flecking, a form of marking in blooms....... 212 
Forcing. (See Culture of indoor gladioli.) 
Fordhbook hy brid gladioli 5... 21 eee 244 
Garden value 
Among Shira bbery\c = .1. snes chai “as ree 198 
With coluumbine:?.c 2. ces ee ee 198 
With Galtonia [= Hyacinthus] candicans.. 108 
Wathainis |. Ass) owskeke fie ee eee 198 
With petunias.... 0. x cea cst se eee gun | LOS 
With sphlox i722 tetetsan mre ear 198 
Wath: roses... 200.2. tuee > 2 eee 1908 
Gladiolus 
alatus, pot culture Of.> .:"-. 7c earn n eee 251 
cardinalis 
As a parent of Colvillei............ 231, 237 
Contribution of, to hybrids......... B3i 237 
carneus, pot culture of..%.. .ases se eeeee 251 
@hildstt.c3.5s. as siecle Sas ans 2 ae 
Colvillei 
Indoor culturesol.-... 5. 6. 2s a eee 251 
Parentage.ofe:./csinc. css ane eee 231 
Variety: albus. sa26 fais. so. cie eee 223 
Variety: Lhe Bride <5... s.r 251 
cruentus, contribution of, to hybrids...212, 237 
cuspidatus, poticulture of 2). 2:2...) sees 251 
dracocephialtis; Sverre sete seek eee 209, 231 
gandavensis 
Asa seed: parent...<.24\. 3.40 3. 231 
Charactemstics of. -eee oni eee 202.297 
Ebyjbrids Ofer eeaeucr eer 227, 231, 237, 244 
Bracilis, pot culttire Ota, eee 251 
Lemoinei 
As a -paréntoitd sien ae One 231 
Blotchest eee ceieeeioke ye ge a Sw re 212 
Contribution of, to hybrids......... 237, 244 
Millers, pot culture of 25. -.. uae 251 
NANCEIANUS 0) se ose eee eee 231, 237, 244 
nanus 
Indoor cultureiol: <.... a... - nee “255 
Wse0f oe en ees ba ied ee 196 
Variety descriptions. «)...> oc <-s:ieneee 252 
oppositiflorus 
Arrangement of flowers.............+-. 211 
Contributions of, to hybrids............ 237 
papilio, contribution of, to hybrids........ 237 
PIACCOK-% a Ti aleies «sats ieaiesciseversis ware 244, 245 


7O 


— 


GLaDIOLUS StupiEs — II 
‘ Pg AT 
ee (continued) 4 
m : i j 
As ein odisiic parent tess mae Sleek ac 
LOSE oe i : 
ee ee A “240 Tlie 2 ee OR SECS ee crass one, ee 
| oe ete i ee 231, 238 ee 205 
Form of at a eg A ee ee asf Succession ine Spal eet een Tk aa 
Use 2S RGAE Be FR LEO Saree Nk ee 
ES AES eo ores pets ine Obie agegc cence es 304 
ate os Po ccin See aoe 209 ae as er aS Kee ae 199, 207 
PRETEEN See oe ches ethods of 
Contribution of tote eee ee eee 212 OF eee ee 
ct . 212 REE ey Tee a at PRU RS 
Pe eae ad oO By bridS! 2 «t,o... 212, 237 Peek SE a bs On 235 ae 
AEstivation of..... Potassium sulfate PIC 21 SARIN chk 202, 20. 
ieee noe. ce ee Ie. 209 | Potato fertili ya 2 eine Sate 202, 4 
ees of, to hybrids... .: 231. A eo) Ree crosses. cee aaee ea 203 
UO ais Hanes | RE a Rf 231 
Ne or ee ye ae 2 version for Rake tee gate ee Ts oe 
eae dicn pot culture SoReal ean Be RN ete a See eRe - 210 
fier ecatcibutinas of, to hyhi este tee 251 ry - 
seta con 7 niinde G6 bo li bHde: aati eas de S BON OE ES OCCA ELE ee ae 257 
s phureus, pot culture of At ait teins fat eae oa 234 De ee 
eae pot ee Li RRS ecane Oia Sears 251 ee ae eer Bae Wee Oe ere ee al a 231, 233 
el eager ee oes 251 ei MOR Clic RUE 
Eas he ce of Colville .... 231 | Seed aoOns Chadstone 1 oe 
osus, pot culture ap ye, Chr Maer eae ah a 237 Beds 
villosus, pot cure of 8.00001 agk | erties tor seed beds.“ 
ponbiedlitee gtd. shee oe 251 Rerilisersirar ceca nee eee 242-2 
Grasshoppers, Se Sep ee ee 251 Gathering: ay pumice. eee PSS 242 
et we ioe ee 255 Ste be agi tien eee Se ey RNR Latige 2, 82S, ae 
Hybridist, com BG DIES = revs te freencrel pace he ag Se oe 
ybridist, ea : PP HE ofr / Ben Gocaleoae ts ine a See 2. 
Hybrids D with an inventor...... ee Bend: atlorinte faa Fisica eel emi 237; pe 
Roman ab Soil of bloom. . 2 -.... 0.0... 210 
eneral discussion of.............+.+-.- es Proper soil for ioli 
3 £5 S BS 8S) Se ee gladiol rent 
Greater vigor due to hybridity... ....... 22. as Sour, preferred by ladi it ee Na ee pee 
(See al i ee Ss Eee 
fase also various species concerned.) ee Speci Po yn ee ey rear ae 
mprovement : pecies, use of, for improvemer ani Ss gece 
Greatest need for... Pee SSE CEES re oa Seatee meen 
List of varieties, ined ‘possibil Bence ee 240 _ tioned.) , various species men- 
eta ilities when used Spikes, curved 
ied eee ie ee er ae patties Teer coeaLit me 
nheritance of acquired eh Fe es oi 251 Gadyantimentia 00. La eS satya See 219 
Intermixtures characters........... 35° | Splashes, a form of mark rath naar th ite a hae 2 
Intermixture Be ak atone ih Globes. 2 gag Serer ate of marking in blooms........ ree 
eee ciicine tg tier gs ego sae ak as a Stes eee ee we 223, 225 
EATS Pe Pet ace ek ben ieee C. 255 Inadvisability of . 
Meee er ET 230 Method tor amateurs oof ee ae oe ALY 
nd rctnod AUCUTS son eee 
Eo ns of a landscape variety 8 Stippling of eens 206 207 
pe ie ee 21 a form of marking in blooms. |... 
Leaf mold. ea py BERS re ae ats | Storage eres maemo st BIGORIS. esa 22 212 
MER nines ah le ke 202 pena eg 
Re cee re uct a6 (Hiccmmacisesss ) SP ewe lage Cha A 249 
Injury from....... S CO ee EG he ee ae 
lh og oa a ae ra Rema gee 202 ss Grapeicuses yo Sten? , MR ee 248 
~ ES UNGIRN Re eaee e cp 202-203 Oe ae Fe aes ee hs epee 248 
Tage Se eee eer 219 
Fae Sh Rah pe ea ater Cae eR Cop eh, 201 | § ace Of bloom... 2.2... eee eee eee 16 
Be ae oe Pearce mye? pie uccession ee ene oe ae 216 
Poultry ..... too heavy application... .... pees PS aes erie Gaeleuriens ae 204 
Bee Re eae ae 201, 203 ate of ammonia eee yauaeae ee Te ht 
a ee eS ET NS pares uperphosphate of lime.............--+-+-. ae 
Markings of reac marking in blooms...... Me pee aee 6g Ai ay me RR ae 203 
Meloc 2S Bigs ane en pase ee ee Fee ae Sas en he Teac 203-204 
{endel and Weds SEA eae = indoor culture 
san PBR ye speg et ce “sas 56 me ‘ein e\n eh 6a" es ole » Sam i~ 
ee Medien e port beens a moet epavaee Cains Feeaey tens oe ot ee ae 253 
= Se Oli re eset S 227 ee ee Ste Seat Cs 248 
Mottling, a form of marking in bio LAE Mitel fiery 255 Wace So are ae mee fats 
ulching with manure euiss sc te 2° 212 A Sp ee Ser, a 
ee ea ang os - HO WEIS aed ae woe ees 
Nitrate af Be So ic neha oe 223, 233 orl rental rohids and lilies «22222 -- 708 
er Mowers A nhc, 62 MM 5 302g os oo a _233 | For bridal bouquet... ...--...2-020020005 
Penciling, a form of Cae. aie rebar ies ae e eee Gaetan Cae ane een ee Hee 
Planting arking in blooms....... 212 Tn ae coceeeeceeeeeeeeess 108 
a ; Pee Pee tne 19) 
ee deep planting J... Jcec 199 cesta Bch a x ean ta 198 
ee eae Se inane Ao acne bee. a eae os 229 
Bapartis Secs ween kes ake aan vee ashes, use of, as fertilizer......... Be 
* 205 ee cere iy peas Calne 3 202 
258 nth cone ae 210 


December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 11 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies—II] 
Varieties of the Garden Gladiolus 


Alfred C. Hottes 


Field of Gladioli at Ithaca, New York 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


December, 1916 Extension Bulletin 11 


Cornell Extension Bulletin 


Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 


A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 


Gladiolus Studies—III 
Varieties of the Garden Gladiolus 


Alfred C. Hottes 


Field of Gladioli at Ithaca, New York 


Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 


tre def 


Ce oe a “ 
fier C2 LV tale 


PREFACE 


Since its foundation in 1911, the American Gladiolus Society has had 
its official trial grounds on land owned by Cornell University under the 
management of the Department of Floriculture. One of the main objects 
of the work has been to test as many varieties of gladioli as possible 
in order to prepare descriptions which shall be the standards for those 
varieties. Seedlings also have been tested, in an attempt to determine 
their individuality as well as their value. Some synonyms have been 
found and noted in the descriptions of varieties. 

The study has taken a longer time than was contemplated at its begin- ~ 
ning, because some growers have been rather delinquent in sending varieties 
the first year they were requested. The work is by no means completed, 
since many varieties in the American market are as yet undescribed and 
the question of synonyms has hardly been touched. 

The writer wishes to thank those who have contributed to the trial 
grounds, especially the following: 


Austin Gladiolus Company, Wayland, Ohio 

B. C. Auten, Carthage, Missouri 

G. B. Babeock, Jamestown, New York 

H. H. Baer, New Hyde Park, New York 

Frank Banning, Kinsman, Ohio 

Alvin Berger, Ventimiglia, Italy 

G. D. Black, Independence, Iowa 

A. T. Boddington, 120 Chambers Street, New York City 
C. W. Brown, Ashland, Massachusetts 

George Burchett, Hampton, Virginia 

W. Atlee Burpee & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
John Cavers, Oakville, Ontario, Canada 
Montague Chamberlain, Wellesley, Massachusetts 
John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, New York 

W. A. Christy, Kinsman, Ohio 

E. F. Clark & Son, Wayland, Michigan 

P. O. Coblentz, New Madison, Ohio 

Arthur Cowee, Berlin, New York 

M. Crawford & Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

E. H. Cushman, Sylvania, Ohio 

H. A. Dreer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

E. T. Flanagan & Sons, Belleville, Illinois 
Franken Bros., Deerfield, Illinois 

W. E. Fryer, Mantorville, Minnesota 

L. M. Gage, Wellesley, Massachusetts 

C. B. Gates, Mentor, Ohio 

Haage & Schmidt, Erfurt, Germany 

Haentze & Co., Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 


275 


276 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


Max Herb, Naples, Italy 

Dr. C. Hoeg, Decorah, Lowa 

P. Hopman & Sons, Hillegom, Holland 

R. E. Huntington, Painesville, Ohio 

Iowa Seed Co., Des Moines, Iowa 

Kelway & Sons, Langport, Somerset, England 

C. H. Ketcham, South Haven, Michigan 

W. E. Kirchhoff, Pembroke, New York 

H. W. Koerner, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

E. H. Krelage, Haarlem, Holland 

A. E. Kunderd, Goshen, Indiana 

Victor Lemoine et Fils, Nancy, France 

Mallory & Brown, Madison, Wisconsin 

L. L. May & Co., St. Paul, Minnesota 

Robert Mehlmann, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 

S. C. Mellinger, Youngstown, Ohio 

Henry F. Michell Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

J. L. Moore, Northboro, Massachusetts 

Munsell & Harvey, Ashtabula, Ohio 

Perkins-King Company, West Mentor, Ohio 

Wilhelm Pfitzer, Stuttgart, Germany 

Kristian Prestgard, Decorah, lowa 

H. A. Richardson, Woodfords, Maine 

D. W. C. Ruff, St. Paul, Minnesota 

H. F. Smith, Geneva, New York 

E. E. Stewart, Brooklyn, Michigan 

E. Y. Teas & Son, Centerville, Indiana 

J. Thomann & Son, Rochester, New York 

B. H. Tracy, Wenham, Massachusetts 

J. A. Travis, Elkhorn, Wisconsin 

N. E. Tully, Hubbard, Ohio 

John Umpleby, Lake View, New York 

Vaughan’s Seed Store, Chicago, Illinois 

K. Velthuys, Hillegom, Holland 

P. Vos Mz., Sassenheim, Holland 

Warnaar & Co., Sassenheim, Holland 

B. F. White, Terryville, Connecticut 

W. A. Wilkinson, Morgan Park, Illinois 

W. W. Wilmore, jr., Wheat Ridge, Colorado 

G. S. Woodruff, Independence, lowa 

M. F. Wright, Fort Wayne, Indiana 

C. Zeestraten & Sons, Oegstgeest, Holland 
ALFRED C. HOTTES 


ot. 
we? hah nae 
, 1 4 Soy 7 


ad ee 


AMERICA 


THE STANDARD PINK VARIETY 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES— III 
VARIETIES OF THE GARDEN GLADIOLUS 


: ALFRED C. Hortes 


After nearly five years of testing varieties, the writer now ventures 
to publish descriptions of most of the varieties received for trial on the 
grounds of the Department of Floriculture in cooperation with the 
American Gladiolus Society. 

The Modern Gladiolus Grower for November, 1915, editorially expresses 
the writer’s attitude exactly in regard to the time necessary for testing 
varieties. It says: 


The tendency of some growers, both amateur and professional, to condemn varie- 
ties of gladioli on one year’s trial only is certainly wrong. In conversation recently. 
with one of the most experienced commercial growers he stated that a variety could 
not be properly judged until it had been grown for three successive seasons, and this 
suggestion should be carefully remembered by those who are inclined to condemn with- 
out sufficient trial. Unfavorable climatic or local cultural conditions might account 
for failure to perform properly the first year a variety was tested. On the other hand, 
conditions for growing may be more favorable the first year and after growing for 
two or three years the results might be quite different. Don’t be in too much of a 
hurry to accept or reject any particular variety as one of your standards until you 
have time to judge it. 

The writer is especially concerned with synonyms. Much confusion 
in nomenclature has been caused by a difference in the standards or the 
tastes of hybridists. Groff, Coblentz, Kunderd, and many others, in 
the early years of their work, produced an excellent lot of seedlings which 
have been disseminated unnamed about the whole country. Other growers 
have recognized enough merits in them to justify naming. The result 
has been that two or more growers have named the same seedling. In 
many cases growers have mixed these miscellaneous bulbs with their own 
seedlings and felt that they had originated them. Adjustment can usually 
be made if it can be properly determined who first christened the variety. 
The confusion is becoming somewhat cleared up by the Nomenclature 
Committee of the American Gladiolus Society, whose business it is to 
register each new variety requested and establish a standard description 
of that variety. 

Unfortunately it is impossible to settle all questions of this kind. One of 
the most puzzling has been the question of the proper name for Coblentz 
No. 312, or William Mason. Mr. Coblentz is sure that he originated 
No. 312, and that he sold it to Mr. Huntington and Vaughan’s Seed 
Store. Mr. Huntington named it Grenadier, and Mr. Vaughan Velvet 


277 


278 CoRNELL SEES BULLETIN II 


King. The name Grenadier had been used previously by both Vilar 
and Lemoine. The next oldest name is thus Velvet King. Mr. Crawford, 
who originated the variety William Mason some twenty years ago, does 
not believe this is the same variety as the above-mentioned. However, 
on the trial grounds, the variety William Mason from Crawford, from 
Mallory & Brown, and from Teas was identical with Grenadier from 
Huntington and Velvet King from Vaughan. It is interesting to note 
that several other names have been applied to this variety, namely, Emma 
(by Coblentz), Richmond Red (by Teas), and Sidney Grant (by Ruff). 

Under such circumstances, no matter how the question of a variety 
name is settled, some one feels that an injustice has been done. 
Nevertheless some authority must be vested in the Nomenclature 
Committee, else its existence is useless. It is now determined wise to 
submit, through the Jeading florists’ publications, the names and descrip- 
tions of varieties before they are finally named. In this way any ques- 
tion of priority of name and individuality of variety can be openly 
discussed previous to final judgment. 


METHODS USED IN TESTING AND DESCRIBING VARIETIES 


When a variety is received for trial purposes, the name is copied on 
a filing card, together with the name of the donor, the date received, 
and if possible a short description of the variety as given by the firm from 
which the stock has been received. In the latitude of Ithaca planting 
can hardly be done before April 30, and often not until early May. Each 
year a new piece of ground is chosen for the planting in order to escape 
the possibility of disease due to a previous crop. The rows are plowed 
out about seven to eight inches deep and three and one-half feet apart. 
As the soil is a rather heavy clay loam, it is thought best not to plant 
deeper. With a shovel the furrows are made a little more level, and the 
loose lumps are removed. The varieties are placed one to each numbered 
stake, the corms standing approximately seven inches apart. 

About a week after planting, according to weather conditions, the 
crust is broken over the rows in order that the young shoots may easily 
reach the surface of the soil. A coarse-toothed surfacer has been found 
to be about the best tool for this purpose. The particular tool used on 
the trial grounds resembles a rake except that it has only three long 
teeth. Up to the time of blooming, cultivation is continued both by 
horse and with the hoe. 

Each day as the varieties come into bloom they are noted on the 
description blanks. Since the first bloom is often hardly characteristic 
in color and markings, the flower characters are noted several days after 
the first one opens. 


GrapbioLus Stupies — III 279 


CORNELL VARIETY TEST OF GLADIOLI Nowe => 

NAME Op Nos. 
J. i 3 teal has Pac a cg oo ee 
ORIGINATOR ite re DaTE INTRO. DONATED BY 
SPECIES OBSERVER DaTE 
BLOOM — SizE— Very large-large-medium-smail. 

ECT) REY 3 75 age Sn a oe Se A SRE marking 

SEGMENTS — Equal-unequal; connivent-separate. 


Upper — Horizontal-hooded-reflexed; broad-narrow. LowER—straight-reflex; broad-narrow. 

STAMENS — Color of filament;.................. MMISiHAES, cea et ees oF 

TuBE—Straight-curved; slender-stout; long-short; compact-Joose. 
SPIKE — Tall-medium-short; erect-curved-drooping; free-fair-bloomer-no bloom. No. blooms........ 


REMARKS ON BLOOM — Compact, loose; keeping quality................. ; substance. ....... 
HABIT OF PLANT — Erect-drooping; tall-medium-dwarf. Height of plant....................... 
Spreading-eompact. 
GROWTH — Good-medium-poor. SEASON—Early-mid-season-late. 
PROLIFICACY — No. Corms— Many-few. Siz—E— Large-small. No. Cormets— Many-few. SizE— 
Large-small. 
FOLIAGE —Well-furnished-medium-poor; broad-medium-narrow; veins prominent-obscure. 
COMMERCIAL VALUE — Cut FLower — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 
LANDSCAPE—Extra good-good-medium-poor. 


VALUE AS A WHOLE — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 
REMARKS. 5 
ZESTIVATION 


PA OTRES SENG |... 2's orale «dik 6 tae ING: tial PIEW n60 ce 6 cunic bmi No. that bloomed.............. 


At the time of describing the varieties, little time is available for 
noting the name of the originator and the date of introduction. These 
facts are filled in later, usually during the winter. From catalogs and 
by correspondence with men who have introduced varieties, dates of 
introduction are noted. 

An attempt is made in describing each variety to note all the important 
points in regard to growth and structure. The trial grounds usually 
possess from three to five bulbs of each variety, and it is therefore 
impossible to make authoritative notes descriptive of certain points. 
For example, it would be difficult to determine definitely that a variety 
was of good keeping quality. It might be possible to get an idea of the 
keeping quality, but since temperature and environmental factors through- 
out the blooming season vary so much it has been felt that this question 
would almost bear special investigation. 


280 CoRNELL EXTENSION. BULLETIN II 


A definite standard of size has not been accepted, owing to the fact 
that ideas differ much as to just what is to be considered large and what 
small. In general, blooms ten centimeters or over in diameter are called 
large; those below seven centimeters, small; those between the two limits, 
medium-sized. (One inch equals approximately two and one-half centi- 
meters.) Since the varieties tested here were given equal and identical 
culture, the sizes of the blooms should be proportional. Many of the 
varieties will be reported much too small. No attempt has been made 
to give exceptional culture for results; the plants have merely been given 
ordinarily good care. 

The color of the perianth is carefully compared with the most com- 
prehensive color chart available. The one used on the trial grounds 
here and accepted by the Color Chart Committee of the American 
Gladiolus Society is that of the Société Francaise des Chrysanthémistes, 
and is called the Répertoire de Couleurs. There are three hundred and 
sixty-five plates, and four variations of each color on each plate. Con- 
cerning each’color, the chart indicates the names of certain other flowers 
that are of this particular color. Each person has a different conception 
of colors, so that it is highly vaiuable to standardize the color nomencla; 
ture. Black gives an interesting description of the variety Independence, 
the color of which is variously called by the catalogs light scarlet, light 
red, rosy pink, deep rosy pink to orange scarlet, and deep pink bordering 
on scarlet. By reference to the color chart, the color is found to be 
carthamin, or Lincoln, red (Plate 88, Shade II; in the descriptions the 
color is indicated only as 88-II). The color chart here shows the variety 
to be of the same color as Euphorbia splendens and of several zonal 
pelargoniums. 

Besides the main color of the bloom, careful descriptions are prepared 
of the markings. The terms used in designating the characteristic 
markings are given beneath the drawing on the opposite page. In 
determining the colors of the stamens the color chart is not used, 
the color being merely a matter of personal opinion of the one 
describing the variety. The bloom is divided into two segments 
when comparing their positions and widths. When the upper and 
lower segments are together — in other words, when there has not been 
a decided division of the bloom horizontally —the term conmivent is 
applied; the opposite condition is expressed by the term separate. When 
the upper segment is not erect nor decidedly hooded, the condition is 
called horizontal. The term reflex is applied to cases where the segments 
are rolled back in any way. The character of the perianth tube is not 
of great importance except as an additional means of identification of 


Giapiotvus S5tupies — III 281 


FIG. 39. MARKINGS FOUND IN PERIANTH SEGMENTS OF VARIETIES OF GLADIOLUS 


A, flecks (very small dashes) 
B, dashes or splashes (long irregular dashes) 
C, feathering (dashes or fine markings that originate at the outer edges of the segments) 
D, mottling (irregular spots wider and more prominent than dashes) 
E, suffusion (colors laid on as though painted on another color) 
F, blend (gradual transition from one tone ofa color to another of the same color, or from one 
color to some other different color) 
G, clear throat (unmarked in any way) 
H, dots 
I, stippling (very fine dots in the throat) 
J, penciling (lines of the throat) 
K, mottling (irregular spots in the throat) 
L, blotch (regular, large areas of color on lower segments) 
M, marbling (an intermixed or clouded effect) : 
Y, the lozenge blotch found in many of the manus varieties in which the center is clear and the 
outer edge much deeper in color : 
B, C, D, E, F, and G are found in various parts of the perianth 4H, I, J, K,L, M, and N are 
throat markings 


282 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


a variety in which the character seems rather constant. The substance, 
the form, and the peculiarities of the bloom are carefully noted. Compari- 
sons with other somewhat similar varieties are made. It has been inter- 
esting, also, to get a little information concerning the number of blooms 
open at one time on a spike. 

As each variety comes into bloom it is tagged, and the date recorded. 
Each year these dates are compared. Seasons vary greatly as regards 
temperature, moisture, and in various other ways, so that it is difficult 
to say that a certain variety blooms in a definite number of days. This 
year perhaps the season is hot and moist, and the variety blooms in 
seventy-five days; the next year conditions are wholly different, and it 
takes eighty-five days. The method followed has been to take the 
average number of days from planting to blooming. The condition or 
maturity of the corm also has much to do with the precocity of blooming, 
but as an indicator of relative earliness and lateness, it has seemed of 
value to give a definite number of days. 

In describing the spike, those above one hundred centimeters are 
considered tall, those below sixty centimeters rather dwarf, and the others 
of medium height. Height is measured from the soil to the tip of the 
spike. The number of blooms per spike is given. Here again criticism 
would be just, since exceptional corms might produce many more blooms. 
The average is taken as the number to be recorded. The number of 
shoots and spikes per corm is also noted. 

The habit of a gladiolus really resolves itself into a consideration of 
erectness, height, and whether of spreading or of compact growth. Com- 
pact plants are those in which the leaves are not decidedly divergent 
nor drooping. 

The question of vigorous growth is judged by abundance and excellence 
of broad foliage as well as by strength of spike. 

Due to the heavy soil of the trial grounds, cormels do not attain a 
large size, and many times do not develop. The notes in regard to 
prolificacy should thus be read with these points in mind. In deter- 
mining the size of the corm, the size when received or when planted is 
compared with the size at digging. If the corm attains on the average 
a large size, the variety is given the benefit of the doubt and is said to 
produce large corms. With age, corms normally large break up into a 
number of smaller ones. The size has been judged from corms supposedly 
in their prime. From year to year the descriptions are compared. If 
they differ widely from previous years, they are changed. The writer 
has not found such great changes in color from year to year as many 
growers report. The chief difference is found in so-called white varieties,? 


1Gladiolus studies—II. Culture and hybridization of the gladiolus. Cornell Extension Bulletin 10, 
p. 230. 


GriapIoLts Stupies — III 283 


which often develop a considerable rose tinge in the perianth during 
certain seasons or on certain soils. This coloration has been noted in the 
variety Peace, which is always rather feathered on this trial ground. 

In the cases where descriptions of varieties were to be had from catalogs, 
they were considered, and often excerpts from them are included in the 
descriptions. 

Careful drawings were frequently made, showing the markings of the 
petalage. Numerous photographs have been taken of the varieties. More 
attention has been given to procuring the proper representation of flower 
characters than to obtaining artistic results and full or perfect spikes. 

On the line with the originator in the descriptions that follow, are 
noted such varieties as have been registered by the nomenclature com- 
mittee of the American Gladiolus Society, in each case mention being 
made of the year of registration and the name of the person registering the 
variety, if it differs from that of the originator. 


A. B. DAVIES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube almost straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and slightly ruffled, the lower reflexed, broader than 
the upper. Stamen filaments white, red tinge; anthers rose, violet sutures. 
Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) very thickly splashed with cerise (91-111), White stripe 
on each of lower segments. Blooms well arranged, of an attractive color, per- 
haps too mottled for commercial value. 

Season — Early; 68 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (84 cm.), erect, fair number of blooms (10), slender. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with short, medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ABDEL KADER Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender,- long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink tipped; anthers violet. Perianth deep carmine-violet 
(174-111). A compact bloom of good tough substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 89 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Poor; plant well furnished with narrow leaves, much diseased. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ADELINA Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. 
Stamen filaments pink; styles white. Perianth madder lake (brighter than 
122-I1V) with carmine lake pencilings on a yellow-green throat. Medial lines of 
lower segments deeper in shade. Bloom good clear pink, wide open. 


284 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 91 days. ! 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, branched, a fair number of blooms (18 on main, 
7 on secondary). 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


ADOLPHE JAENICKE Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
1914 f 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth brighter than rosy pink 
(118-1v), mottled Tyrian rose (155-1) over a white throat. Color good and clear; 
the mottled throat delicate. Substance medium good, shape good, but bloom 
rather loose. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), drooping, a fair number of blooms (11), not branched. 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Drooping, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium _ broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Small or medium size; cormels, few or none. 


AFTERGLOW (Christy) Originator — Christy. Seedling 1903 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 


Bloom — Medium large (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper broad and reflexed, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers delicate lavender. Perianth 
greenish white (15-Iv), often with suffusion of carmine on upper segment. Large 
blotches of ox blood red (94-11), bordered with pale yellow-green on the lower 
segments. The bloom much resembles that of Madame Lemoinier, but Madame 
Lemoinier does not have the bordering of yellow-green. The flower possesses 
good shape and medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season, first week of August; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (97 cm.), erect, though often crooked, thin, a fair number of 
blooms (12), generally unbranched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific, large. 


AFTERGLOW (Cowee) Originator — Groff, 1904. Reg. A. G. 
S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 


Stock from Cowee 
(Described from cut spikes.) 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower. Stamen filaments 
pinkish cream; anthers cream, lilac sutures. Perianth salmon-fawn, Tyrian rose 
(155-1) blotch terminates in white medial line. A rather loose bloom of medium 
good substance, well open. 

Season — Mid-season to late, September 9, 1913. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, 

Corms — 


GLapDIoLus Stupies — III 285 


AJAX Originator — Childs 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Small (6.5-7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth cardinal-red 
(112-1), striped on white ground. Tyrian rose (155-II) stripes on each of lower 
segments. Flowers often on all sides of the eS 

Season — Mid-August; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium dwarf (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ALASKA Originator — Childs. Intro. 1911. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1912 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed 
and narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth 
lilacy white (7-1), with Tyrian rose (155-1) penciling or dotting on lemon-yellow 
throat. A compact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open at 
once. 

Season — Early September; 113 days. 

Spike — Medium height (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

‘Corms — Meditm size; cormels, few. 


ALICE CAREY Originator — 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Teas; Babcock 

Synonyms — Probably same as Snowcrest of Livingston Seed Company; much like 
Snowbank of Cowee. 

Bloom — Medium size (7 cm. and larger). Tube perfectly straight, medium slender, 
long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper slightly reflexed and broader than 
the lower narrower segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers dark blue. 
Perianth pure white with solferino-red (157—IV) splashes i in throat. This variety 
does not contain the areas of yellow that are found in Snowbank. An excellent 
nearly clear white landscape or commercial variety. Rather good substance, 
often blooms on all sides of spike. 

Season — Mid-season, early August; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 5 on 
secondary), more branching than Snowbank. Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Sg — Vigorous; plant growth medium poor, lax foliage, inferior to Snowbank in 
oliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific, medium size. 


ALICE CHAMBERLAIN Originator — Kunderd 
Grou 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, very slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers deep violet. Perianth brighter than plum violet 
(172-1V) with white areas at the sides of the throat. Segments edged with white. 
The color is the same as that of Empress of India (Velthuys) except for white 
edging of the segments. 

Season — September 3, 1913; 113 days. 


286 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


ALICE ROOSEVELT. See Hollandia. 


ALL-A-GLOW Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, . con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments reddish white; anthers red. Perianth scarlet (85-Iv), with an amber- 
white throat speckled and penciled with French purple (161-1v). A compact 
bloom of medium substance. Excellent glowing color. Seven blooms open at 
one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 78 days. 
Spike — Medium height (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 
_ Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


ALOIS NERGER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers lilac. Perianth carthamin red (88-1), feathered 
and suffused with pale slate- lilac, throat blotched with near blood red (93-1V). 
A rather muddy color. Somewhat ruffled edges. A compact bloom of excel- 
lent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two spikes 
usually produced per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


AMARYL Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Tracy 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red. Perianth poppy color (84-1), amber-white 
(12-1) medial lines, and throat blotched with blood red (93-Iv). Good clear colors, 
attractive throat markings. Compact bloom of good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


AMERICA Originator — Banning, Groff, and 
Christy (intro. 1900) all claim the 
honor 


Group— Gandavensis X Lemoinei (May 
< Madam Auber) 
Stock from Childs; Umpleby 


Synonym — Banning’s name for this variety was Reuben H. Warder. 


GiapioLus Stupies — III 287 


Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper slightly reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and ~ 
narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers lavender. Perianth lavender-pink, a 
more rosy tint of mauve-rose (153-Iv), the color blending to almost white as it 
approaches the throat; the throat marked with Tyrian rose (155-111). This is the 
standard commercial variety at the present time. A delicate color, well formed. 
Not so good substance as that of Panama. (See descriptions of Mapleshade and 
Panama.) Seems excellent for forcing. 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 87 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20 on main, 7 and 10 
on branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


AMERICA’S LADY Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose, 
with a lemon-yellow throat spotted with Tyrian rose. A rather loose bloom of 
rather good substance. 
Season — September 1; 111 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms eee size; few cormels formed, but the originator says that the variety is 
prolific. 


AMETHYST Originator — Stewart 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy magenta (16g—IVv), 
with blotch of amaranth-red (168-Iv) terminating in dash of lemon-yellow. The 
lower lip segment is very narrow. Bloom compact and of good substance. 
Season — Latter part of August, 1913; 103 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12-15), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, few or none. 


ANDRE CHENIER Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.).- Tube curved, stout, very short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments dirty white; anthers light lavender. Perianth pale reddish 
lilac (131), splashed and feathered deeper. Lower segments with yellow-green 
(16-1v) tips, and blotched with purple-garnet (165). Good substance, excellent 
colors. ~Too small. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 112 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Hatit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Small; cormels, few or none. 


288 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


ANGELINA Originator — Kelway 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, con- 
nivent; the upper rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; styles white. Perianth madder lake (122-1v), splashed 
occasionally with red. A yellow blotch in throat streaked with geranium (111-1). 
Good keeping qualities. 

Season — Mid-August; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, prominently veined. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, few. 


(Described by Gone J. -Burt.) 


ANNIE WIGMAN Originator — Hopman 
Group — 
Stock from Warnaar 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower reflexed 
segment. Stamen filaments cream; anthers light lavender. Perianth yellowish 
white (13-111), with lemon-yellow (21-1) throat on which is a lilac-purple (160-1v) 
splashed blotch. A compact bloom of medium good substance and dainty color. 
Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, medium prolific. 


ANTON BUCHNER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth carthamin red 
(88-1) with amber-white (12-1) throat and medial lines. Segments feathered with 
deep carthamin red (88-1v). Good color. Six blooms open at once. 

Season — 

Spike — Medium tall (105 cm.), erect, many blooms (22), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


APRIKOSA Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Gandavensis or Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth pale blush (137-1), very 
thickly feathered with crimson-carmine (159-IV), and a large attractive blotch of 
French purple (161-11) bordered by amber-yellow (28-11). An excellent spike of 
a bright, showy color. A compact bloom of excellent substance. Nine to eleven 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), ones a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, prolific. 


GLapDIoLus StTupies — III 289 


ARIZONA | Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I4 
Group — 
Stock from Wright 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers salmony. Perianth lilac-rose (152-1v), medial lines of © 
lip French purple (116-1v) shading lighter on each side into a blotch. A compact 
bloom of good color and substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


ARTHUR TOMS Originator — Kelway, 1900 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the edges incurved, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender, violet sutures. Perianth 
fiery red (80-Iv); in some there are no markings, in others crimson-red (114-IvV) 
pencilings merging into fiery red form a blotch. The outer segments are con- 
spicuously larger than the inner. The color is rich, brilliant, and velvety. 
Season — First of August; 73 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 
Halit — Very erect, medium tall, medium compact. 
. Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ASHES OF ROSES Originator — Christy 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 


Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and somewhat hooded, the lower 
but slightly reflexed and broader. Stamen filaments rose; anthers lavender. 
Perianth, tips of segments in most cases violet-lilac (175-111) merging into flesh 
color (139-Iv), blotches of Corinthian red (105-11), medial lines somewhat reddish. 
Christy says: ‘‘ Seems very good for funeral work with wreaths of like color.” 
Color is inexplicable, somber, washy. 

Season — Mid-August; 88 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium short (61 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


ATTRACTION Originator — Childs. Intro. 1906. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsti 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium stout, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower 
straight segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers dark violet. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1), with a white streak on lower segments, and a creamy white throat, 
No markings except this. The flower is well open, the color clear and bright, 
Season — Rather early, August 2, 1912, to August’9, 1913; 72 days. 


290 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 : 


Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect,a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium area foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


AUGUSTA Originator — Hallock 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Umpleby; Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) splashed and 
feathered with solferino-red (157-1), the medial lines of the lower segments also 
solferino-red. Throat penciled. Much lilac is usually developed so that it can 
hardly be called pure white. 
Season — Mid-August; 102 days. 
Spike — Tall (118 cm.), erect, an abundance of bloom (18 on main, 9, Io, and II on 
secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, tall, rather spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, prommideet 
veined. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, small. 


AURORA (Childs)? Originaior — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom —Smali (6-7 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent: the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments rosy white; anthers lilac. Perianth light violet-rose (154-1) thickly 
feathered with solferino-red (157-I1v) and blotched with plum-violet, (172-1v), 
tipped by spot of yellow. A bright color. A compact, bell-shaped bloom of good 
substance, but very brittle. Four blooms open at one time. 
Season — Rather early; 72 days. 
Spike — Rather tall (os cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


AURORA (Hoeg). See Hiawatha. 


AUSTIN No. 25 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Very large (12-13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad, the lower narrower. Stamen filaments 
salmon-pink; anthers lavender. Perianth madder lake (122-1, but more reddish) 
with a large blotch of deep madder lake (122-1v, but brighter). The bloom is 
very loose, the segments rolled and ruffled — an objectionable feature. 
Season — Early September; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, producing blooms freely (20 on the main and 
9 on the secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific, large. 


~ 


2Lemoine also catalogs a variety by this name. 


GLaDIOLus StupiEs — III 2091 


AUSTIN No. 30 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure mauve (181-11 and -1v), 
with an amaranth-red (168-1v) blotch in the throat and lighter medial lines. 
An excellent clear glistening color, but the substance is not very good. 

Season — September 1; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


AUSTIN No. 52 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Very large (12 cm.). Tube slightly curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white; anthers lavender. Perianth pure white with a Tyrian rose 
(155-111) intermixed throat. The segments are also slightly suffused with Tyrian 
rose. The bloom is large, well arranged, nearly clear white, and well open. It could 
be well called an extra good cut-flower and landscape variety. 

Season — Mid-September; 105 to 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, producing blooms freely (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small. 


AUSTIN No. 55. See Rose Wells. 


AUSTIN No. 56 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers gray. Perianth somewhat 
brighter than madder lake (122) and pinker than poppy color (84), with large 
scarlet (85-111 and —Iv) irregular blotches on pale yellow-green throat, white medial 
lines. Color bright, and substance fairly good. 

Season — September 1; 102 days. 

Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, free blooming (19 on main and 6 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


AUSTIN No. 57 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1v) 
with large broad blotches of scarlet (87-1) on lower segments. Color fades from 
outer edge of segment toward center. Bloom well open, well arranged, and 
excellent in color; substance not exceptional. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


292 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


AUSTIN No. 58 Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, with reflexed edges, the lower broader 
and reflexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers yellow. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-Iv) with the edges marked slightly darker, the lower segments with a scarlet 
(87-1, only more russety) throat and deep medial line. Bloom of good substance 
and delicate color. ‘ 

Season — Early August to early September; 92 days. 

Spike — Tall (107 cm.), erect, free blooming (20), two branches. Two spikes frequently 
occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


AUTEN’S 7-2 Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep 
cerise (123-Iv), a sulfur-white throat marked with a deep French purple (161-1v) 
blotch. Color somewhat mottled, not clear. Bloom of good form and substance; 
color fairly acceptable, even though not clear. 

Season — September 5, 1912; 106 days. 

Spike — Tall (101 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 5 on secondary). 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Exceptionally vigorous. In one case five shoots were produced per corm. 
Plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, very prolific, small. 


AUTEN’S 8-1 Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and narrow, the lower reflexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth 
coral-red (76-111), with a strawberry red (110-1v) blotch on lower lip fading to 
coral-red and terminated by a light yellow-green dash. Color good and clear. 
Auten says: ‘“‘ Color dull in indoor light.”’ 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 70 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (go cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


AUTEN’S 9-14 Ce — Auten 
roup — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower 
and reflexed. Stamen filaments white; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1) with a deeper Lincoln red intermixed blotch in the throat. Bloom 
of good shape, well open, of good substance, but not of a clear color. 

Season — Late July to August; 72 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, free blooming (23), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolific. 


GLapIoLus Stupres — III 293 


A. W. CLIFFORD Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Brown 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, very long. © 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth old carmine-red 
(107-IV) with amaranth-red (168-1v) throat and lighter Jilacy-tinted medial lines. 
Rather compact bloom of medium substance, slightly ruffled. Four blooms open 

at one time. 

Season — Early; 69 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 


AZURE Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1909 
Group — Lemoinei (?) 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and narrower, the lower straight and broader. 
Stamen filaments lilac; anthers violet. Perianth bright violet (198-11) with a near 
amaranth-red (168—Iv) blotch. Bloom exceedingly compact and of good substance, 
but color is rather washy. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 to 87 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


BALTIMORE : Originator — Cowee, 1910. Reg. A. G. 
S., 1914. Cowee 
Group — 


Stock from Woodruff 


Synonym — Formerly called Salmon Queen by Woodruff. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments salmony; anthers salmony white. Perianth sal- 
mon-pink (126-1), color deeper at edges; lower lip blotched with fire red (80-1v) ~ 
and deeper. Excellent color. Rather loose bloom of medium good substance. Two 
or three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9-12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


BARCLAY Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow.- Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-Iv) with 
an amber-white throat. Bloom well open and of good substance. 

Season — August 26. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, with 8 
on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, medium size. 


204 CorNELL Extension BuLLetIN 11 


BARON JOSEPH HULOT Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer; Gage 

Synonyms — Also written Josef Hulot. This variety has often been erroneously 

given aS a synonym of Blue Jay (Groff); Blue Jay (Childs) is, however, a 
: synonym. 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). 
Tube curved, slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, 
the lower reflexed and narrow. 
Stamen filaments lilac; styles 
whitish. Perianth velvety pur- 
ple with lemon-yellow (21-11) 
dash on medial lines of lower 
segments. Resembles Heliotrope 
except that Heliotrope has red 
dashes on lower segments, while 
Baron Joseph Hulot has lemon- 
yellow dashes. The pollen shed 
on the dark velvety segments 
causes them to appear 
shabby. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 
82 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
often curved, blooms freely. 
Habit — Drooping, medium height, 

spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


BEACON FIRE 
Originator — Christy 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube 
curved, medium slender, medium 
short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments red; 
anthers red-violet. Perianth 
cherry-red (9I-Iv) with drab 
feathering and drab-red inter- 
mixtures in the throat. Almost 
a self color, excellent, deep, 
the blotch not contrasting. 
Bloom compact and of good 
substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late, late 
eo: 1 ; August; 112 days. 
PIGS g00s BRMON SEE Sato Spike oe Medians tall (85 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Two spikes often appear per corm, as 
well as many suckers. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 


GuapioLus Stupies — ITI 205 


BEAUTY a 
Originator — May 4 
Group — 
Stock from May 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, 
slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the 
tower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth 
deep carmine-purple (156-I1v), darker dash 
inthroat. Exceedingly brilliant. A self 
color except for very slightly deeper line in 
throat. Compact bloom of medium good 
substance. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair 
number of blooms (16), branched. 
Halt — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


BELLE MAUVE 
Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei (?) 
Stock from Warnaar 
Bloom— Large (10cm.). Tube curved, medium 
slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontaland broad, 
the lower slightly reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers 
violet. Perianth pure mauve (181-1) often 
feathered deeper, with lilacy white throat 
and a deep mauve (181-Iv) blotch. Well- 
open, compact bloom of rather good sub- 
stance. Three blooms open at one time. 
Season — Early August; 83 days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of 
blooms (21). 
Habit — Very erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 
broad leaves. 
cos Medium size; cormels, medium pro- 
lific 


BEN HUR 
Originator — Childs 
Group — 
Stock from Teas 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, 
medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, scarlet 
tips. Perianth light scarlet (85-11) feath- 
ered with deeper scarlet, the lower seg- Fic. 4I. BERTHA COMSTOCK 
ments with a finely lined blotch of scarlet 
(85-1v, but with less yellow thaniv). Teas describes the color as salmon-rose. 
Season — Mid-season; 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, branched. 
Hatit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 


. 
eS 


296 


CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN It 


FIG. 42. 


BERTREX 


Growth — Good to medium; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with medium nar- 
row foliage. 

cae — Medium size; cormels, 
ew. 


BERTHA COMSTOCK 
Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube curved, medium 
stout, -short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal with 
slightly ruffled edges and a 
trie narrower than the 
lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments white; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
carmine-purple (156-1), 
thickly feathered with dark 
carmine-purple (156-IV). 
Could be called a red-and- 
pink-striped bloom. 
Season — Mid-season, late 
August; 94 to 97 days. 
Spike — Attractive, long (145 
cm.), erect, blooms freely 
(26 on main, 17 and 18 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Exceptional; plant 
well furnished with broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


BERTREX 
Originator —Austin. 
Reg. A. G.5S., 1914 

Group 

Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube nearly straight, slen- 
der, long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper 
slightly reflexed and broad, 
the lower reflexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers white, pur- 
ple sutures. Perianth lilacy 
white (7-11), two Tyrian rose 
(155-1) lines in the throat 
and pale yellow-green me- 
dial lines. A nearly pure 
white, dainty bloom of 
medium substance. Seems 
good for forcing; blooms are 
produced in about 112 days. 
Six blooms open at onetime. 


GuapDIoLus StupiEs — III 207 


Season — Middle to late August; 97 to 102 days. 

Spike — Medium short (61 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 
Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Extra vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


BESSIE RAND Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth rosy pink (118-11) with clear 
yellow-green blotches on lower segments. A good color. The two lower lateral 
segments are laterally folded. 

Season — Mid-season, late August; 84 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (108 cm.), erect, blooms freely (17 on main, 6 on side branches). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, borne abundantly. 


a : 
BIG MEDICINE Originator — Teas 


Group — 
Stock from Teas 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy 
pink with faint Tyrian rose (155-1) intermixtures on a lemon-yellow lip. A very 
dainty color; bloom well arranged and of good substance. 

Season — Late, late September; 120 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9-12). 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 


BIRD OF PARADISE Originator — Isaiah Lower 
Group—Gandavensis 
Stock from Wilmore; Flanagan 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-11) 
thickly splashed and feathered with Lincoln red (88-11), with a lemon-yellow 
throat penciled with crimson-carmine. The segments are pointed, and the whole 
spike shows strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus characters. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Rather dwarf (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, freely produced. 


BIRD OF PARADISE (Kunderd). See Gaiety. 


BIZARRE Originator — Christy 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 


298 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy 
white (7-Iv) with faint splashes and feathering of Tyrian rose (155-1) and large 
blotches of Tyrian rose (155-Iv) on lower lip. The blotch has a lemon-yellow 
line running through it. 

Season — Mid-August; 88 days. \ 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19 on main, 4 on — 
secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium poor foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


BLACK BEAUTY Originator — Stewart, 1911. Reg. A. 
G. S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-Iv) with 
French purple medial lines and lighter streaking on each side. A rich, deep color. 

Season — Mid-August. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, blooms freely (15). Two spikes often borne 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Good to medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium sized; cormels, few. 


BLACK’S SEEDLING H-2 Originator — Black 
Group — 
Stock from Black 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segmentsunequal, ~ 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish white; anthers reddish violet. Perianth canary-yellow 
(17-1), the upper segment suffused or tinted with rose, the two lower segments 
with old carmine-red blotches. Substance good. Blooms are of good form. 
This variety differs from Lemon Drop only in that the upper segments are rose- 
tinted, which tinting seems a blemish. 
Season — Mid-August to late August; 92 to 95 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). Two spikes 
frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 
Growth — Excellent; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, large. 


BLANCHE Originator —————. Intro. 1899 
Group — 
Stock from Dreer 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed, narrow, 
and pointed. Stamen filaments lilacy white. Perianth lilacy white, penciled 
with Tyrian rose (155-IV) on the throat. Medium good substance. 

Season — Late August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


GLADIOLUS STubDIEs — III 


Fic. 43. BLANCHE 


300 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


BLOOD SPOT Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Wright 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet. Perianth 
antique red (104-1) thickly feathered and flaked with near dull purple lake (170-1v). 
Lower segments with lemon-yellow throat blotched and bordered by French purple 
(161-1v). A dull color. Eight blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 
Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (25), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


BLOTCHED ROSELLA Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower slightly 
reflexed and broad. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth 
deep carmine (112-1), with a large carmine-purple (156-111) blotch on a light 
yellow-green throat. Color is excellent — bright and showy. Bloom smaller 
than that of Rosella, and not much like that variety. 

Season — Early; 81 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (74 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few but large. 


BLUE 4X Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers red-violet. Perianth solferino-red (157-1), with 
amber-white (12-1) throat penciled and dotted with French purple (161-1Vv). 
A peculiar color. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


BLUE JAY (Childs). See Baron Joseph Hulot. 


BLUE JAY (Groff) Originator — Groff, 1904 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Christy and others 

Synonym — See Baron Joseph Hulot. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments bluish white; anthers blue-violet. Perianth lobelia blue 
(205-1) ‘splashed with deeper lobelia blue (205-1v). _ Lemon-yellow throat 
blotched with rich pansy violet (191-1v). Color is not quite so clear as it should 
be. Bloom compact and of medium good substance. The variety Baron Joseph 
Hulot is frequently given as a synonym, but Blue Jay is distinctly bluish in color, 
while Baron Joseph Hulot is a velvety purple. 

Season — Mid-season; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 


GiapioL_us Stupies — III 301 


Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium few. 


BOSTON Originator —Childs. Reg. A.G.S., 
Igi4 
Group — 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1V), 
with white throat dotted and intermixed with Tyrian rose (155-1) and darker. 
Bloom rather loose and substance medium good. 

Season — Latter part of August; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


BOUQUET D’OR . Originator — Stewart. Intro. IgII 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. Stamen 
filaments white; styles yellowish white. Perianth cream tinted rosy pink (118), 
the lower segments yellow-green with carmine-red (113-1v) blotch. 
Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


BRENCHLEYENSIS Originator — Unknown. Intro. Youell 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Umpleby 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube almost straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrow, the lower reflexed and often broader. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-Iv), segments 
feathered darker, throat yellow-green marked with scarlet with a French purple 
medial line. Color bright. One of the oldest, but ever a favorite landscape v a: 
Eight blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 106 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 
Hatit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


BRIGHTNESS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium large (9-11 em.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper narrower than the lower, and the 
edges of both upper and lower segments reflexed. Stamen filaments white with 
red tips; anthers violet. ‘Perianth scarlet (87-Iv) with a sulfury white throat 
spotted and penciled with scarlet. Bloom possesses medium good substance; 
three open at one time. Seems a good cut flower because of its straight spike 
and clear colors. 
Season — Early August; 80 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (73 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (14). Two 
spikes per corm. 


302 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


Habit — Very erect, medium tall, medium compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


BRITANNIA Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 
: Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments equal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and as broad as the upper. Stamen 
filaments pink; styles pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88-11) with a blood-red-and- 
white-speckled throat. 
Season — Mid-August. 
Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
ae — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
orms — 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


BURCHETT NO. 389 Originator — Burchett 
Group — : 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers yellow, with violet suture lines. Perianth rose- 
pink (brighter than 118-Iv), with lemon-yellow throat and large penciled blotch 
of carmine. Good color and substance. 
Season — Late August; 95 days. 
Spike — Tall (118 cm.), erect, blooms freely (25 on main, 12 and 13 on secondary). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


BURREL Originator — Woodruff. Reg. A. G.S., 
1914, Black 
Group — 


Stock from Woodruff 

Synonym — Napoleon of Darling and Beahan. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth cherry red (91-1), with blood 
red (93-Iv) intermixed blotch bordered by yellow-green. A slight feathering 
of slate in edges of the segments. Compact blooms of good substance, arranged 
well on the spike. 

Season — Early August; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Extra vigorous; plant well furnished with broad, though somewhat drooping, 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


BUSTER BROWN Originator — Auten 
Group —Gladiolus dracocephalus hy- 
brid 


Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments dull gray; anthers red-violet. Perianth amber- 
white (12-1) thickly speckled and flecked with currant red (115-Iv), throat lemon- 
yellow. A very peculiar color. Much resembles its parent, Gladzolus dracoceph- 
alus. A good shape. Five blooms open at one time. 


Giapiotus Stupres — III 303 


Season — Mid-season; 97 pee 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CALIFORNIA: ~ Originator — Cowee, 1907. Reg. A. 
G. S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Cowee 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments violet-rose; anthers violet. Perianth light Tyrian 
rose (155) marked with a bit deeper Tyrian rose (155-1), with an amber-white 
throat nearly covered by large areas of Tyrian rose dots. The size and color are 
acceptable. 

Season — August; 96 days. 

Spike — Very tall (115 cm.), drooping, a fair number of blooms (15 on the main, 
II and 12 on two secondaries); branches are badly curved. 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormeis, few. 


CANADA. See Meadowvale. 


CANARY BIRD Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI4 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, rather slender, ratherlong. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish; anthers pale lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-4), 
the two lower inferior segments a deeper lemon-yellow (21-11), a little narrower than 
the other segments. A slight suffusion of rose is found in the perianth seg- 
ments. A dainty bloom of medium substance. For use in landscape, the colors 
combine well with Baron Joseph Hulot. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 96 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (30), often two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium sized; cormels, few. 


CANDIDUM Originator — Austin. Reg. A. G. S., 
Igi4 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers delicate lavender. Perianth 
lilacy white (7-1) with faintest tinge of pale yellow-green on the lower lip. A 
slight tinge of carmine feathering develops as the bloom fades. There is deep 
carmine at the base of the throat. A delicate color. Feathering develops 
when the variety is forced. 
Season — Mid-August; 89 to 95 days. Forces in about 112 days. 
Spike — Tall (101 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, 8 and II on two secondaries). 
Two spikes per corm. 
Halit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium wide leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


3 Another California was introduced by Burbank in 1890. 


304 CorRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 11 


CANICULE Originator — Souchet -Vilmorin. 
Intro. 1904 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Sta- 
men filaments cream; anthers flesh color with violet sutures. Perianth scarlet 
(87-111) with amber-white (12-1) throat. A good color. Compact bloom of good 
substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), one branch. Two 
spikes per corm. = 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


CAPRICE 4 Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower straight ones. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers pinkish lavender. Perianth violet-rose (154-Iv) with 
a crimson-red (114-Iv) penciled blotch and a slight dash of yellow-green on the 
medial line. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season, early to mid-August; 82 to 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (97 cm.), erect, free-blooming (20 on main, 13 on secondary), one branch. 
Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CAPTAIN C. B. TANNER Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
19t4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper with tips reflexed, the lower broader and reflexed. 
Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers dark blue-violet. Perianth Rose 
Neyron red (119-11), sparsely marked with crimson. Splashes on segments seem 
blemishes to an otherwise good pink. 
Season — Early, late July; 69 to 70 days. 
Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Three spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific, large. 


CAPTAIN W. L. REEVES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (13cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1v), throat yellow- — 
green penciled with dark scarlet. Medial lines slightly lighter in color. Color 
clear, and bloom possesses good substance, is compact and well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 3 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 
Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, medium spreading. 


4There is also a Caprice from Kelway, and another from Vilmorin. 


GiapioLus Stupres — III 305 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few, small. 


CAPTIVATION > Originator — Miller 
Group — 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower (often 
the lower segment is the broader). Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. 
Perianth creamy white (10-Iv), with amber-white (12-1v) ‘throat marked with 
rosy magenta (169-11). An excellent cream-colored bloom. A compact bloom 
of medium poor substance. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (go cm.), extremely erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CARDINAL (Childs)*® Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904 

< Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish with white tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-Iv) with geranium red (uI-1) finely intermixed blotches on lemon-yellow 
throat. Bloom well open, of a bright showy color. 

Season — Late, September; 120 days. 

Spike — Medium height (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific, small. 


CARDINAL (May) Originator — May 
Group — 
: Stock from May 

Synonym — May’s Cardinal. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower with reflexed edges and 
narrower. Stamen filaments with reddish tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth 
+ arple-garnet (165-11) with amber-white (12-1) throat stippled with purple- 
garnet (165-1). A good deep color. A compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Early; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


CARDINAL 5 X. See Great Cardinal. 


CARDISAN Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Very large (12 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish spotted; anthers almost black. Perianth much deeper 
than blood red (93-Iv), the throat nearly black. Color could be described as 
a very deep wine color. 
Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 93 to 100 days. 


° There is also a Captivation from Kelway. 
6 There is a Lemoine and a Vilmorin variety by this name. 


306 CorNELL Extension BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (87 em.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, compact. - 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolific. : 


CAVERS NO. 29 Originator — Cavers 
Group — 
Stock from Cavers 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly 
straight and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth Naples 
yellow (29-111) with large carmine-purple (156-1v) blotches. A slight rose suffusion 
is usually present in the segments. A good shape and a dainty color. 
Season — Early September; 106 days. 
Spike — Tall (103 em.), erect, few blooms (6), often branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Grewth — Vigorous; plant rather well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium sized; cormels, prolific. 


CECIL Originator — May 
Group — 
Stock from May 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink. Perianth light carthamin red (88-1) with lemon-yellow 
throat blotched with blood red (93-1v). A compact bloom of medium substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 
Season — Rather late; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CEDAR ACRES MAUVE. See Scarsdale. 


C. E. J. ESDALE Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Seg.nents 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth reddish purple (161-1v) with 
pale yellow-green lines as the only markings. The edges of the segments are 
darkest. Color good, and flower has a very velvety appearance. Six blooms 
open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 89 days. 
Spike — Tall, erect, blooms freely, with two secondary spikes. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


CELLINI Originator — Kelway 
Group — 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; — 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments pink; 
styles lighter pink. Perianth vermilion-red (87-11), Tyrian_ rose (155) medial 
line on lower segments, lighter on each side. Tint of this lighter color along 
edge of all segments and on the back. fs 
Season — August. 


GrapioLus Stupies — III 307 


Spike — Medium short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
~ Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


CERES Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Ad- 
vertised 1877-78 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white with pink bases; anthers yellowish brown with 
violet sutures. Perianth lilacy white (7-1), with a deep lemon-yellow throat 
blotched with Tyrian rose (155-Iv). Segments slightly feathered with rose. Bloom 
is compact, of medium good substance, attractive, and bright. 

Season — Mid-season to late, early September; 102 to 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with ipa broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


_ CHALICE Originator — Umpleby 

Group — Strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus 
characters 

Stock from Umpleby 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower much reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white 
(7-1), often pure white with a faint dash of Tyrian rose (155-11) on the lower seg- 
ments, and the base of the lower segments marked with crimson-carmine (159-1). 
Upper segments often strongly feathered with Tyrian rose. Segments are pointed 
and of good substance. Blooms have poor arrangement and poor shape. 

Season — Mid-August; 93 to 100 days. 

Spike — Very tall (130 cm.), erect, blooms freely (24). 

Halnt — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolific. 


CHAMAELEON Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
: Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube almost straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, and the segments variously 
embossed in different parts, the lower straight. Stamen filaments pink; anthers 
violet. Perianth, three outer segments madder red fading into lighter shrimp 
pink (75); lower lip yellow-green, penciled with lilac-rose; back of segments with 
violet- tinged medial lines. Flower very bright in color. Eight blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — Medium late; 101 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific, small. 


CHAMONT Originator — Childs 
; Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper longer, horizontal, and rather narrow, the lower reflexed and 


308 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


narrower. Stamen filaments pink; styles nearly white. Perianth violet-rose 
(154-1) feathered with Tyrian rose, with lemon-yellow throat penciled with 
Tyrian rose. The flowers, though small, form a compact spike. Mr. Burt, in 
Ig1I, noted that the flowers are frequently doubled and possess nine segments. 
Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 111 days. 

Spike — Tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely, not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


CHARITY Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and rather narrow, the lower 
reflexed and broad. Stamen filaments lilac; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy 
white, thickly feathered with Tyrian rose (155-111), lemon-yellow throat slightly 
marked with Tyrian rose. A rather compact bloom of good substance. Would 
be better if the featherings of Tyrian rose on the edges of the segments were 
absent. 
Season — Late August; 89 to 95 days. 
Spike — Medium (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). Two spikes fre- 
quently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON Originator — Van Fleet 
Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrower than the lower reflexed; often the 
upper is the broader. Stamen filaments red; styles red. Perianth cherry red 
(g1-1v) feathered with dark red, with light blood-red-and-yellow-speckled throat. 
Season — Late; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


CHARLES MARTEL Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small. Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and narrow. Perianth lilac-rose, 
the lower segment with primrose yellow lip blotched with ox blood red. Back 
of segments splashed. 
Season — August 9, 1911. 
Spike — Medium short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


CHARLOTTE. See Mary Fennel. 


GLapDIoLus StupiEes — III 309 


CHARLOTTE PFITZER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lavender. Perianth fale 
lilac-rose (178-1), darker at edges of segments. Lower lip lined with single dash 
of amaranth-red (168-1v). A good color. About same color as that of America. 
Blooms face various directions. A medium loose bloom of medium substance. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20). Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


CHARMER? Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii; Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower retlexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-1), 
deeper at edges, and blotched with Tyrian rose (155-1v), deeper at medial line. A 
compact, round bloom of medium good substance. Blooms are spaced far apart. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
_ Habit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


CHEERFUL Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bioom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth deep rose-pink 
(120-IV), with amber-white (12-1) throat marked with a lined blotch of French 
purple (161-1v). Compact bloom of good shape and medium good substance. 
Well-arranged blooms. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CHERRY DIAMOND Originator — Woodruff 
Group — 


Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). _Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carmine lake (121- 
111) with whitish medial lines, each lower segment blotched with Tyrian rose 
(155-Iv) bordered by lemon-yellow. Blotch not of a decided shape. A compact 
bloom of medium substance. Blooms rather far apart. 

Season — Called ‘‘ early ” by Woodruff; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


7There is also a variety by this name from Groff, 


310 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


CHERRY RED Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth carmine lake 
(121-11) with lemon-yellow (21-11) throat blotched with deep carmine-purple 
(150-Iv). An attractive color. -‘‘ Wilts too readily,” says Auten. , 

Season — Mid-August; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14 on main, with 9 
and 6 on two secondaries). Often two spikes per corm. 5 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. : 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 


CHERRY RED, WHITE CENTER Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Small (6.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow with edges slightly ruffled, the lower 
straight and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth cherry red 
(g1-1v), the edges darker; the throat amber-white (12-11) finely flecked and 
dotted with deep cherry red. Dotting is fine and attractive. 

Season — Mid-August; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 7 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small but abundant. 


CHICAGO WHITE Originator —Kunderd. Reg. A. G.S., 
I9l4, 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and slightly narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure 
white, medial lines of amber-white, and lines of solferino-red (157-1) on the lower 
segments at the base of the throat. The lines are very fine and inconspicuous, 
making this a nearly pure white variety. The blooms are often rather small. 
It should be called an excellent commercial variety, as well as useful for the 
landscape. 
Season — Mid-August. Gage calls it the earliest white, as it blooms before July 18. 
Forces in 107 days; out of doors 75 to 80 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (96 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 9 on 
secondary), branched. Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium in size and number; cormels, few and small. 


CHIEFTAIN Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers lavender. Perianth scarlet (87-1), with large French purple 
(161-1v) blotches on the lower segments. The color of the blotch is really more 
bright and more reddish than French purple, and is very shiny and attractive. 
Substance excellent. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 85 to 90 days, 


GLapDIoLus StupiEes — III se if 


Spike — Very tall (135 cm.), erect, blooms freely (22 on main spike, 8 on secondary), 
a very strong spike. 

Habit — Erect, very tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant unusually well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific and large. 


CHOCOLATE DROP Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912. 
Reg. A. G.S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish slate. Perianth near reddish lilac 
(179-1), becoming bluer as it ages, with a purple-garnet (165-11) blotch terminating 
in a nearly white medial line. The color seems too dingy. The bloom is compact, 
and the substance excellent. 

Season — Late August; 89 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CHRISTMAS CANDY Originator — White 
Group — Princeps X Lemoinei 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broader. Perianth pure white with slight markings of light crimson-carmine, 
and a deep crimson-carmine (159-IV) veined throat. The flower possesses good 
substance, and is a good shape. 
Season — Early September; 108 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 
Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with drooping, medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


CLARICE Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 
1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red (119-1) 
splashed and feathered with carmine lake (12I-1v), medial line of blotch deep 
carmine lake (12I-Iv). Flowers well opened, of medium substance. Four or 
five open at once. 
Season — Mid-August; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


COBLENTZ NO. 003 Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 


Stock from Coblentz 


Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with crinkled edges, not regular, 
and broader, the lower much reflexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. 
Perianth very light scarlet, blending to bright rose (128-1v), throat striped with sol- 
ferino-red (157-1). A good pink bloom of good substance on a compact spike. 
Perhaps not a commercial color, 


312 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


Season — Mid-August to late August; 71 to 75 days. 

Spike — Tall (122 cm.), drooping (1913), blooms freely (21 on main, 8 and 12 on 
secondaries). Often three 
spikes borne per corm. 

Habit— Drooping, tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant 
well furnished with broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, pro- 


lific. 


COBLENTZ NO. 304. See 
Mrs. Scott Durand. 


COBLENTZ NO. 309 
Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube 
curved, slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, 
red tips; anthers red-vio- 
let. Perianth cherry red 
(g1i-11), marked a little 
darker, lower segments 
with large blood red (93- 
Iv) blotch, white medial 
lines. A good color. 

Season — Late August; 97 to 
110 days. 

Spike — Short (58 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms 
(11), not branched. 

Habit—Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


COBLENTZ NO. 312. See 
Velvet King. 


COBLENTZ NO. 400 
Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube 
almost straight, stout, 
short. Segments unequal, 
Fic. 44. COBLENTZ NO. 400 connivent; the upper hori- 
zontal and broad, the 
lower straight and also broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers pale lavender. 
Perianth amber-white (12-1) with large cardinal-red (112-1v) blotch, slight suffu- 
sion of rose on upper segments. Buds rather yellow. Resembles La Luna, but 


GriapioLtus Stupres — III 313 


the blotch is brighter in color ‘than in that variety. The blotch in La Luna is old 
dark blood red and is more circular in outline. 

Season — Mid-August to late; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (111 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 13 and 12 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. Growth superior to 
that of La Luna. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


COLONEL A. C. SLOCUM Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers red-violet. Perianth geranium lake 
(89-11) with white medial lines, amber-white to lemon-yellow throat blotched 
with French purple (161-1v). Good color. A compact bloom of medium good 
substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant rather poorly furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


COLUMBIA Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium stout, medium short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1) with crimson-carmine lines in the throat. Bloom rather loose and 
of good substance. The color is described by Childs as light orange-scarlet. 
Season — Mid-season, late August; 78 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Rather vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow 
foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CONTRAST Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI4 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth intense 
scarlet (87-IV), with a large light lemon-yellow throat; no markings. A compact 
bloom of excellent substance. Good contrast in color. Five blooms open at ° 
one time. 
Season — Mid-season, late August; 88 to 95 days. 
Spike — Medium short (67 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


314 CorRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN. 11 


CORA Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) 
with a blotch lighter than Tyrian rose (155) cut by a lemon-yellow medial line, 
and with a deep lemon-yellow throat. A rather loose bloom of good substance. 
Blooms well arranged on the spike, rather far apart. Buds are slightly yellow. 

Season — Mid-season to late, early August; 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Hahit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, rather prolific. 


CORNISHMAN Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1898 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium large (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper broader with edges decidedly reflexed, 
the lower slightly reflexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth 
a tint lighter than Lincoln red (88-1) splashed and feathered with darker Lincoln 
red (88-Iv), the lower segments have a large canary-yellow spot penciled 
with lilac-purple (160-11). The bloom has an objectionable closed appear- 
ance; the color is not quite clear enough; and the substance is not the best. 

Season —In 1911, it bloomed on August 9; in I912, on August 8; in 1913, on 
August 2. Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. Often 
two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large though few. 


COUNTESS AMY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1899 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-rose (152-11) 
thickly splashed with carmine lake (12I-Iv), with an amber-white (12-1) 
throat. The splashing does not seem so pronounced some seasons. The color 
is rather contrasting, the shape excellent, and the flower has a charming attraction. 
Season — Mid-season, second week in August; 82 to 86 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, branched, a fair number of blooms (13 on main, 
6 on a branch). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Very good; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few, large. 


COUNTESS OF LEICESTER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Extremely large (18 cm., or 7 in.). Tube straight, medium slender, 
medium short. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed 
edges and very broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments white, 
salmon-pink tips; anthers salmon-pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1); speckled 
yellow-green throat. Bloom well open, of good color, and of rather good sub- 
_ stance for so large a bloom. 
Season — Early, July 29; 68 to 70 days. 
Spike — Tall (107 cm.), erect, but very much curved, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 5 on secondary). 


GrapioLus Stupies — III Ey 


Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, large. 


COUNTESS OF SUFFOLK Originator — Kelway 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower 
broad reflexed segment. Stamen filaments white, rose tips; anthers violet. Stig- 
mas lavender. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-111), very thickly feathered with 
carmine (116-11); outer segments more thickly marked than the inner; primrose 
yellow (19-1) throat; a rosy white medial line on each segment. Color is not clear. 
Season — Mid-season, early August; 80 to go days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Not vigorous; plant with medium poor foliage, narrow and rather drooping. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few and small. 


CRACKERJACK Originator — Cowee, 1903. Reg. A.G. 
S., 1914. Cowee 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cowee 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth velvety 
carmine-red (113-IvV and deeper); throat yellow-green irregularly marked with 
amaranth-red (168-Iv), often splashed and feathered with drab. Good shape 
and color. Velvety appearance. 
Season — Mid-season; 87 to 92 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


CREAM PINK. See Faerie. 


CRIMSON LAKE- Originator — Woodruff 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter than carmine- 
purple (156-1v), blotched with purple-garnet (165-1v). Colors unusually bright 
and shining. A rather loose, wide-open bloom of good substance. 

Season — Rather early; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Halit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with mediaim broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


CRIMSON RED NO. 8 Originator — Banning. Intro. Perkins- 
King Company 
Group — 


Stock from Perkins-King Company 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine (159-111), 


316 CorNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


lighter in center, blotched with deeper crimson-carmine on nearly pure white 
throat. | Segments possess lighter medial lines. Compact bloom of medium 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. u 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


CRYSTAL WHITE Originator — Baer 
Group — 
Stock from Baer 

Synonym — Formerly called Paper White. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers bluish. Perianth white, blotched 
with Tyrian rose (155-Iv). Compact bloom of good substance. Five blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — August 8, 1915. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19-21). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


CYNOSURE — Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth near lilac-rose (152-1), flecked in seg- 
ments and blotched with French purple (161-1v). A good deep rose. A com- 
pact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 
Spike — Tall (125 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


DAISY RAND Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A.G.5., 
1914 
Group — 4 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly straight. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth “soft rose-pink, splashed with a 
darker tone, the petals bearing a small patch of pale buff penciled with rosy 
pink,” say Chamberlain & Gage. Excellent shape and a waxy looking bloom of 
excellent substance. 
Season — Early August. 
Spike — Medium tall (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


DANDY Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (6.5 cm.). Tube straight, stout, and very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth French purple (161-IV), 


GiapioLus Stupies — III 317 


an area of yellowish sap green (265-111) on each segment; five of the segments 
blotched with vinous purple (171-11). Colors rich and contrasting; blooms 
compact and of unusual substance. 

Season — Mid-August. 

Spike — Tall (85 cm.), erect, curved, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with long, broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


DANNECKER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers white, blue-violet sutures. Perianth pale lilac (176-1) 
faintly feathered with lilac and blotched with deeper than lilac-purple (160-1v), 
the blotch margined with bluish. A good color. An excellent compact form. 
Good substance. Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


DARK CRIMSON Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube long, curved, slender. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower segment. Stamen 
filaments dark red; anthers red with violet sutures. Perianth cochineal red 
(83-11), with fiery red throat and deeper medial line. Markings not conspicuous. 
Excellent substance. Well-open bloom. Color extremely rich and clear. 
Season — Early; 68 days. 
Spike — Tall (125 cm:), erect, tip of spike often curved, branched, a fair number ot 
blooms (13 on main, 7 ona branch). Two or three spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium height, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, very prolific. 


DARKNESS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal with two upper inferior segments laterally incurved, the upper 
exterior reflexed; the lower broader and reflexed. Stamen filaments white, 
red tips; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth blood red (93-1v) with 
the back of the segments mottled blood red and white. 

Season — Last week in August; 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large. 


DAWN (Tracy) Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart; Tracy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-carmine (125-1v), the 


318 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


outer edges of segments often deeper. Amber-white (12-1) throat penciled with 

amaranth-red (168-1v). An excellent color, and good arrangement of blooms on 

spike. Compact bloom of medium good substance. Good keeping quality. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 


days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 
cm.), erect; a> Sage 
number of blooms 
(15), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium — 
tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; 
cormels, prolific. 


DAZZLER ° 
Originator — Miller 
Group —Childsii; 
Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube curved, 
stout, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper 
horizontal and broad, 
the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen 
filaments yellowish; 
anthers lilac and 
greenish yellow. Per- 
ianth violet-purple 
(192-11), with lemon- 
yellow throat blotched 
with plum-violet 
(172-1v). Compact 
bloom of excellent sub- 
stance. Five blooms 
open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 81 
days. "i 
Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


FIG. 45. DECORATION 


DE CHEVILLE (Stewart). See Lamarck. 


DECORATION Originator — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I2 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white, sutures dark violet. Perianth Lincoln 


8 There is also a variety of this name originated by Groff. 


GiapioLus Stupres — III 319 


red (88-Iv), becoming lighter toward the base of the throat. There is a yellowish 
sheen-to the lower segments; edges of segments are slightly crinkled. Excellent 
substance; well open. 
_ Season — Late August; ror to 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), not branched. 
Frequently two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, prolific. 


-DELICATISSIMA Originator — Christy. Seedling of 
1903 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.}. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments equal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broader. Stamen filaments 
and styles lilac-white. Perianth lavender-rose, often near lilacy white, feathered 
with solferino-red (160-1) on yellow-green throat. Color very intermixed, not 
clear, not harmonious. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 99 days. 

Spike — Rather tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 
The branches, says Christy, ‘form a harp-shaped cluster making it one of the 
most floriferous sorts.” Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Cormels — Moderately prolific. Christy writes: “‘ Multiplies freely both by division 
and by the production of cormlets.” 


DESDEMONE Originator — Vilmorin 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broader than the reflexed lower 
segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender-pink. Perianth deep rosy 
pink (120-Iv), with a lilac-purple blotch (160-1v) on a lemon-yellow throat, 
merging to hlacy white. The color might be described as an ashen hue. The 
bloom is wide open and of good substance. 

Séason — Late August; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, curved, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. j 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


DEUIL DE CARNOT Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 


Bloom — Medium small. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments and styles red. Perianth carmine-red (113) streaked with very deep 
red. Both sides of the throat are speckled with yellow. 

- Season — September 6, IgII. 

Spike — Short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 


DEUIL DE ST. PIERRE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 


320 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


filaments reddish; anthers 
violet. Perianth violet-lilac 
(175-Iv), blotched with ama- 
ranth-red (168-1v) termi- 
nated by dash of white. A 
smoky color. Bloom compact 
and of medium good sub- 
stance. Seven blooms open 
at once. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a 
fair number of blooms (18), 
branched. 

Habit — Rather drooping, tall, 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with medium broad 


leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, 
few. 
DICTUM 
Originator — Burchett 
Group — 


Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube 
straight, stout, very short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper reflexed and broad, 
the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments 
white with red tips; anthers 
violet. Perianth currant red 
(115-1), with carmine-red 
(113-IV) intermixed throat. 
Yellow-green dashes in the 
lower segments. Each seg- 
ment appears to be outlined 
with violet. Well-open 
bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-August to late 
August; 97 days. 

Spike— Very tall (122 cm.), erect, 
blooms abundantly (17), not 
branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with broad promi- 
nently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, abun- 
dant. 


DIRECTOR 
Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 
Fic. 46. DESDEMONE Tube curved, medium slender, 
' medium long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) often 


GuiapioLus Stupies — III 321 


strongly, sometimes but lightly. feathered with lilac (176-1), with a blotch of 
amaranth-red (168) on the two lower segments. Good substance and attractive 
arrangement. 

Season — Early to mid-August; 91 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19 on main, 14 and 12 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large but few. 


DR. DOTTER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1911 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). | Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers yellow. Perianth amber-yellow (28-1), lower lip deeper 
yellow (28-11); a slight feathering of rose often develops in outer segments. A 
good yellow. A compact bloom. Medium substance. Eight blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


DR. ERWIN ACKERKNECHT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments ; anthers Perianth carmine (116-1) thickly 
splashed with carmine-red (113-1), with a bright lemon-yellow (20-1) throat 
marked with ox blood red (94-1v). An immense blaze of color. A compact 
bloom of good substance. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 

Spike — Tail (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


DR. SELLEW Originator—Childs. Reg. A.G.S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deeper than carmine (116-I1v), with 
a lemon-yellow throat penciled and dotted with French purple (161-1v); a slight 
feathering of carmine often occurs in the edges of the segments. Rather loose 
but of excellent substance. Six blooms open at one time. Blooms often face 
several directions. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


DR. WILLIAMS Originator — White 
Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, somewhat twisted, slender. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 


322 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


! 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red (119-1V), 
with white throat marked with lines of crimson-carmine. White says: ‘‘ Might 
be called Pink Princeps.” 

Season — Early September; 110 days. : 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. Often three spikes 
borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


DORENE Originator — Kunderd. Intro. about 
1913. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers lilac. Perianth lilacy white (7-1), often 
so thickly feathered with mauve-rose that the bloom appears to be mauve-rose. 
A light throat very sparsely dotted with Tyrian rose (155-11). The compact 
blooms are of medium substance and are borne erect on the spike. Six to eight 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Late August; 107 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


DOROTHY BURNHAM Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom —Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth scarlet (87-I1v) with 
a large light lemon-yellow throat, segments often splashed with slate. The 
blooms are large, well open, and attractive except for the slate markings. 
Season — September; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 


DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1885 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth bright rosy scarlet 
(124-1) slightly feathered with darker rosy scarlet. Throat yellow-green with 
sparse dottings of Tyrian rose (155-111) and deep pencilings of the same color deep 
in the throat. Color appears as a dainty, clear salmon-pink. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 80 to 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, free blooming (19 on main, Io and I1 on two second- 
aries). Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few but large. 


GLaDIOoLus Stupies — III 323 


DUKE OF RICHMOND Originator — Kelway 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large. Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper broad with pointed segments, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; styles white. Perianth tomato red (81—Iv) splashed and 
streaked deeper, faint medial lines, yellow-white throat, a blotch of carmine 
penciling. Bloom is attractive, and Kelway commends the arrangement on the 
spike. 
Season — Early September. 
Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves with prominent 
veins. 


(Described by George J. Burt.) 


EARL COMPTON Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (10cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium long, stout. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal except for the reflexed edges, the 
lower a trifle narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers 
violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-11, but with a slight effect of yellow), the upper 
segments with an area slightly marked darker, the lower with a sulfur- yellow 
throat on which are amaranth-red pencilings (168-111). The color is light, delicate, 
and clear. 
Season — Early; 67 to 69 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Good; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


EARLY AMETHYST Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Crawford 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight and 
broad segment. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy 
magenta (169-1), thickly feathered with deeper rosy magenta. Lower lip deep 
rosy magenta, a yellow splash on the medial line. Color is attractive, and spike 
well arranged. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, few or none. 


EARLY PINK ® Originator — Black 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Black 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers and stigma lavender. Perianth bright rosy 
scarlet (124-1), with a white throat finely marked or intermixed with French 
purple (161-11). Blooms well open, of good substance and good color. 

Season — Early; 72 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 
6 and 7 on two branches). Four spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 


9 Black says that this variety is a selection of stock furnished by S. Huth of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 


324 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow foliage. 
Corms — Large; cormels, very prolific. 


EASTER, See Madame Lemoinier. 


EASTER BELLS Originator — Austin. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I4 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth lemon- 
yellow (21-1), deeper yellow throat very faintly feathered with Tyrian rose (155-1). 
ere not for the feathering it would closely resemble Victory and Isaac Buchanan 
in color. 

Season — Late August; 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


EDISON Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1896 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
(Described from cut spike.) 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with rose tips; anthers lilac, violet sutures. Perianth 
reddish old rose (142-11) with a madder lake (122-1v) blotch terminating in a white 
dash. A compact bloom of rather good substance. 

Season — Early August. 

Spike — Medium long, erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 


EL CAPITAN Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A.G.S., 
IgI4 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 
(Described from cut spike.) 

Synonym — Formerly called Tallest Yellow. 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers drab. Perianth amber-white (12-1), the yellow 
lip neatly marked with deep Tyrian rose (155), although many of the blooms 
possess no markings. An excellent light color. 

Season — 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, free flowering (23). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — 


ELDORADO Originator — Lemoine. Intro. previous 
to 1897 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Boddington 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1), the 
lower lip deeper yellow and blotched with ox blood red. Compact bloom of good 
substance. A good, deep yellow. 


10 There is a gandavensis variety of this name originated by Souchet. 


GrapioLus Stupries — III 325 


Season — Mid-season; 94 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ELECTOR Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad with the edges reflexed, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, tinged with pink; anthers lavender ~ 
with violet sutures. Perianth currant red (115-IV), throat amber-white (12-1) 
marked and finely dotted with carmine-purple (156-1v). Compact bloom of 
good color and velvety texture. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (109 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with short, rigid, broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, Jarge, prolific. 


ELECTRA Originator — Hopman 
Group — Gandavensis 
- Stock from Velthuys; Hopman 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, rather slender, rather long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers reddish with violet sutures. Perianth cochineal 
red (83-1), with a lemon-yellow throat blotched with scarlet (85-1v). A good, 
clear color. Compact bloom of medium substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, slightly curved, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ELIZABETH KURZ Originator — Pfitzer 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure white, edges of segments 
tinted pale rosy pink (129-1), the lower segments slightly tinged with yellow in 
the throat. A compact bloom of medium substance and delicate color. Six to 
eight blooms open at one time. ‘“‘Good for garden and cutting,’’ say Chamberlain 
& Gage. 

- Season — Mid-August; 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


ELLA" Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine lake (121-11), throat lemon-yellow. 
On some flowers, segments other than those of the throat are touched with yellow. 
Pointed segments; good substance. 


1 Krelage catalogs a variety Ella introduced in 1892. Childs also has a variety named Ella. 


326 


CoRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN II 


Fic. 47. EMBOSSED YELLOW 


Season — Mid-season; 89 
days. 

Spike — Medium tai! (go 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (15). 
Often three spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, 
spreading. 

Growth —Vigorous; plant 
well- furnished with 
broad leaves. 

Corms —Medium large; 
cormels, prolific. 


EMBOSSED YELLOW 
Originator — Stewart. 
Intro. 1912. Reg. 
A, G.S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube slightly 
curved, siender, me- 
dium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal, 
rather hooded, and 
broad, the lower nar- 
rower. Stamen fila- 
ments creamy white; 
anthers lavender-rose. 
Perianth canary-yellow 
(17-1), upper segments 
suffused with rose. The 
deeper yellow throat is 
blotched with straw- 
berry red (110-1), and 
the blotch is pierced 
by a dash of yellow. 
Each segment is some- 
what raised on the 
medial line, which gives 
the name ‘‘ Embossed ” 
to the variety. Re- 
sembles Henri Lemoine. 
The flowers are set 
close on the spike. 

Season — First week in Aug- 
ust; 74 to 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (15), slen- 
der, two branches. 

Habit— Erect, medium tall, 
rather compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; 
plant furnished. with 
medium poor: narrow 
leaves. 

Corms—Medium size; 
cormels, few. 


GrapioLus Stupres — III 327 
-EMMA (Coblentz). See Velvet King. 


EMMA THURSBY Originator — Childs. Intro. 1892 © 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white, often much feathered 
with Tyrian rose (155-111) and with large French purple (161-1v) blotches. The 
bloom is compact and of good substance, but the color is perhaps a little too mixed. 

Season — Late August. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EMPIRE (Stewart). See Lacordaire. 


EMPOCLES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large size. Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
and styles pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88-111), with a large yellow throat penciled 
slightly with Tyrian rose (155). The lower segments are smaller, and the flowers 
are wide open. : 
Season — Late August. 
Spike — Tall, erect, blooms freely. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


EMPRESS OF INDIA Originator — Velthuys. From = seed 
1908 
Group — Z 
Stock from Velthuys 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and slightly hooded, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower than the upper. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers darkest 
violet. Perianth brighter than plum-violet (172-Iv), a white dash in the throat 
around which the color is lighter. Color almost black, and very velvety in appear- 
ance. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Early to mid-August; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium short (62 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium to dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


ENCHANTRESS ” = Originator — Hopman. Intro. 1892 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Hopman 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth violet-mauve 
(195-1), the inner segments darker than the outer, the lower segments penciled 
with amaranth-red (168-1v). A very beautiful, dainty color. ~A compact bloom of 
medium poor substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 


2 Souchet originated a variety of this name introduced in 1886. In 1893 E. S. Miller sold to Childs 
a blush-white variety of the same name. 


328 CorRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ERICA VON BARCZAY Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1911 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments reddish; anthers lilac. Perianth crimson-red 
(114-1), rather drab, deeply feathered with plum- 
violet (172-1v) and blotched with carmine blood-red. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of 
blooms (18). Two spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium 
broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


~_ 


, 


ERWIN MAYER 
Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. before 1906 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, red tips; anthers maroon. Perianth 
deeper than ox blood red (94-1v), very deeply feath- 
ered, a white area deep in the throat. An excellent 
deep color. A compact bloom of tough substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium nar- 
row leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ESTELLA 
Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Wright 
Bloom — Very large (16 cm.). Tube curved, medium slen- 
der, medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
Fic. 48. ESTELLA upper horizontal and broad. Stamen filaments rosy 
white; anthers pinkish lavender. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1), with amber-white throat, speckled with French purple (161-1v). 
A rather compact, wide-open bloom of excellent colors and unusual substance 
for one so large. 
Season — Mid-season; 78 to 89 days. 
Spike — Very tall (117 cm.), erect, a great number of blooms (21), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with extra broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


ETEOCLES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments almost 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen 


GLapIoLus Stupies — III 320 


filaments vermilion; anthers lavender. Perianth poppy red with geranium red- 
(89) streaks on a lemon-yellow (21) throat. Color good. 

Season — Mid-August; 84 to 85 days. 

_ Spike — Medium short (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


ETHEL Originator — Childs (?) 

: Group — Childsii 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments salmon-white; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1), 
amber-white throat marked with crimson-red. A rather compact bloom of 
medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. Woodruff calls this variety 
salmon-rose in color so that this may not be the same one cataloged by him. 

Season — Medium late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EUCHARIS Originator —Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1899 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Dreer 


~ Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth white, faintest tinge of 
blush, lower lip of yellow-green and faintly feathered with pinkish orange. A 
very dainty, clear color. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad, prominently 
veined leaves. 5 
Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


EUGENE SANDOW Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments white with rose tips; anthers lavender. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1v), with 
a pale lemon-yellow throat on which is a large blotch of blood red (93). Edges 
of segments are feathered with very dark violet. Kelway gives it as an example 
of excellent substance, but here it is only medium. Bloom well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), very erect, blooms borne freely (20 on main, with 8 on a 
secondary). ; 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous, spreading; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, large though few. 


EUGENE SCRIBE Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1868 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs; Umpleby 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 


] 


330 CorRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


filaments white. Perianth lilac-purple (160-1), edges of segments feathered with 
rosy magenta, yellow throat thickly dotted with lilac-purple. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (22). Two spikes often 
borne per corm. ; 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, prominently 
veined leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EULER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
narrow. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth intermediate 
between bright rosy scarlet and russet-orange, throat creamy white, thickly 
speckled with cochineal red. Bloom wide open, of good size, and color accept- 
able. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), rather drooping and curved, a fair number of blooms 
(13), two branches. Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

IIabit — Not so erect as it should be, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small and few. 


EUREKA Originator — Franken Brothers 
Group — 
Stock from Franken Brothers 
Bloom — Medium small (7 cm. across and much longer). Tube nearly straight, medium 
slender, medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and 
narrow, the lower straight and broader. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1), deeper shading, feathering, and pencilings of 
crimson-carmine (159-IV). Good substance, but not well open. 
Season — Mid-August; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect; a fair number of blooms (—), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 
Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EUROPA Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1911 
Group— Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure white, Jower segment 
tinged with amber-white, and the faintest indication of crimson-carmine in the 
throat, though not visible. The bloom is well arranged, well open, and perhaps is 
the best white for this reason on the trial grounds. Better arrangement than that 
of Lily Lehmann. Extra good for commercial use. 

Season — September 8; 108 to 110 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two spikes 
often borne per corm. ; 

Habit — Often rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GapIoLus Stupies — III © 331 


EVA® Originator — Michell 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Michell 
~Bloom — Large (10.5cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent: 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth madder lake (122-11) with carmine 
lake stripes on a white throat. Edges of segments feathered with dull purple 
lake (170-11). A good color. 
Season — Mid-August to late August; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (72 cm.), erect, a medium quantity of bloom (14 on main, 3 on 
secondary). é 
Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EVALINE Originator — Groff 
- Group — 
Stock from Woodruff; Stewart 

Synonyms — Stewart No. 11, Smoky Violet; Large Purplish; John Schmelzer. 

Bloom — Large (10-12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. - 
Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth crushed strawberry 
(109-11), segments feathered with vinous purple (171-11). A dingy, muddy 
color. Well arranged to form an-excellent spike of bloom. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 72 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


EVOLUTION Originator — Groff, 1904. Reg. A. G. 
S., 1914. Cowee 
Group — 


Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper much reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth pale lilac-rose 
(178), freely feathered with violet-rose, white throat blotched with carmine. Bloom 
wide open, but color often is not so clear as it should be. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 90 to 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, much curved, a fair number of blooms (12), 
bare for nearly half its length. Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Hatit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, medium large. 


EXPANSION Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI4 

Group — Childsii 

Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1) blotched with 
- blood red (93) on a white throat. Widely expanded blooms. Childs’ description, 

“‘ white, pink and crimson,” is rather misleading. Good substance. 


8 Vilmorin, in-1872, introduced a gandavensis variety of this name. Krelage, in 1899, introduced 
a Lemoinei variety of the same name. Childs originated and introduced a rose-colored variety in 1896, 


332 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


Season — Mid-season to late; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


FAERIE Originator — Kunderd 
Group — 
Stock from Cushman 

Synonym — Cream Pink; not Fairy (Stewart). 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, pink tips; anthers white, lavender sutures. Perianth rose-pink 
(120-1), with lemon-yellow (21-1) throat speckled and penciled with French purple 
(161-1v). A compact bloom of medium good substance. One of the daintiest 
pinks. Well open. Several blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


FAIR MAID Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Large (11.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments creamy white; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white 
(much deeper in color in 1913, due to continued sunny and hot conditions) with 
a Tyrian rose (155-I-Iv) blotch deepening from light to dark in center, and with 
yellow-green medial lines. Color is dainty, and bloom is of good size. In 1913, 
color somewhat resembled that of America. 
Season — Early August; 83 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


FAIRY 4 Originator — Stewart 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Synonym — Mrs. James Lancastershire (Tracy). Exhibited in 1909 as Fairy Queen, 
changed in 1913 to Fairy. 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower slightly reflexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth delicate salmon 
flesh (138-111), upper segments with purple-rose (150-111) faint splashings; as the 
flower gets older, these markings become violet-rose (154-Iv). The lower seg- 
ments are often devoid of blotches; in others one or two lower segments are 
blotched with crimson-red (114-11) surrounded by Naples yellow (29-1v). Buds 
are distinctly orange colored. Color is rather dainty. Substance though not 
the best is fairly good. Five blooms open at once. 

Season — Early; 67 to 68 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, only a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium good; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific. 


FAIRY QUEEN. See Fairy. 


14 Another variety named Fairy was introduced by Craft in 1865. 


GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — III 333 


FANTASTIC Originator —Childs. Intro. 1902. 
Reg. A. G.5., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth bright scarlet 
(85) with white throat marked with crimson-red (114-11). A good color. 
Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium poor; plant furnished with rather poor foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


FARMINGTON Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purpie 
(160-1) blotched with crimson-carmine (159-111). Blotch is not of a decided 
shape, but is stippled. Could be called a good pink variety. Bracts wither 
before flower opens. An unusually bright pink. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Rather erect, medium tall, spreading. Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


FASCINATOR Originator — Miller 
Group — 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, very short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed 
segments. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red 
(119-1) with a Tyrian rose (115-11) intermixed blotch. Compact bloom, not 
of exceptional substance. 

Season — Early August; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Long (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size. 


FAUST (Warnaar). See George Paul. 


F. BERGMANN Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom —Large (10.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers lilac. Perianth madder red (86-111) becoming lighter 
toward center, blotched with ox blood red (94-11). Segments somewhat mottled — 
an objection. Rather loose bloom of good substance. 

Season — Medium early; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


334 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


FERDINANDO CORTEZ Originator — Vilmorin. Intro. 1902 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, very long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white. Perianth near amber-yellow (28-11) with dull violet- 
old-rose (115-IV) stripes in throat. Blooms compact, and substance excellent, 
segments being tough rather than brittle. Three blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


FLAMBEAU Originator — Miller 
Group = Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (87-11), with an 
amber-white (12-1) throat thickly stippled to form blotch of Tyrian rose (155-Iv).. 
Rather loose bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 
Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant very abundantly furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


FLANAGAN NO. 1 Originator — Flanagan 
Group — 
Stock from Flanagan 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Segments are pointed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers large, cream-colored, 
with violet sutures. Perianth vermilion-red (87-1), feathered with drab-scarlet 
and with slight pencilings of geranium lake (89-1V) on a whitish throat. A good 
color. A compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (128 cm.), model of erectness, a large number of blooms (26), two long 
branches. 

Habit — Erect, very tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


F. L. OAKLEY Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. &., 
1914 
Group — Childsii ° 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, rather slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and a trifle 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers yellow with violet sutures. Perianth 
scarlet (85-Iv) with a pale lemon-yellow (21-1) throat. Good substance. Very 
showy. 
Season — Mid-September. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12 on main, 5 on 
secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GuabDIoLus StupiEs — III 335 


FLORENCE Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1907 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage; 
Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium long, medium slender. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter 
than reddish violet (180-11), with a white throat and a stippled blotch of Tyrian 
rose (155-IV). Bloom rather compact and of good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 98 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19), branched. Two spikes occur per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


FLORIDA Originator —- Intro. about 1904 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Moore 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower.- Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth crimson-red (114-111), with amber- 
white (12-1) throat blotched with currant red (115-Iv), slight tinting of slate in 
outer edge of segments. Rather good color. Compact bloom of medium substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. : ; 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


FRA DIAVOLO Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1886 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers light lilac, rather elongate. Perianth carmine 
lake (121-11), two shades intermixed with whitish medial lines and edges of outer 
segments marked with purple-brown (166-1); the lemon-yellow throat marked 
lightly with Tyrian rose. Bloom compact, substance excellent. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Early August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched, compact. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, few. 


FRAU C. P. STRASSHEIM Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments ; anthers Perianth glowing 
salmon-red, flamed darker —a much spotted color. A compact bloom of medium 
substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 111 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (73 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Halit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, prolific. 


336 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


FRAU DORA LIEBAU Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white, with reddish sutures. Perianth 
pure white, often tinted rose at edges of segments, blotched with magenta (182-1) 
or purplish mauve (186-1). An attractive blotch. Flowers face opposite directions, 
which seems a serious fault. “A compact bloom of medium substance. Eight - 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


FRAU GABRIELE CHARTON Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. before 
1906 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (7-9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth pure white, 
slight lemon tinge to the lower segments, faint touch of crimson-carmine at base of 
throat. Less lemon than in Lily Lehmann. Slight splashings of Tyrian rose often 
appear in segments. Resembles Reine d’Anjou, but the latter variety seems to 
possess more of the Tyrian rose splashings. Both of these varieties have mixed 
zstivation. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium short (67 cm.), rather erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branches 
not observed. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narfow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific but small. 


FRAU HERME SEIDEL Originator —P fitzer. Intro. 1909- 
IgI2 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth slate-violet (173-11) with heavy 
splashes of madder lake (122-Iv), apparently showing through the slate-violet. 
Throat sulfur-yellow. Color peculiar and does not seem pleasing. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, rather prolific. 


FRAULEIN Originator — Scheubel 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower broad segment. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth amber-white (12-111), with 
light lemon-yellow (23-1) intermixture in the throat. Excellent substance, dainty 
color, and compact and admirable shape. 
Season — Early September; 111 days. 


: GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — III 337 


- 


Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. : 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


FRAU OTTO BEYRODT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, ‘the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red- violet. Perianth very light lilac 
(176-1), feathered edge, and rose-mauve (153- Iv) tinted throat penciled on medial 
line with Tyrian rose (155-1). Color called “‘ white, flamed lilac-rose "’ by Pfitzer. 
Rather loose bloom of medium substance, good color, well open. 
Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


FREDERIKA Originator — 
Group — 
; Stock from Warnaar 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.)._ Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers blue-violet. Perianth light scarlet 
(87-1) with white medial lines and lemon-yellow (21-1) throat, blotched with 
blood red (93-1v) and dotted around the margins. Fine form, compact, attractive 
colors, good arrangement. : 

Season — Mid-season; 9¢ to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


~ 


FRILLED PINK (2-518) Originator — Woodruff 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers lavender. Perianth peach blossom (127-1), 
blotched with Tyrian rose (155-Iv)- bordered with lemon-yellow. Glistening color. 
Buds orange. Edges of segments slightly frilled. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Early; 75 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number-of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


FRITH JOF Originator — Krelage 
Group — Gandavensis or Childsii 
Stock from Krelage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (85-Iv) 
with a trifle deeper medial line in throat. Really a self color. Compact bloom 
= of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 


338 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GAIETY Originator — Kunderd 
Group —- Nanceianus 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage; Cushman 

Synonyms — Pigeon; Bird of Paradise. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments white, reddish tips; anthers lilac with violet sutures. 
Perianth light starlet (87-1) splashed with deeper scarlet (87—Iv), the lower segments 
more thickly splashed. A pure white throat blotched and penciled with crimson- 
red (114-111). Good open 
bloom of striking color and 
excellent substance. At- 
tractive. : 

Season — Mid-season; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), 
erect, a fair number of 
blooms (14), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with medium 
broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


GALLIENI 
Originator — Souchet- 
Vilmorin. Intro. 1899 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain 
& Gage 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube 
straight, stout, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower slightly 
teflexed and broader. Sta- 
men filaments reddish; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
scarlet (87-IV) becoming 
lighter, with lemon-yellow 
throat. Blooms not wide 
open, compact, and of good 
substance. 
Fic. 49. FRILLED PINK Season — Early September; 111 
days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


GATES’ WHITE Originator — Gates 
Group — 
Stock from Gates 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and often narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers violet. Perianth white with broad dash 
or blotch of Tyrian rose (155-IV) in throat. Bloom compact and of good sub- 
stance. Six to seven blooms open at one time. 


GLADIOLUS Stup1IEs — III 339 


Season — Medium late; 110 days. 

Spike — Very tall (130 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), three branches. 
Two or three spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant exceptionally well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


GAY BUTTERFLY Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments salmon-white; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth light old carmine- 
red (107-1), blotched with fiery red (80-1v). Compact bloom of-excellent substance. 
Three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few or none. 


GENERAL DE NANSOUTY Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1895 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Boddington 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac-red; anthers lilac-red. Perianth light 
violet (190-1), feathered and flecked with pansy violet (490-111) with a large 
intermixed blotch of purple-garnet (165-1v). Not a clear color. Pollen badly 
soils the blotch. Compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GENERAL KUROKI Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal; connivent; the upper slightly reflexed at the tips, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers white with blue suture 
lines. Perianth crimson-carmine (inner segments 159-I-III, outer 159-IV). Medial 
lines and throat near white. The dark color seems crystalline in the sunshine; 
foliage approaches base of spike well. Bloom well open. Five blooms open at 
one time. Kelway calls color purple. 
Season — Mid-season; 70 to 80 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, well arranged, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 8 on branch). Each of the corms bloomed at the same time. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Upright, vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rigid leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, many, small. 


GEORGE BETSCHER. See Taconic. 


GEORGE B. REMSEN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broader. 


: 


340 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine 
(159-1), two inner segments with yellow-green medial lines and stripes of deeper 
crimson-carmine. Blooms often rather bunched on the spike. 

Season — Early September; 77 days. 

Spike — Rather short (50 cm.), erect, a small number of blooms (6), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Not vigorous; plant has poor foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium large, few. 


GEORGE HAUSSER 
Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, 
slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; anthers red-violet. Perianth ox blood 
red (94-Iv) with lighter medial line and 
whitish areas deep in throat. Compact bloom 
of good substance. Six blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (16). ; 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


GEORGE PAUL ® 
Originetor — Lemoine. Previous to 1894 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Munsell; Childs; Warnaar; 
Cowee 

Synonym — Faust sent by Warnaar; Harvard 
(Tracy). 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, stout, 
short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
straight and broader. Stamen filaments 
white, red tinge; anthers dark red-violet. 
Perianth crimson-red (114-Iv), with green- 
ish-white throat thickly marked with crim- 
Fic. 50. GENERAL KUROKI son-red. Bloom well open, of good substance, 

and of excellent rich color. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, blooms freely (14), not branched. 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. _ 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GEORGE VOLLMAR Originator — Childs.. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 


Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, rather slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers cream with lilac sutures. Perianth salmon-flesh 


5 Distinct from Harvard of Teas and most other Harvards. 


GiapioLus Stupies — III = 341 


(138-1) feathered with carmine, lemon-yellow throat and medial lines. No 
_ markings in throat. Good color, attractive shape, and well arranged on spike. 
Season — Early September; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), very erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GERTRUDE. See Taconic 
GIANT LAVENDER. See Mary Fennel. 


GIGANTIC * Originator — Hopman. Intro. 1912 
« Group — 
Stock from Hopman 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cnn). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers lavender. Perianth white, blotched, intermixed with 
rosy magenta (near 169-IV), and often with a slight feathering of rose in the 
segments. An excellent white. Compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, many blooms (20), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size: cormels, few. 


GIL BLAS Originator — Lemoine. Previous to 
1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Boddington 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad,-the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lavender-white; anthers lavender. Perianth salmon- 
carmine (125-1) with ox blood red (94-11) blotch, becoming at the sides lighter 
in color and more scarlet. Blotch bordered with light lemon-yellow. Good 
color. Well open, attractive shape. Compact and of good substance. Color 
““ salmon-rose ’’ is given by Boddington. 
Season — Early; 67 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect,.a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GLARE Originator — Childs. Intro. 1908. Reg. 
A. G.S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, very stout, very short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed 
and broad segment. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet 
(85-11) with a lilac-purple (160-1v) intermixed blotch. Compact bloom of excel- 
lent substance. Often blooms on all sides of spike. 
Season — Mid-August; 96 to 98 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (68 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (10), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


6 Burbank has cataloged a variety of this name, 


342 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


_GLEAM Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet with nearly black sutures. Perianth 
near currant red (115-111) blotched with purple-garnet (165-1v), lighter at sides. 
Good clear color. Did not seem an attractive shape. Medium good substance. 

Season — Rather early; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GLORY (Childs) Originator — Childs. Intro. 1908 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium large (9-11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth more pinkish than salmon-pink 
(126-11) with a crimson-carmine blotch, darker on the medial line; slight feath- 
ering of rose-pink in upper segments. Does not seem to be a good keeper. Good 
color. 

Season — Early September; 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), often much curved and twisted, a fair number of 
blooms (11), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant poorly furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GLORY (Kunderd) Originator — Kunderd. Intro. 1911. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 

Synonym — Registered as Kunderdi Glory. 

Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth amber-white (12-1v), often 
becoming lilacy white (7-111), slightly suffused with light rose, especially in 
outer edges of segments. Buds rose tinted. Lower segments with rosy magenta 
(169-1V) lines in the throat. Ruffled; fine compact form of excellent substance. 
Flower bracts are large. Bloom often described as light yellow. 

Season — Late August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, fair number of blooms (14), one branch. 

Habit — Very erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad (3 cm.) foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


GLORY OF HOLLAND Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 


Bloom — Medium large (9-11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth pure white with faintest Tyrian 
rose (155-1) blotch. Dainty color and compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — September 25, 1913; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — III 


GLORY (KUNDERD) 


344 : CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 a 
GLOWING COAL Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. 5, 
1914 


Group —-Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the straight, broad 
lower segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet 
(85-I1v) with a French purple (161-1v) blotch on a lemon-yellow throat. Good 
color, large bloom, of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. : ; 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. - 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GOETHE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Lemoinei . 
Stock from Pfitzer ‘ 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments lavender; anthers lavender. Perianth bright violet (198-1) deeply 
feathered (198-Iv) amber-white (12-Iv) throat broadly dashed and dotted with 
violet-purple (190-1v). Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


GOLDBUG Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
row. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white with violet sutures. Stigmas red. 
Perianth scarlet (85-1v), throat brilliant lemon-yellow (20-1) spotted and striped 
with crimson-red (114-111) with medial line of same color shading into scarlet. 
Often a small area of yellow at each side of the upper segments. Extraordi- 
nary contrast of deep yellow and red. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium small. 


GOLDENES VLIESS Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth yolk yellow 
(24-1), with lemon-yellow (21-1) center. often feathered with carmine. A compact 
bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Often 
two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


GriapioL_us Stupiges — III 345 


GOLDEN KING Originator — Black. Reg. A. G. S., 


IQI4 
Group — Seedling of Golden Queen 
Stock from Black 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers cream with violet sutures. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) 
with blotches of blood red (93-1v). Color a trifle darker than that of Golden Queen. 
Blooms face several directions. Often double. Compact bloom. Excellent 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, very crooked, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Extra good; plant weil furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


GOLDEN NUGGET (Teas). See Klondyke. 
GOLDEN QUEEN (Stewart). See Klondyke. 


GOLDFINDER Originator — Pfitzer 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments yellow; anthers yellow with violet sutures. Perianth amber-vellow 
(28-11) penciled with crimson-red (114-1v). A good yellow. Compact bloom 
of excellent substance. Six to seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GOLDQUELLE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1), the lower lip a deeper 
color, no markings. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to Jate; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14-16), two branches. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. ‘ 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GORGEOUS Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii; nanceianus 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers reddish violet. Perianth poppy color (84-1), 
with amber-white (12-1) throat. Segments often slightly feathered with drab. 
Excellent color. Compact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open 
at. one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 


346 CorRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (go cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GOVERNOR McCORMACK Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S, 


1914 
Group — Childsii r 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and broader than the 
upper. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin-red (88-1v), 
with lemon-yellow throat blotched and mottled with amaranth-red (168-tv). 
Bloom rather loose, of good color, and of good substance. 
Season — Mid-August; 94 days. y 
Spike — Medium tall (71 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GRACE Originator — Iowa Seed Company 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from lowa Seed Company 


Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers pale lavender with violet sutures. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1) with lighter medial lines and blotch of French 
purple (161-1v) tipped with yellow. A good color. A compact bloom of medium 

“ good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant rather poorly furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


GRACE HENRY Originator — Crawford 
Group — 
Stock from Mallory & Brown; Craw- 
ford 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, medium long. Segments 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers dark violet. Perianth blood red (93-1v) with slightly 
lighter medial lines, yellow-green throat, penciled with strawberry red (110-Iv). 
Bloom somewhat bell-shaped, of excellent color, good substance, and satiny 
luster. It should be a trifie more open. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main spike, 11 and 13 on two 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


GRACILIS . Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 


unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-IvV) 


GLADIOLUS StupiEs — III 347 


with carmine-purple lined blotch on an amber-white (12-1) throat, slaty blue 
featherings in margins of segments. An excellent pink, but feathering is quite a 
blemish. 

Season — Mid-August; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, 
prolific. 


GRAFIN DEGENFELD 
Originator — Pfitzer 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube 
curved, medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers lilac-white. 
Perianth amber-white (12-11) 
blotched with blood red (93-1v) 
and suffused with rose in the 
segments. Rather compact 
bloom of medium good sub- 
stance. Nine blooms open at 
one time. One of the best 
varieties of this type. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, pro- 


lific. 


GRAHAME-WHITE 
Originator — Kelway. Intro. 
IQII 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube 
straight, slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper very broad and hori- 
zontal with edges of segments 
reflexed. Stamen filaments light 
salmon; anthers lavender. Peri- Fic. 
anth shrimp pink (75-1) with 
salmon-pink (76-11) markings; a yellow-green throat penciled and dotted with 
French purple (161-Iv). Wide open and large. 
Season — Mid-August; 85 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main and 5 on 
branch). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 


52. GRAFIN DEGENFELD 


348 CORNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific but small. 


GREAT CARDINAL Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Synonym — Cardinal 5 X. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth 
deeper than cardinal (112-Iv), markings not conspicuous, merely white flecks 
showing through the cardinal throat. Well open, good substance, clear colors. 

Season — Mid-season, late August; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (81 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16).- Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many and large. 


GRENADIER (Huntington). See Velvet King. 


GROFF No. 224 Originator — Groff 
Group — 
Stock from Richardson 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth white, throat amber-white (12-11) 
slightly intermixed with Tyrian rose (155-1). The buds are very salmony. Bracts 
are bronze. A rather compact bloom of medium good substance. Seven to eight 
blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 
Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23), two branches. Two 
spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GROSSFURSTIN ELISABETH Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers red-violet. Perianth bright salmon-pink 
(126-1), intermixed throat of geranium red (near 111-1). A compact bloom of 
good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, prolific. 


HALLEY Originator — Velthuys. Intro. 1910 
Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.), wide. Tube curved, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth madder lake (122-111) with fine 
stripes and dots of Tyrian rose (155-IV) on a lemon-yellow throat. Though it is 
cataloged as salmon, it has considerably more of a pinkish appearance An 
attractive color. Substance excellent, and bloom compact. Four or five blooms 
Open at once. 


GiapioLus Stupies — III 349 


Season — Early, last of July; 70 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, often curved, blooms Pa Pe a 3), branched. 
Often two or three spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with medium broad leaves 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, many. 


HARLEQUIN 
Originator —Childs. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium large (10 
cm.). Tube curved, 
slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower straight 
and narrow. Stamen 
filaments reddish; an- 
thers violet. Perianth 
lilac-rose (152-1) feath- 
ered and striped with 
carmine-red (113-IV), 
and with a carmine 
throat penciled with car- 
mine-red (113-Iv). Very 
much mottled. The 
medial lines are em- 
bossed. 
Season — Mid-August; 90 
days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 
cm.), erect, often curved, 
a fair number of blooms 
(15 on main, 6 on 
branch). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, 
somewhat spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with narrow 
leaves 

Corms —Medium size; corm- 
els, medium number, 
good size. 


HARVARD (Teas) 
Originator — 
Group — Fic. 53. HALLEY 
Stock from Teas 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the 
lower much narrower and reflexed. Stamen filaments white; style lavender. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1V) with a white throat. Flowers appear at various 
sides of the spike. Color bright, and bloom compact. Seven blooms open at one 
time. a 
Season — Early August; 83 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12-18). Two and three 
spikes borne per corm. 


17 This is not the Harvard of Tracy, which is George Paul. 


350 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Habit — Erect, medium tall, slightly spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium sized; cormels, large. 


HARVARD (Tracy). See George Paul. Often cataloged as Faust. 


HARWINTON Originator — White : 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine 
(116-I-11), a white area at base of lower inner segment is the only marking. A good 
distinct color, showy, brilliant. 

Season — Mid-August; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (24), often branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium brown leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 


HAUFF Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth milk white often lightly splashed 
with rose and with Tyrian rose deep in the throat. A good white. Blooms face 
opposite directions — a fault. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium height, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HAZEL HARVEY Originator — Munsell & Harvey. Reg. 
A. G.S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Munsell & Harvey 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-1), amber-white 
(12-1) throat penciled with carmine purple (156-1v). A good compact bloom, 
good clear colors, and good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to medium late; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooming freely (21 on main, with 6 to 8 on secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Exceptionally vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large, ‘‘ increases by divisions ”’; cormels, prolific. 


HELEN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, rather slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) striped and feathered with crimson- 
carmine (159-IV); on the lower segments the color shades into carmine lake 
(121-1), spotted with carmine lake (121-11) on yellow-green. 
Season — Mid-August; 89 days. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIES ae {iF 


Fic. 54. HAZEL HARVEY 


35! 


- 


352 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 5 on 
secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
* Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


HELEN SILL Originator — Crawford 
Group — 
Stock from Crawford 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments deep pink; style a lighter pink. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) 
ground streaked with Tyrian rose (155-111), and with a deep Tyrian rose (155-1v) 
blotch. Bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Early September; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, blooms freely (18). 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HELEN TRACY Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth light Lincoln red (88-1 and lighter), 
the lower segments with lemon-yellow finely dotted throat. Segments slightly feath- 
ered with Lincoln red. A purplish tinge surrounds the lemon-yellow throat. Good 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Tall (109 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20). Often two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, many. 


HELIOTROPE Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper segment rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and . 
narrower. Stamen filaments deep pink; style lilac-white; anthers heliotrope. 
Perianth violet-purple (192-1v) with a dash of carmine-purple (156-Iv) in the 
throat. A fine deep, rich, velvety bloom. 
Season — Mid-August; 99 days. 
Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 


HENRI LEMOINE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1903 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, short, stout. Segments nearly equal, conni- 
vent; the upper rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac-white; anthers lilac. Perianth canary-yellow (17-1), with . 
crimson-red (114-Iv) blotch on lower segments cut by a lemon-yellow line. The 
upper segments are rosy tinged and somewhat frilled. Described by- Dreer as 
orchid-like flowers. About four blooms open at one time. 

Season — First to twentieth of August; 82 to 88 days. 


GLabDIoLus Stupies — III 353 


Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), often rather drooping, slender, a fair number of blooms 
(10), two branches. 
aint — Erect, rather tall, spreading 
_ Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


HENRY GILLMAN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI4 
Group — Childsii 

Z Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, ‘the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth deep poppy color (84-Iv), 
with weak washy speckling in the throat and white medial lines. 

Season — Early September; 102 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, medium size. 


HERMANN FISCHER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1910 
Group — Gandavensis, but has a dis- 
tinct Lemoinei blotch 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers lilac. Perianth carmine (116-Iv) with a large area of 
French purple (161—-1v) in throat. Segments often feathered and flamed with 
deeper than carmine (116-Iv). Good deep color. A rather compact bloom of 
good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 
Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. 4 
Hatit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


HEROLD : Originator — Krelage 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Krelage 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth near reddish violet (180-1v, a trifle 
more reddish), blotched with deep carmine-violet (174-1v), deeper at the medial 
line. Color is not clear. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Early to mid-season; 75 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes often 
borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


H. G. Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 
Bloom — Medium large (g-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth deep poppy color 
(84-1v), wide lines of geranium red (I11I-1v) on an amber-white throat (12-1). 


354 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


Attractive markings. Variety named from Henry Gillman, which it somewhat 
resembles, because it has the same color in the perianth; but it does not have 
the large blotch and so light a throat as Henry Gillman. 

Season — August 8; 87 days. : 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21), not branched. Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size. 


HIAWATHA Originator — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 
IgI2 

Group — 

Stock from Hoeg 

Synonym — Formerly called Aurora. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed in such a way that 
the whole face of the bloom is approximately in one plane. Stamen filaments 
white with pink tips; anthers red-violet. _ Perianth rosy pink (118-11I-1v) with yel- 
low blotch on lower segments spotted and finely dotted with crimson-red(114-1v). 
Segments often splashed. A very neat looking bloom. Three to four blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Rather large, good keepers; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 6 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; thé upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white, with violet sutures. Perianth geranium red 
(111-1) with large blotch of French purple (161-1v) in the throat bordered by pale 
yellow-green. The outer segments have more of a scarlet tinge than geranium. 
Compact and of exceptional substance. 
Season — Early September; 103 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (79 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12 on main, 5 on 
secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, medium spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 11 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purple (160-111I-Iv) with yellow- 
green throat almost covered by a large French purple (161-Iv) blotch. Good 
substance, bright color, well-open bloom. Resembles Indiana (Kelway), but is 
superior to that variety. 
Season — Mid-August to late August; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, 9 on secondary). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ae te 


GLADIOLUS STUDIEs — III 355 


HOEG NO. 17 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Large (11.5cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color (84-Iv) with white throat, marked 
with ox,blood red (94-11). Well open, of deep color. 

Season — Late August; 85 to 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 6 on secondary). 
Two spikes borne per corm. 

Hatit— Erect, tali, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, 
many. 


HOEG NO. 19 
Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube curved, 
medium slender, me- 
dium short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 
white; anthers violet. 
Perianth deep rose- 
pink (120-11) with a 
lemon-yellow throat 
blotched with car- 
mine-purple (156-11). 
Flowers well arranged, 
and colors clear. 
Bloom compact and 
of good substance. 

Season — August 23; I12 
days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (11), not 
branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium Fic. 55. HOEG NO. I7 
tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 27 premier — Hoeg 
roup — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth reddish old rose (142-1) 
with amaranth-red (168-111) blotches on dirty amber-white throat. Lighter tinted 
medial lines. Good substance, and a compact bloom. 


356 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Season — Early September; 94 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19 on main, 6 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, somewhat diseased. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 30 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper laterally reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth sulfury white (14-1v) with large ox ~ 
blood red (g4-1v) blotches on lower segments and suffusion of rose on upper. 
Rather loose bloom, not of good substance. 
Season — Latter part of August; 95 days. é 
Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 on a 
branch). Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. : 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 31 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth geranium red 
(111-1), the lip marked with dark geranium red (111-1v). Lower lip appears 
velvety, but the segments are somewhat rolled, and the color is not clear. 

Season — Early; 71 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, with 7 and 12 on secondaries). 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 38 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments. white; anthers white with violet sutures. 
Perianth bright rose (128-1v) blotched with carmine-purple (156-Iv). Good 
color. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Early September; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 42 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87—-1v) with 
a pure, unmarked lemony white throat. Bloom compact, of good substance, good 
shape, and a clear contrast of colors. Seems a good commercial cut flower. Four 
blooms open at one time. 


GriapioLus Stupies—III 2 Se 


Season — Mid-season to late; 98 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 
. Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous, plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 46 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers ————————. Perianth crushed strawberry 
(109-1) with lighter medial lines and Tyrian rose (155—Iv) area on lower lip. Bloom 
rather compact and of medium good substance. Six to eight blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of. blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 64 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


- Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) with Tyrian 
rose (155-IV) lines in the throat. Bloom compact, of medium good substance, 
well open, of good shape. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), not branched. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 69 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 

: Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments ———————; anthers ——~————. Perianth 
yellow-green (16—-1I-111), lower segments deeper in color than upper and with 
penciled medial lines of amaranth-red (168-1v). Bloom compact and of good 
substance. One of the best yellows. : 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms (8-10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 72 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color (94-11) 
with a geranium lake (89-111) blotch merging into dots on the sides, the throat 
a deep lemon-yellow. Bloom compact, of excellent substance. Edges seem to 
dry up before the rest of the bloom is past. 


CorRNELL ExTENSION BULLETIN It 


Fic. 56. HOEG NO. 69 


GrapioLus Stupies — III 350 


Season — Mid-August; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium short (66 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 76 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — Nanceianus (?) 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments ———————; anthers ———————. Perianth 
poppy color (84-Iv), amber-white (12-1) throat, dotted and penciled to form a 
blotch of scarlet (85-1v). A wide-open, deep-colored, compact bloom of rather 
good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 79 eae — Hoeg 
roup — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose (153-1) 
with a Tyrian rose (155-1) area in the throat terminated by a dash of amber- 
white. A rather compact bloom of medium good substance. Four blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


HOEG NO. 96. See Zingari. 


HOEG NO. tor Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments deep red; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purple (160-1v) with 
lemon-yellow throat blotched and dotted with ox blood red (94-11). Good deep 
color, well-shaped bloom of good substance. 

Season — Late August. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 


HOEG NO. 116 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — Lemoine hybrid 
: Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube very curved, medium slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers lilac. Perianth light crushed 
strawberry (109-1) with broad pencilings of French purple (161-1) in the throat. 
A very attractive clear pink, compact, wide open, but rather poor substance. 
Four blooms open at one time. 


360 CorNELL Extension BULLETIN 11 


Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), straight, but falls over badly, a fair number of blooms 
(12). 

Halit — Drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 132 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth rosy white 
(8-2), lemon-yellow throat blotched with Tyrian rose (155-111), segments feathered 
with rose. 

Season — Medium late; 105 to 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 136 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-purple (156-111) 
with French purple dots on a yellow-green throat terminating in violet. A 
bright color. 

Season — Medium late, late August; 1o1 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, blooms freely (14). Two or three spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 137 ieee, — Hoeg 
roup — 
Stock from Hoeg 


’ Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers cream. Perianth white, blotched with carmine- 
red (113-Iv) bordered with amber-white (12). Rather compact bloom of medium 
good substance. This is the La Luna type of bloom, but is inferior to that variety. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 174 Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments —————,; anthers ———————.. Perianth pale 
rosy pink (129-1) with lemon-yellow throat blotched with dull Tyrian_rose 
(155-1). Compact bloom of medium good substance. Good clear pink. Three 
blooms open at one time 


GiapioLus Stupies — III 361 


Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with =o broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOEG NO. 175. See Jack Frost. 


HOFGARTNER STAPF Originator Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer ; 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Perianth near 
geranium lake (89-11) with amber-white (12-1) throat. Segments thickly feathered 
with deeper geranium lake (89-Iv), whitish medial lines. A handsome, rich- 
appearing bloom. Edges of segments somewhat ruffled. A strong opposite 
arrangement of blooms. A rather loose bloom of medium substance. 
Season — Early to mid-season; 78 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


HOLLANDIA *® Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Cushman 

Synonyms — Mikado, Alice Roosevelt, Yellow Brenchleyensis. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth reddish salmon (73-1) thickly 
suffused and feathered with shrimp pink (75-1), the lemon-yellow throat penciled 
with carmine-purple (156-1v). Rather loose bloom of medium good substance. 
Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorcus; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


HOSTES Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and broader. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth near scarlet 
(87), but brighter and possesses more yellow, with a greenish yellow throat almost 
completely covered with geranium red (111-1v); faint feathering of drab in edges 
of segments. Bloom possesses good substance, but the drab markings are objec- 
tionable. 
Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21 on the main, with 8 and 12 
on two secondaries). : 
Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 
Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


18 Cayeux et Clerc, 1908, catalogs a variety under the name of Hollandia. 


362 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


HUISH TOWER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth vermilion-red (87-I1v) with whitish 
medial lines: A whitish tinge in the throat, and faintest solferino red dash in 
each of lower segments. Good clear color. 

Season — Mid-August; 92 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, very rigid, blooms freely (18), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. +! 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


HYDE PARK Originator — Baer. Reg. A. G. S., 
1915. Intro. Vaughan 
Group — Gandavensis. May X Shakes- 
peare 
Stock from Baer; Vaughan 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers white with lilac sutures. Perianth 

rosy white becoming Rose Neyron red (119-1) at outer edges of segments; lemon- 

yellow throat weakly shaded with deep rose-pink (120-Iv); segments feathered 

with the same color, especially so when forced. 

Season — Mid-season; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Often 
two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


IDA VAN Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A.G.S., 
IQI4 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1) with a few markings deep in the throat of deeper cardinal-red. Color 
seems to fade in the sun. Compact bloom of medium substance. Six to seven 
blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). Two spikes 
borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


IDELLA Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broader. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1) with an irregular fading 
blotch of lilac-purple (160-111). Dainty color and excellent substance. 
Season — Early August; 81 days. 
Spike —Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, branched. Two spikes 
often produced per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — III 363 


- IMPROVED BRENCHLEYENSIS Originator — Christy 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Medium size. Tube curved, stout, short.. Segments equal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; styles red. Perianth deep scarlet, streaked with deeper shade, blood red 
medial line and a faint blotch. 

Season — Early September. 

Spike — Medium short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow, prominently veined leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


(Described by George J. Burt.) 


IMPROVED 1900 Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Babcock 


Bloom — Large (9-10 cm.). Tubestraight, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper slightly reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers dark violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1v), amber-white 
(12-1) throat marked with a cherry-red (g1-1v) blotch. A well-open bloom of 
rather good substance. Does not resemble 1900 in the shape of bloom. Also 
distinct from Mrs. Malcolm Mackay, which has also been called Improved r1goo. 

Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Often two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


INCENDIARY Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube medium straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper somewhat hooded and broad, the lower straight 
and broad. Stamen filaments pink; anthers yellow with lavender sutures. 
Perianth near vermilion-red (87-1), color becoming lighter toward the base of the 
flower. Lower segment smaller than the others and blotched with French purple 
(161-1v), the medial line of the blotch deeper in color. Excellent substance. 
An attractive color. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Late August; 105 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


INDEPENDENCE Originator — Woodruft 
Group — 
Stock from lowa Seed Company; 
Black; Wilkinson; Fryer; Woodruff 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-11) blotched 
with French purple (161-11). There are white areas at each side deep in the throat. 
Clear color. Compact bloom of good substance. Well arranged on spike. Five 
blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 


3604 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


Fic. 57. 


INCENDIARY 


INDIANA 


Originator— Kelway 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size 


(8-9 cm.). Tube 
curved, slender, me- 
dium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper 
horizontal and 
broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 
white; anthers dark 
violet. Perianth 
lilac-purple (160). 
Color lighter on 
each side of the me- 
dial line of the lower 
segment so that a 
stripe of lilac-purple 
is formed. Hoeg’s 
seedling No. II re- 
sembles this variety 
in color, and is an 
improvement on 
Indiana. 


Season —Mid-August; 


89 days. 


Spike — Medium tall (73 


cm.), erect; a. fair 
number of blooms 


(14) 


Habit — Erect, medium 


tall, spreading. 


Growth — Vigorous; plant 


medium well fur- 
nished with medium 
narrow leaves. 


Corms— Large; cormels, 


few. 


IRENE 


Originator — Childs. 
Reg. A.G.S., 1914 

Group — Childsii 

Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 


cm.). Tube nearly 
straight, slender, 
medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper 
horizontal and 
broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 


pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1), becoming much lighter 
in the center of the bloom, with white medial lines, large crimson blotches, and 


often feathered with rose. 


A good color, 


» F 
R= 


r 


3 _ Gtaprotus Stupres — III ¢ 365 


Stes — Late August; 107 days. 

Spike — Medium short (67 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


IRMA Originator — Krelage 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Krelage 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). . Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper hatizontat and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments orange-white; anthers red-violet. Perianth more tussety than 
rosy pink (118-1v), blotch of scarlet (87-1v) with deep purple-garnet (165—1v) 
_medial line. Good shape and excellent color, well arranged, medium. good 
substance. 
Season — Medium early; 78 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves 


- Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


ISAAC BUCHANAN Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1892 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. 
‘Segments unequal, connivent; the upper broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Outer row of segments larger than the inner row. Stamen filaments pinkish white; 
anthers white. Perianth lemon-yellow (duller than 21-1) with crimson-carmine 
feathering in edges of outer segments, each of lower inferior segments with Tyrian 
tose medial lines. This variety resembles Victory, but has more splashes in upper 
segments, and edges of segments are more ruffled. 
Season — Mid-August to late August. 
Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, blooms freely (24), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 
Growth — Medium good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, abundant though small. 


IL S. HENDRICKSON Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 


Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
: Stock from Childs 

Synonym — Also written Isaac S. Hendrickson. 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth white, the edges 
thickly feathered with crimson-carmine (159-1), a lilac-purple (160-111) veined 
throat, darker on each side of the medial line. A good shape. Childs describes 

-the color thus: “ Irregular mottling of whife and bright pink; in some the pink, 
and in others the white predominating. = 

Season — Mid-August; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14 on main, with 8, 7, 

- and 2 on secondaries). 

Halnit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


JACK FROST Originator—Hoeg. Reg. A.G.S., 1915 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Synonym — Hoeg No. 175. 
Bloom — Medium large (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 


366 - CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Stamen_filaments——-—————__;, anthers --——-————.._ Perianth pure white 
penciled with Tyrian rose (155-1) on an amber-white (12-1) throat. An excel- 
lent compact white bloom of good substance. Three blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. ; 

Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. ; 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


JANE DIEULAFOY. See Jean Dieulafoy. 


JAY Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


1gt4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
cream-white; anthers with lilac sutures. Perianth near light carmine lake (122-11), 
with a lemon-yellow throat penciled and dotted with French purple (161-1v). 
A compact bloom of good substance, well open, handsome throat. 
Season — Late August; 109 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


JEAN DIEULAFOY Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Babcock; Flanagan 

Synonyms — Sara, Jane Dieulafoy. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers white. Perianth rosy white 
(8-1v), large geranium lake (89-1v) blotches on lower segments, upper segment 
suffused with salmon-carmine. There are several types of Jean Dieulafoy in the 
trade varying in minor ways. One type has less suffusion in upper segments, 
another possesses a less clearly defined blotch. 

Season — Medium early; 79 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, medium prolific. 


JEANNE D’ARC. See Reine de 1l’Anjou. 


JESSIE Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Vaughan 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper with reflexed tips and broader than the reflexed lower segment. 
The two lower inferior segments reflexed around the basal segment. Stamen fila- 
ments creamy white; anthers with delicate lavender sutures; the backs being creamy 
are presented to the front, making them very conspicuous. Perianth blood red 
(93-111) with an old carmine-red (107—-Iv) stripe on each of the three lower segments. 
The stripe terminates in a yellow-green dash. Color is good, deep, and glowing. 
Blooms do not look up enough, however, though they possess good substance. 
Childs calls it ‘‘an improvement of Brenchleyensis.”’ 

Season — Early; 69 to 74 days. 


19 A variety by this name was introduced by Crawford. 


r GiapioLus Stupres — III: 367 


Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11-18). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, short, rigid leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium few. 


JESSIE PALMER Originator —Kunderd. Intro. 
Chamberlain & Gage 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
7 Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth amber-white (12-1), blotched with 
blood-red (93—Iv) and suffused with rose in the upper segments. A compact bloom 
of good substance, well open; attractive, contrasting blotch. 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (go cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. : 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


J. L. CLUCAS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — Princeps hybrid ; 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers deep violet. Perianth scarlet (85), speckled with 
carmine (116-11) on a white throat. Good color, excellent substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 to 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, large, few. 


JOHN CHURCHILL CRAGLE, See Sir John Cragle. 


JOHN LEWIS CHILDS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed. Stamen 
filaments light vermilion; anthers vermilion. Perianth rosy pink (118-1v) with a 
yellow-green throat marked and penciled with Tyrian rose (155). Substance 
fairly good. _Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20 on main, Io on secondary). 

Halnt — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, prolific. 


JOHN SCHMELZER. See Evaline. 


- 


JOSEF HULOT. See Baron Joseph Hulot. 


JUMBO Originator — Prestgard, 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Prestgard 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
. the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 


368 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


ments cream; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine lake (121-11), with an amber- 


white (12-1) throat stippled with deep carmine lake (12I-1v). A good’ color, 
excellent shape, well arranged. Five blooms open at one time. An excellent 
variety. 


Season — Mid-season; 96 days. : 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


KARK LUZ Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers nearly black. Perianth geranium lake (89-Iv), deeper at 
the edges. A wide penciling of near black in the throat. A good clear color. 
A compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 
Spike — Medium dwarf (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes : 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


KATE Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (7-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight. 
Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy white 
(8-1v) marked with deep rose-pink, lower segments blotched with large area of 
carmine-purple (156-111). Color rather mixed, not very acceptable. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 


KATHRYN. Sce Rosella. 


KEARNEY Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium small (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, compact. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower slightly broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth bright 
rose, white throat spotted with rose. Good clear color. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium short (56 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (6-8). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium poor; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


“ GuapDIoLus Stupies — III 360 


KING GEORGE Originator — Kelway 
Group — 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium large. Tube straight, slender, long. Segments equal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; style white; stigma crimson-red. Perianth scarlet, base of lower 
segments yellowish white. Tips of segments with crimson-red streaking and 
penciling. Good substance. A bright color. 
Season — Early; 60 days. 
Spike — Medium short, very erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rigid foliage, extending 
well along the spike. 
Corms — Medium size. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


KING HUMBERT Originator — 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Teas 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments equal, connivent; the upper as well as the lower segments reflexed. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1v), medial 
line of each segment white, throat white striped with geranium lake (89-1v). 
Bloom is a good clear color, of an unusual shape due to angular segments, making 
it rather conspicuous. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 to 90 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, glaucous green foliage. 
Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


KING OF GLADIOLI Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white tipped with vermilion; anthers red-violet. Perianth 
poppy color (84-1v), yellow-green throat covered partly by a dotted blotch of 
scarlet (85-Iv). A good clear color, of good substance. Kelway remarks: ‘‘ One 
of the finest in existence.” 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 
Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 


KING OF SCARLETS. See Prince Henry of York. 


KING PHILIP Originator — White 
Group — 
. Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (9.5-13 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1) with white 
throat blotched with blood red (93-1v). A rather loose bloom of medium substance. 
Six blooms open at one time. Good arrangement on spike. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 


370 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Three spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, very prolific. 


KLONDYKE : Originator — Christy. Intro. 1907, 
Livingston Seed Store 
Group — Lemoinei characters 
Stock from Stewart; Tracy; Christy 


Synonyms — Golden Queen (Stewart); Golden Nugget (Teas). 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments yellowish; anthers lavender. Perianth amber-white (12-111) with a 
large lilac-purple (160-1v) diamond-shaped blotch. Not very open, of good sub- 
stance. Seven blooms open at once. Some blooms double. 

Season — Mid-August; 96 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, very prolific. 


KUNDERDI GLORY. See Glory (Kunderd). 


KUNDERD’S ORANGE. See Princess of Orange. 


LA CANDEUR Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
: 1869 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lilac sutures. Perianth amber-white 
(12-11), upper segment often tinged with rose; throat lemon-yellow (21-1), base 
shaded with Tyrian rose (155). Not of good form, but of excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 to go days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LACORDAIRE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1895 
Group — Lemoine 
Stock from Stewart 


Synonym — By Stewart cataloged as Empire. Robertson and Hogg catalog an Empire 
introduced by Groff in 1910, apparently of same color. 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper narrower with edges reflexed laterally, the lower 
slightly reflexed. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Peri- 
anth scarlet (87-Iv), with no markings except slight indication of white lines 
deep in throat. An especially good, clear, deep, rich color; well open; resembles 
Princeps in color except that it does not possess the Princeps blotch. It seems 
an excellent deep scarlet. ‘ 

Season — July 20, 1913, and September 1, 1912; 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. Often two 
spikes per corm. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — III 


372 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


LADY HOWARD DE WALDEN Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1898 
Group — Lemoinei 

Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large size (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and somewhat hooded, the lower straight. Stamen 
filaments light yellow; anthers yellow, rather conspicuous. Perianth cream-yellow 
(30-111) with large French purple (161-111) blotch bordered by lemon-yellow (20-1); 
a slight suffusion of carmine appears in the segments. Excellent substance. A very 
attractive bloom with an admirably shaped blotch. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early August; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with rigid, broad, silvery green leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 


LADY WARWICK Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments lavender; anthers violet, with a greenish streak. Perianth 
nearly reddish violet (180-1v), with French purple (16i-1v) medial line and lined 
blotch somewhat lighter than French purple. Good color, velvety appearance. 
Blooms well arranged on the spike. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Few, large; cormels, medium prolific. 


LADY YOUNG Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments rather wide; anthers blue-violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-Iv) 
sparsely splashed with Tyrian rose (155-1V), with white medial lines. Good sub- 
stance, a compact bloom, pleasing color. 

Season — Late August; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. - 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with broad, stiff, prominently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


LAEL Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1896. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth soft pink with an 
intermixed blotch of carmine-red (113-1), surrounded by orange “‘ having a metallic 
luster ’’ (Childs). Bright, clear color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 95 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


, 


GLapDIOLus StupiEs — HI Ky 


LAFAYETTE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 
Group — Lemoinei 

: Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper rather hooded, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers blue. Perianth dark cream (straw- 
yellow 31-1), throat deeper cream blotched with French purple (161-1), the 
segments slightly suffused with Tyrian rose (155-1). A compact bloom of good 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spire — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
_ Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 


LA FRANCE” Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Warnaar 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and often rather narrow. Stamen filaments pink; 
anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) thickly splashed with light Tyrian 
rose (155-1), blotched with deeper Tyrian rose (155-Iv). Compact. Medium 
good substance. Six blooms open at one time. Segments often crinkly edged. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 111 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17-25), two branches. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 2 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LA LORRAINE Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1904 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 


Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet. Perianth cochineal red (83-11), 
lemon-yellow throat blotched with deep French purple (161-1v). A good color, 
a finely shaped, compact bloom of excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21). Two spikes produced 
per corm. 

Hatint — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


LA LUNA Originator — Groff. _Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — Lemoinei 


Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube slightly curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure white to 
cream-yellow (30-1), with large handsome blotch of blood red (93-1v), and with 
a faint suffusion of rose on the upper segment. ‘‘ Flowers almost round, superior 
petals broad and overlapping the others’ (Cowee). An excellent form. Good 
substance. Five flowers open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 


2» a this is not the same variety introduced by Vilmorin nor the variety introduced by Lemoine 
in 1886. 


374 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


LAMARCK Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs; Stewart (under name 
of DeCheville) 

Synonym — De Cheville (Stewart) 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers greenish violet. Perianth madder lake (122-1v) 
with a deep lemon-yellow throat blotched with crimson-red (114-1v). Compact. 
Exceptional substance. Rich colors. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LARGE BUFF Originator — Kunderd 
Group — 
Stock from Wright; Brown 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink bases; anthers white, tinted lavender. 
Perianth pale yellow flesh (68-i1) with amber-white throat (12-1v) penciled with 
Tyrian rose (155-Iv). Buds yellow. Compact bloom of tough substance. Seven 
-blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 to 84 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 
or three spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


LARGE PURPLISH. See Evaline. 


LAVENDER QUEEN Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers lavender. Perianth lilac 
(176-1) with large rosy magenta (169-111) blotches. Often with rosy magenta 
medial lines. Clear color. Good substance. ‘‘ New colors, entirely distinct ” 
(Childs). 
Season — Mid-season to late; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Often rather drooping, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad, rather drooping leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LEMON DROP Originator — Childs. Intro: 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, rather hooded, and broad, the lower ‘reflexed 


GLapIoLus StupIEs — III +1395 


and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers blue-lavender. Perianth yellow- 
green (16-1) with large French purple (161-1) blotches on the lower segments. 
Good shape and excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 72 to 86 days. 

Spike — Tall (128 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. : 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


LEONARD JOERG Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, rose tips; anthers creamy lilac, violet 
sutures. Perianth violet-rose (154-111) thickly splashed and mottled with Tyrian 
tose (155-IvV). deep yellow throat with penciled blotch of blood red. Not a clear 
‘ color. An attractive throat. Good, compact spike of bloom. Good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LEON DUVAL Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1899 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cavers 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth amber-white 
(12-1) blotched with fiery red (80-1v), the medial line being darker. Upper 
segments often rose tinted. Upper segments often somewhat laterally reflexed. 
Four blooms open atonetime. A rather loose bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 
Spike — Medium dwarf (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LE POUSSIN Originator — Souchet. Previous to 
; 1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium small (6 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (87-11) becoming 
lighter toward the center, throat and medial lines amber-white, lower segments 
faintly marked with Tyrian rose (155-11). Compact bloom of good substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


LE RADIUM. See Reine de 1’Anjou. 


376 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


LE TRIOMPHE Originator — Brunelet 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

(Described from cut spike.) 

Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac tipped; anthers violet. Perianth violet- 
rose (154-1) with white throat and slight splashings of Tyrian rose (155-11) in 
segments. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


LIEBESFEUER Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Warnaar 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet-red. Perianth scarlet (85- 
IV) with a carmine-red (113-Iv) dash in the throat. Compact bloom of medium 
good substance. Nine blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


LILLIAN Originator — 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish. Perianth amber-white (12-1) blotched with luminous 
blood red (93-1), the upper segments suffused with a color pinker than crushed 
strawberry (109-111). A variety of the Jean Dieulafoy type. Good compact 
bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (go cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


LILLIAN MORRISSEY Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G.S., 
I9I4 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson- 
red (114-Iv), the lower segments darker, the lip rosy white with a broad dash of 
crimson-red. Velvety texture, compact, medium good substance; spikes some- 
times fasciated. é 
Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on a main, 8 and 6 
on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


2 Kelway catalogs Lilian; it may be this variety. 


GLADIOLUS StupbIEs — III 377 


~ 


LILY COE Originator — May 
Group — 
' Stock from May 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-lavender. Perianth near carmine lake 
(121-1) with penciled blotch of currant red (115-1v). Good color. Segments seem 
to be folded back at tips a great many times; compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


LILY LEHMANN Originator — Alkemade. Intro. 1909 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Velthuys 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. ‘Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments ; anthers Perianth pure white, often develops 
a rosy suffusion or feathering. Lower segments slightly tinged with lemon. P. Vos 
calls this a fine rose color, for it is apparently more pinkish in Holland. It possesses 
a strong oppositiflorus arrangement of flowers. The blooms are hardly so well 
formed or so well arranged as in Europa and:Rochester White. 
Season — Early; 84 to go days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, though a trifle curved, a fair number of bioors 
(12-15), always branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


LITTLE BLUSH Originator—Childs. Intro. 1898. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Michell 
Bloom — Medium large (9-11 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth iilacy white (7-Iv), more 
pinkish, often thickly splashed with lilac-rose (152-11). A dainty color. Not an 
especially good shape. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 101 to 105 days. 
Spike — Medium dwarf (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large, medium number; cormels, few, small. 


LITTLETON Originator — Groff 
Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
vermilion; anthers lilac. Perianth scarlet, the lower segments more Lincoln red; 
color becomes lighter in the throat; large penciled blotches of old carmine-red 
(107-Iv) bordered by yellow-green in the throat. Color good, very bright. Good 
substance, well open. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 to 93 days. 
Spike — Tall (104 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plants medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Smali; cormels, few. 


378 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


LIVONIA Originator— Childs. Cataloged 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
: Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) 
with geranium red markings on a lemon-yellow throat, the blotch tipped by a dash 
of lemon-yellow. Compact bloom, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LIZZIE Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white 
- (7-1) with Tyrian rose (155) blotch. The bloom is rather loose, of medium sub- 
stance, and well open. 
Season — Mid-season to late; I10 to 120 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


LORD ALVERSTON Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, broader than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth turkey red 
(g2-1v); edges of the outer segments darker, a blood red; inner segments carmine 
(116-11). Slight, inconspicuous pencilings of carmine in the throat. Bloom is 
well open and of a good clear, deep color. The intense color of the flower per- 
vades the whole plant making spike and bracts bronze, with the leaves a deep 
green. Five to six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Early; 72 to 80 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Branches 
often blooming after the main spike. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


LOUIS WALTER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
; Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper. horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine-red 
(113-1) feathered lighter (nearly white) and darker (deep blood red) and blotched 
with lilac-purple (160-1v) cut by a light medial line. Notaclearcolor. A rather 
loose showy bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


GLADIOLUS STUDIEs — III 379 


LOVELINESS Originator — Van Konijnenburg. Intro. 
IgI2 
Group — 
Stock from Zeestraten 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth 
pale reddish salmon (73-1), amber-white (12-1v) throat penciled with near rosy 
magenta (169-Iv) with a slight feathering of rose in segments. A good light 
color, excellent form, compact, and of fairly good substance. Eleven blooms 
open at one time. Blooms face around the spike. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant. well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


LUCEIL. See Miss Luceil. 


LUCILLE Originator — Stewart. Exhibited 1909. 
Intro. Ig12 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower slightly reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers light lavender. Perianth crushed 
strawberry (109-1) with a sulfur-yellow throat very faintly dotted with crimson- 
carmine. Compact, well-formed, daintily colored bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 to 92 days. 

Spike — Tall (108 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23 on the main spike, 8on a 
secondary). Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, few. 


LUCRETIA Originator — Warnaar 
Group — 
Stock from Warnaar 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lilacy. Perianth creamy white (10-1) with lilac-purple 
(160-1v) blotches bordered by a slight cream tinting; there are often suffusions 
of lilac. Compact, of medium good substance, rather bell-shaped, and not well 
open. Six blooms open at once. 

Season — Early August; 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20 on a main, with 13 and 
5 on secondaries). Often three spikes per corm. 

Habit — Medium tall, erect, spreading. : 

Growth — Slender, vigorous; plant well furnished with medium slender foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 


LUSTROUS Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii or Gandavensis 
: Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color 
(84-Iv), lemon-yellow throat slightly dotted with Tyrian rose (155-1v) with lighter 
medial lines. A good color, bloom well open. Five blooms open at one time. 


2 Krelage, 1905, catalogs an early, dwarf variety of this name. 


380 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), three branches. Two 
spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. f 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


LYDIA Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) suffused with crimson-carmine, the lower 
segments marked and striped with crimson-carmine, medial lines of currant red 
(115-Iv). Color rather too mottled. 
Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 
Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


McALPIN Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Tracy 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments rosy white; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine (116-1) with 
an amber-white (12-1) throat blotched with carmine-purple (156-1v). A good 
color and shape, excellent substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


MADAM BUTTERFLY Originator — Groff. Intro. Tracy 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Brown; Tracy 
Synonym — Yellow Jacket (?). f 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers light lavender. Perianth amber- 
yellow (28-1v) with a pinkish cast, often thickly feathered with salmon-carmine 
(125-1) with lines of French purple (161-Iv) on deep yellow throat. Bloom rather 
compact, of good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Small; cormels, few or none. 


MADAME BRUNELET Originator — Vilmorin-Andrieux. Intro. 
1902 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 


GLaDIOLus StupiEes — III 381 


Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth pale light lilac (187-1) feathered 
and blotched with magenta (182-1), blotch is cut by a lemon-white medial line. 
A rather compact bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MADAME LEMOINIER Originator — Lemoine. Previous to 
1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Synonym — Easter. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lilac. Perianth greenish 
white (15-Iv), with a large blotch of ox blood red (94—-m) on lower segments 
bordered by pale yellow-green. Bloom possesses good shape and rather good sub- 
stance, but the blotch does not have a very acceptable color. Seems excellent 
for indoor culture. 

Season — Mid-season; 75 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (13-15), 
branched. 

Hatt — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

-Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad rigid leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels. 


MADAME MONNERET Originator — Souchet. Previous to 
1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Moore 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments ———————_; anthers ———————.. Perianth reddish old rose (142-1) 
with a broad dash of French purple (161-i) in the throat. A rather compact 
bloom of medium good substance. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Hatit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MADHI Originator — 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long, Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth ox blood red becoming 
lighter toward the throat, feathered with drab (light and dark), throat lemon- 
yellow. Compact bloom of good substance, color fairly acceptable. Five blooms 

- open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


MAGENTA. See Mrs. G. W. Moulton. 


382 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


MAGNATE Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett : 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pink; anthers almost black. Perianth bright scarlet, throat striped with Tyrian 
rose (155-111), the lower segments slightly deeper in color —a distinct tint. 
Season — Medium late; 103 days. 
Spike — Tall (114 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MAGNIFICUS Originator —Souchet-Vilmorin. 
Intro. 1886 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments pink; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-11) with a lemon-yellow 
throat dotted and penciled with carmine-purple (156-1v). Compact bloom of 
good shape and good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 
per corm. . 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


MAHARAJAH OF KHOLAPUR Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1903 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac-white; anthers violet. Perianth lighter than strawberry 
red (110-1), throat and medial lines of lower segments greenish yellow. 
Season — Medium late; 102 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


MAIZE Originator — Umpleby. Reg. A.G.S., 
1914, Tracy 
Group — 


Stock from Tracy; Umpleby 

Synonym — Identical with Umpleby No. 5. A segregation from a Farquhar hybrid 
sold by Umpleby to Tracy. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower nearly straight. Stamen filaments white; 
anthers lavender. Perianth amber-yellow (28-1) with a well-defined, dull crimson 
blotch on lower lip. Bloom very neat in appearance. Four to five blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — Early to mid-season; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), very erect, blooms freely, branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 


GtabDioLus Stupies — III 383 


MAJOR RHEINHARDT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1911 
: Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broad and slightly reflexed. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth blood red (93-1v) with darker 
shades in the throat. Color deep, excellent. 
Season — Late; 111 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18 on main, 8 ona 
secondary). 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MAPLESHADE Originator — Christy. Seedling of 
1903 
Parentage — Same as America (May X 
Madam Auber) 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Large (9.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose 
(153-11) with Tyrian rose (155-Iv) dashes and veinings in the throat. Very 
much resembles America that is well grown. Mapleshade is larger and a better 
color; the flowers are wide open but of only medium substance, seem more fragile 
than those of America. Christy writes that Van Fleet, Burbank, and Stewart 
think this variety better than America. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — About the same as that of America, mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), sometimes curved, a fair number of blooms (18-23), 
longer than that of America. I 

Habit — Rather drooping, “as tall as any Childsit,” spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with long, medium broad leaves, broader 
than those of America. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific, inferior to those of America. 


MARC MICHELI Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1896 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs = 
Bloom — Small (6.7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments hlac-white; anthers hlac. Perianth lilacy white or very light 
lavender, the throat almost covered by large deep carmine-violet (174-1v) blotches, 
each blotch with a small dash of yellow running partly through it. Compact 
bloom, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MARGARET Originator — 
Group — - 
Stock from Vaughan; Crawfor 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments litac-white; anthers violet. Perianth strawberry red (110) with 
whitish medial line and yellowish white throat, edged with carmine and splashed 
with same color on back. Striking color contrast, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 105 to 110 days. 
Sptke — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23). 


\ 


384 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MARIANNE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1910 
Group — Gandavensis, but possessing 
Lemoinei blotch 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth white 
with a large amaranth red (168-111) blotch and an amber-white tinting of lower 
segment. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MARIE LEMOINE Originator — Lemoine 

5 Group — Lemoinei 

: Stock from Boddington 

Synonym — Mary Lemoine. : 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers cream. Perianth yellowish white (13-11) blotched 
with large area of French purple (161-1v). Buds when first opening and the lower 
lip when open are yellow-green (16-1). Attractive blotch. Bell-shaped bloom 
of excellent substance. 

Season — Medium early; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), slender, erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MARION Originator —Childs. Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth 
lilacy white (7) feathered with lightest rose, lined with blotch of Tyrian rose, 
shaded at edge by lemon-yellow. Compact bloom of medium substance. 
Season — Late; 115 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


MARY FENNEL Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A.G.S., ° 
1914 
Group — 


. Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Synonyms — Charlotte; Giant Lavender. 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth pure mauve 
(181-11), lower segments primrose yellow, penciled and suffused dimly with pure 
mauve. Well-open, compact bloom of medium substance, Three to five blooms 
open at one time. 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — III 385 


Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (71 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. : 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. ; 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


MARY LEMOINE. See Marie Lemoine. 


MASQUE DE FER Originator — Lemoine. Previous to 
1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
(Described from cut spike.) 

Blaom — Small (6-7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac, nearly white. Perianth deep blood red, 
near ox blood red (94-I1v), lower lip with slight dash of yellow. A rich color. 
Bloom compact and of good substance, but rather small, not showy. 

Season — 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


MASTODON Originator — Van Fleet 
Group — Princeps hybrid 

Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — Very large. Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; styles red. Perianth vermition-red, blotched with blood red with yellow 
streakings at base and yellow medial line. Only about five blooms open at 
one time, but they are so large that they present a good appearance. About 
the finest of its color. 

Season — September I, IgII. 

Spike — Tall, erect, free blooming. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 


(Described by George J. Burt.) 


MAY Originator — Crawford 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Teas; Umpleby; Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper rather reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers yellow, violet sutures. Perianth rosy white finely flaked 
with crimson-carmine, throat amber-yellow (28) marked lightly with Tyrian rose 
(155-11). Good substance, a good white. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23 on main, Io on 
secondary). Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plants well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few, small. 


MAYOR Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10.5-11 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. _Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper with reflexed tips and narrower, the lower reflexed 


386 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


and broad. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth near 
pure red (less blue than 159-1), lower lip stippled with lilac-purple (160-1v). 
Catalogs call the color rich purple-rose. Well-open, compact bloom of medium 
substance. ; oi 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to go days. 

Spike — Medium tall (84 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 7 and 6 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few or none. 


MAY’S CARDINAL. See Cardinal (May). 


MEADOWVALE Originator —Cowee. Intro. rIgoo. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Stewart; Cowee 

Synonyms — Purity (Stewart), exhibited 1910; Canada. 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. 
Perianth rosy white (8-111) with crimson-carmine (159-1) lines in the throat and 
also areas deep-in the throat. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. - 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MEHLMANN NO. 326 Originator — Mehlmann 
Group — 
Stock from Mehlmann 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal often reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers lilac. Perianth light carmine lake (121-1v) ; throat 
lemon-yellow blotched with turkey red (92-1v). A dainty color, bloom well open. 
Five blooms open at one time; blooms face various directions. ' 
Season — Mid-season to late; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Often three 
spikes per corm. : 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MEHLMANN NO. 329 Originator — Mehlmann 
Group — 
Stock from Mehlmann 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purple 
(darker than 160-1v). Wide-open, compact bloom of excellent substance, rich 
color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. | 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


GLapDIoLus StupiEs — III 387 


MELROSE* Originator —Childs. Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
: Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth white, flaked very sparsely with carmine; 
. throat with crimson-carmine blotch. Good color, substance does not seem the best. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 
Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes per corm. 
Bracts tinged with bronze. 
Hatit — Erect, tall, medium compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few or none. 


MEPHISTOPHELES Originator — Lemoine 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth bright cardinal- 
red (112—I1v) blotched with carmine-red on all segments, bordered by broad yellow 
bands. Compact bloom of good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
_Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 
Hatit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


METEOR * Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1906 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers dirty red. Perianth cochineal red 
(83-1) blotched with purple-garnet (165-1v) with a mere dash of white at the 
medial line. The bloom is compact and of medium good substance. Five blooms 
open at one time. A bright and showy bloom. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MICHIGAN ® Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and often broader. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1, more red than reddish old rose 142-1v). Might be called a rose-pink. 
Well-open bloom with excellent arrangement. 

Season — Medium late; 102 days. 

oe — Rather tall (97 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). Two spikes per 


orm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 


3 Lemoine also catalogs a variety by this name. 

* Kelway, Vos, and Childs each catalog a variety by this name. Meteor (Vos) has been changed 
by the Haarlem Floral Committee to Red Emperor. 

= Kelway catalogs a variety of this name. 


388 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MIDSHIPMAN Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with abruptly reflexed edges, the lower 
narrower with abruptly reflexed edges. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers 
violet. Perianth somewhat like old blood red (103), with a violet tinge in outside 
of segments, yellow-green line covered by old blood red markings. An unusual 
looking bloom, has a rather closed appearance. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 to 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main and 4 on 
secondaries). 

Hatit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


MIDSUMMER QUEEN Originator — Christy 
Group — 


Stock from Christy 


Bloom — Medium to small (6-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments lilacy white; anthers lavender. Perianth mauve-rose (153-1) 
blotched with amaranth red (168-1v), with yellow-green medial lines through the 
tip of the blotch; segments somewhat suffused with violet-rose (154-1). Color 
would be best described as rosy or iilacy white. Bloom compact, of medium 
substance. Should be a good landscape variety. 

Season — Medium early; 72 to 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), curved, a fair number of blooms (20), two branches. 
Usually two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MIKADO. See Hollandia. 


MILDRED Originator — May 
Group — 
Stock from May 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-1) 
feathered and flecked deeper (88-1v), geranium lake (89-Iv) in the throat. A rather 
loose bloom of medium substance. The feathering of the segments seems 
objectionable. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


MINNEHAHA Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and rather narrow, the lower broader. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth geranium red (resembles I11I-Iv) 


Giapiotus Stupies — III 380 


shaded deeper in throat, slightly intermixed with white. Almost a self color, 
a good deep red. An excellent variety. Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


MINNESOTA Originator — Ruff 
Group — 
Stock from Ruff 
Synonym — Sterling. Z 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth amber-white (12-1) with pale 
suffusion of rose and flamed blotch of crimson-carmine (114-Iv and deeper). 
Compact bloom of excellent, tough substance. Good color. Five blooms open 
at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 76 days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. ~ 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


MISS KELWAY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9-10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
the upper and lower segments quite separate; the upper slightly reflexed and 
narrower, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers 
violet. Perianth mauve-rose (153-11) thickly splashed with lilac-rose (152-111); 
each of the five lower segments have yellow-green centers and bases, the lower 
segments with pencilings of magenta (169-1). A rather decorative variety 
though the colors are not clear. 

Season — Mid-season; 75 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (17 on main). The 
main decorative value of this variety lies in the fact that it generally bears three 
branches of approximately 11 blooms each. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 


MISS LUCEIL Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Wright 

Synonym — Luceil. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers white or greenish. Perianth 
lighter than mauve-rose (153-1) with amber-white throat (12-1) marked at base 
and at sides with Tyrian rose (155-Iv). A rather compact bloom of medium 
good substance. Blooms frequently on all sides of the spikes. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), two branches. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


390 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 : 


Fic. 59. MRS. A. C. BEAL 


.s 
a 


7 yr 


GiaDIOLus StupiEs — III 391 


MISS ZENA DARE re Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrow, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy white (10-Iv), the lower 
segments yellow-green (17-1) fading to creamy white, striped with dark old rose 
(149-1v) also with the faintest splashings of carmine-purple (159-IV) at tips of 
outer segments. Dainty color. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Halt — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MRS. A. C. BEAL Originator — Umpleby. Reg. A. G.S., 
1915 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Umpleby 

Synonym — Umpleby No. 385. 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers light lavender. Perianth rosy white 
blotched with Lincoln red (88-1) in which the medial line shades to old carmine-red 
(107-Iv). A fine color and an attractive blotch. Four blooms open at one time. 
The buds are very salmony when first opening. Flowers well arranged. 

Season — Early; 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (93 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (16 on main and 
g on secondary). Two or three spikes borne per corm. Because of curved spike 
it does not pack well in shipping. 

Habit — Often rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


~ Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


MRS. BEECHER Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


IgI4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Synonym — Also cataloged as Mrs. H. W. Beecher. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments reddish; style reddish. Perianth cardinal-red (112-11) with 
white throat streaked with carmine-red (113). Good color, well open. Two or 
three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. - 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MRS. FRANCIS KING Originator — Coblentz 
Group — Nanceianus (Gage); Childsii 
(Miller, Hoeg, and Robertson) 
Stock from Teas; Tracy 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with edges slightly incurved, the lower 
almost straight and narrower. Stamen filaments white with red bases; anthers 
nearly white with blue suture lines. Perianth vermilion-red (87-11) sparsely 
splashed with deeper vermilion-red (87-11), and often penciled to form a blotch 
on two lower segments of vermilion-red. Bloom well open and the standard of 
substance, shape excellent, and the color clear. Six blooms open at one time. 


302 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Season — Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Three spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. , 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific, large. 


MRS. FRANK PENDLETON 
Originator — Kunderd. 
Reg. A. G.S., 1914 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Gage 
Synonym — Formerly the word 
Jr. was added to the name. 
Bloom —— Large (12 cm.). Tube 
curved, stout, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
rosy pink (118-111) witha 
large ox blood red (94-11) 
blotch. Excellent color, 
good size, good substance, 
well arranged. Four or 
five blooms open at once. 
Season — Early August; 83 
days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms 
(16 and 6). . 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Good; plant well fur- 
nished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; corm- 
els, few. 


MRS. G. W. MOULTON 
Originator — Kunderd. 
Reg. A. G.S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain 
& Gage 

Synonym — Magenta. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 
Tube curved, stout, short. 
Segments unequal, conni- 

Fic. 60. MRS. FRANCIS KING vent; the upper horizontal 

and broad, the lower re- 

flexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish tips; anthers violet. Perianth 

lilac-purple (160-1v), throat lemon-yellow marked with French purple (161-1v). A 

fine velvety deep red. Some of the blooms are slightly double. A compact bloom 
of good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. ; 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), very erect, a large number of blooms. Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


MRS. G. W. WILLOCK 


Bloom — Large. Tube cu 
upper horizontal and 
pinkish; style yellow. 
pink, lower segments 
with solferino red 

splashings on canary- 
yellow throat 
French purple medial 
line. 

son — August 9, IQII. 

le Median tall, erect, 

number of 


Hahnt — Erect, medium 
tall, compact. 


Growth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
medium narrow 
leaves. 

(Described by George J. 
Burt.) 


MRS. H. W. BEECHER. 
See Mrs. Beecher. 


MRS. JAMES LANCAS- 
TERSHIRE. See 
Fairy. 


MRS. LA MANCE 
ee sien 1s. 
Reg. A G.S., 1914 
Group — — aildsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium large (10 
cm.). Tube curved, 
stout, medium long. 
Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper 
horizontal and broad, 
the lower reflexed and 
narrower. §S 
filaments 
thers violet. 
lilacy white 
intermixed 


Tyrian rose (155-1 
Season — Medium late 
Spike — Medium tall (8 


Haint — Erect, medium 
Growth — Vigorous; 
Corms — Medium siz 


103 days. 


GLADIOLUS StTubIEs — III 393 
Originator — Kelway 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

rved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, connivent; the 


- 


> 
broad, the lower reflexed 
Perianth ii] ] 


Fic. 61. 


RANK PENDLETON 


Compact bloom of medium substance. Clear color. 


394 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


MRS. MILLINS 
Originator — White 
Group — Lemoinei 
. Stock from White* 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube 
straight, medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers dark red. Peri- 
anth purple-brown (more red 
than 160-11), throat purple-gar- 
net (165-IV) witha small yellow 
dash. A dark velvety color. Six 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (14), 
branched. Two spikes often 
borne per corm. 

Halit — Erect, medium tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


MRS. MONTAGUE CHAMBER- 
LAIN 

Originator — Kunderd. Intro. 

Chamberlain & Gage. Reg. 


A. G.S., 1914 - 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & 
Gage 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube 
slightly curved, medium stout, 
medium short. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper hori- 
zontal and broad, the lower 
straight and slightly narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers 
lilac. Perianth pure white, 
Tyrian rose (155) shading deep 
in the throat, each segment pen- 
ciled on medial lines. A com- 
pact bloom of medium substance. 
Exquisite shape, crystalline color, 
well-open bloom. Good com- 
mercial color. 

Season — Late September; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (18), 
not branched. Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


Fic. 62. MRS. MILLINS 


GLADIOLUs STUDIES — III 395 


MRS. R. A. GOLDSMITH Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube very crooked, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and somewhat broader, the 
lower reflexed. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth nearly madder 
lake (122-111), white throat spotted and dashed sparsely with madder lake 
ei 22—1V). 
Season — Rather late; 111 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MRS. SCOTT DURAND Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Vaughan 

Synonym — Coblentz No. 304. 

Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, pink tipped; anthers reddish violet. Perianth bright 
scarlet (87-1v) with old blood red (103-1v) blotches on lower segments and yellow- 
green medial lines. Excellent substance, good shape. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 6 on a branch), 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


MRS. WATT Originator — Crawford 
Group — 
Stock from Crawford 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and broader. Stamen filaments red; styles lighter. Perianth crimson- 
red (114-111) with a lighter medial line on lower segment, and a light base of 
inferior, lower segment. The color is an excellent deep red. Blooms have good 
substance and are well arranged on a neat spike. Burt, in I91I, states that it 
is the best red in the plot. Four blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season, early August; 90 to 95 days. 

Spike -— Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with erect, medium broad, blue-green leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, though small are prolific. 


MRS. W. E. FRYER Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 

: Stock from Fryer; Wright (Red Canna) 

Synonym — Red Canna (Wright). 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers red-violet. Perianth poppy red (84-1) with 
amber-white (12-1) throat, penciled to form a blotch of crimson-red (114-1V). 
A bright-colored, wide-open, compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


396 3 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


MRS. W. L. THOMPSON Originator — Crawford 
Group — 
Stock from Crawford 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segments; 
the lower segments smaller than the upper. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers 
white. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-1) rather deeply splashed with deep rose-pink 
(120-1V), with a white medial line and a yellow-green throat. Flowers are well 
arranged. Colors dainty. Eight blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, free blooming (20 on main, 8 on secondary), often two 
branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, prolific. 


MRS. W. N. BIRD Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


I9I4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs : 
Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth carmine (116-1) or 
lilac-rose (Childs) with lines of lilac-purple (160-11) on a lemon-yellow throat. 
Compact, good substance. A good rose-colored variety. Four blooms open 
at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


MOHONK Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
I9I4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet, throat 
white stippled with geranium lake (89-1v). Good shape and color. Childs calls 
the color ‘‘ deep, dark pink.” 
Season — Medium to late; 116 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


MONGOLIAN Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Brown, 
1913 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish white; anthers lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) 
with dull Tyrian rose (155-1) pencilings and a small blotch, slight feathering of 
rose in segments. A compact bloom of medium good substance. Five to seven 
blooms open at one time out of doors, and eight to twelve in water. 
Season — Early to mid-season. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms ———————; cormels, 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — III 3907 


MONSIEUR A. BRONGNIART Originator — Brunelet 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers pinkish with violet sutures. Perianth deep 
rose-pink (120-1) splashed with Lincoln red (88-1), throat lemon-white. Compact 
bloom of good substance, dainty color, and good shape. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


MONSTER Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and very broad, the lower reflexed and 
much narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers white with violet sutures. 
Perianth “ pink, mottled salmon with a blue tinge.”” A good pink. Rather loose. 
Good substance for so large a bloom. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


MORNING GLORY Originator — Warnaar 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Warnaar 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, hooded, and broad, the lower 
slightly reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth 
scarlet (85-Iv) blotched with crimson-red (114-IV) with a deeper medial line and 
the slightest dash of yellow on the medial line of the blotch. Compact and of 
excellent substance. Well arranged on the spike. 
Season — Mid-season; 75 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow, short, rigid leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 


MOTTLED AMERICA Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G.S., 
I9I4 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Wright 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.)._ Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lilac. Perianth lighter than 
Rose Neyron red (119-1), thickly feathered with deeper than Rose Neyron red 
(119-1), throat intermixed carmine-violet (174-1). A somewhat loose bloom of 
medium good substance. Not the shape of America, nor does it in any way resemble 
America. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


398 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


MURIEL Originator — Pfitzer : 
Group — Lemoinei or nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout. ‘Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments pink; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth pale lilac-rose (178-1) 
thickly suffused, feathered, and blotched with plum-violet (172-1v). A compact 
bloom of exceptional substance. Color hardly pleasing. Blooms face downward. 

Season — Early to mid-season; 74 days. ; 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. - 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


NANCY RAY Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, very stout, medium short. Segments equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white with crimson bases; anthers lavender to violet. Perianth rosy 
white (8-Iv), inner segments pale pink (135-111), the lower segments blotched 
with crimson-red, often throat is not blotched and merely has a small area of 
color deep in the throat. Bloom symmetrical, that is, it can hardly be separated 
into upper and lower segments. Remarkable substance. Excellent light color. 

Season — Medium early; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19 on main, 16 on 
secondary), usually two branches. 

Hatit — Erect, tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad, clean, silver-green foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, small, prolific. 


NAPOLEON. See Burrel. 


NEGERFURST Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1905 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Boddington 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers deep red-violet. Perianth deep 
crimson-red (114-Iv), deeper at edges and feathered almost black; throat amber- 
white (12-1) intermixed with crimson-red (114-1), often with lighter medial lines. 
Compact, handsome bloom of velvety texture and tough substance. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


NELLIE Originator — Coblentz 
Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers almost 
black. Perianth scarlet (85-111), throat lemon-yellow (21-11) thickly. splashed 
with geranium lake, the color darker at the edges of the segments. Color good 
and clear. Four blooms open at one time. Extra good landscape variety. 
Seems to have Brenchleyensis blood in it, as it closely resembles that variety, 
but has wider segments. 
Season — Mid-season; 81 days. 


ee ei ee 


GLADIOLUS StuDIEs — III 399 


Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19 on main, 13, I1, 
and 10 on secondaries). Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. : 


NEW AMERICA (Crawford) _ Originator — Crawford.  Cataloged 
IQII 
Group — 


Stock from Crawford 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth bright rose (128-11) streaked 
a bit darker, throat light yellow-green marked with Tyrian rose (155-11), segments 
rather pointed. Often blooms appear rather irregularly on the spike. 

Season — Medium late; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). - 

Habit— Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, large. 


NEW AMERICA (Mallory & Brown) Originator — Mallory & Brown 
Group — 
Stock from Mallory & Brown 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-white (7-1), 
though often the color appears to be more pinkish. In any case the variety is 
lighter in color than America. Segments often feathered rosy pink. Throat with 
a yellowish green band penciled with Tyrian rose (155-IV). 
Season — Rather late; 115 days. 
Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (24). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


NEW CENTURY. See 1900. 


NEZINSCOTT Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


I9I4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Boddington; Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.).. Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish purple. Perianth 
poppy color (84-Iv) with a purple-garnet almost black (165-1v) dash and penciling 
in the throat, which is white at the base. An excellent color. 
Season — Medium early; 78 days. 
Spike — Short (50 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow, drooping 
leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


NIAGARA Originator — Banning 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Banning 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth yellowish white 


400 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


(13-Iv), throat and tips of segments feathered and splashed with crimson-carmine 
(159-IV). Splashes deep in throat are often not present. Excellent light color. 
‘Leads cream-colored varieties.”’ 

Season — Mid-season; 98 days. ; 

Spike — Tall (121 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (18-22). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


1900 Originator — Kennell 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Teas 


Synonym — New Century (Iowa Seed Company). 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers lavender. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-Iv), throat yellow-green marked with reddish violet (180-111). Good 
substance, brilliant color, segments acute or pointed. 

Season — Late; 105 to 115 days. ‘‘ Blooming till frost ”’ (Christy). 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, often curved, a large number of blooms (17). Two 
spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, few. 


NONPAREIL Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments bright pink; styles bright pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88), throat 
yellowish white forming a sharp point, blotched with carmine-purple (156—-1V). 
Excellent shape and substance. Color might be called a salmon-rose. Five 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19), two branches. 

Habit — Drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Unhealthy; plant well furnished with very broad but drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


OBERAMMERGAU Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and 
often broader. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers lavender. Perianth amber- 
white (12-11), lower lip very faintly tinted yellow-green (16-1), also a faint tinting 
of salmon in the outer segments. A good white. Seven blooms open at one 
time. Excellent spike of compact blooms of medium good substance. 3 

Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), two branches. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with broad, prominently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


OBERBURGERMEISTER VON BORSCHT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tub2 curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 


GLADIOLUS StTubDIEs — III 4OI 


narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth scarlet (87-1), the 
lower lip a glowing poppy red (84-11) with a broad dash of French purple (161-1Vv). 
A striking contrast between the upper and the lower segments. Compact bloom 
of medium substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 


OCTOROON Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1891 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers blue-violet. Perianth near reddish 
salmon (73-11) slightly feathered and suffused with carmine, throat lemon-yellow 
marked and penciled with Tyrian rose (155). A compact bloom of medium 
substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 99 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


OPHIR * Originator — Christy, 1904 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth yellowish white (13), often deeper, with 
a crimson-carmine (159-Iv) blotch, the medial line of which is lilac-purple (160- 
Iv). Rose-colored featherings are often found. Rather loose bloom of medium 
substance. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-August; 73 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


ORCHID (Kunderd) Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Flana- 
gan 
Group — 

Stock from Flanagan 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth amber- 
white (12-1), lower segments yellow, penciled with Tyrian rose (155-Iv). Com- 
pact bloom of medium substance and good color. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


2s Souchet originated a variety of this name; it was cataloged by Vilmorin in 1877. 


402 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


ORCHID (Woodruff) Originator — Woodruff. Intro. 1914 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, very stout, very short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure white, 
blotched with Tyrian rose (155-Iv), margined with amber-white (12-1v). 
round, compact bloom of excellent substance. Six blooms open at one time. An 
excellent spike of bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 73 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


ORIENT Originator —Christy. Seedling of 1907 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth pale rosy pink (129-1) shading from 
light to darker (129-1v), throat light cadmium yellow (23-1). Segments splashed 
and feathered with various tints of rosy pink. A dainty pink variety, called 
by Christy salmon-pink. 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 87 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, well arranged, a large number of blooms (15 on 
main, 7 and 8 on two branches). Four spikes often borne per corm, 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — ‘‘ Freely increasing by multiplication of large corms rather than production 
of cormels’”’ (Christy). Corms large; cormels, large, prolific. : 


PACTOLE (Lemoine) Originator — Lemoine. Previous to 
1894 
Group— Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Small (5-6 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) 
blotched with blood red. A very deep yellow. Very compact. Exceptionally 
good substance. 

Season — Late; 111 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


PACTOLE (Souchet) Originator — Souchet. Intro. 1894 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. _Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth ‘‘ pure light yellow 
bordered rose, the inferior divisions generally darker yellow, blotched carmine- 
rose.’’ Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 


GLADIOLUS STuDIEs — III 403 


PAINTED LADY Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth white with fine 
Tyrian rose (155-111) lines in the throat. About the same sort of variety as Snow- 
bank but of different shape and markings. (Snowbank not at hand for com- 
parison.) Four blooms open at one time. 
Season — Late; 110 days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cem.), erect, a fair number of hidosis (15), branched. 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 


PANAMA ” Originator — Banning 
Group — Gandavensis X Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet; style red. Perianth lavender- 
pink, a little more rosy tinted than mauve-rose (153-IV), the color becomes almost 
white in the throat. Lip marked with Tyrian rose (155-111), not quite so decided 
asin America. The color is slightly darker than that of America, and the substance 
is better. (See America.) 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


PAPER WHITE. See Crystal White. 


PAPILIO MAJOR Originator — 
Group — Gladiolus papilio 
Stock from Lemoine 
Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube very curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal, somewhat hooded, and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet. Perianth near 
dark old rose (149-11) feathered and flecked deeper and blotched with deep crimson- 
red (114-Iv) bordered by lemon-yellow. Compact, bell-shaped bloom of excellent 
substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 
Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


PAPILLON * Originator — Krelage 
Group — Lemoine 
Stock from Krelage 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube very stout, very short, curved. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream-white; anthers lilac, green tipped frequently. Perianth 
light mauve-rose (lighter than 153-1), blotched with French purple (brighter 
than 172-Iv) with a small area of yellow in the center of the lower segment. A 
most attractive lip. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Medium early; 74 days. 


77 Gravereau originated a variety by this name, ‘‘ about 1905,” rose-carmine in color. 
%Vilmorin catalogs a gandavensis variety by this name, originated in 1882. 


404 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. ; 


PARLIAMENT Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (15 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, pink tipped; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter 
than rose-pink (118-Iv) with blotches and medial lines of white. An excellent 
clear pink. Substance not the best. Seven blooms open at one time. Blooms 
appear on all sides of the spike sometimes. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 to 95 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on the main, 8 on 
a secondary). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


PARODY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-pink (126-1) 
very thickly splashed and feathered with madder lake (122-1v), in fact the mark- 
ings make the ground color negligible. Throat yellow-green finely dotted with 
madder rose. Bloom angular. Color not good, various seasons causing a great 
variation in the degree of splashing. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13 on main, 6 on a sec- 
ondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many, small. 


PARURE ” Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 
1895 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Gage 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and often broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers pink. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) with a light 
lemon-yellow throat slightly splashed with carmine. A very attractive color. 
Excellent substance. Five blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 to 92 days. ; 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), usually not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


PAUL BOHME Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1911 
Group — Gandavensis . 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 


2 Lemoine catalogs a nanceianus variety by this name introduced in 18098; this may be the same. 


GLADIOLUs StubiEs — III 405 


and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers orange. Perianth madder lake 
(122-1) with lighter medial lines, throat penciled with carmine lake (121-1Vv), 
a feathering of plum in outer segments. Not a clear color. 

Season — Medium early; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


PEACE Originator — Groff. Intro. 1899. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group 


Stock from Cowee 


Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers lavender. Perianth white, 
usually lilacy white (7-1), each of the lower segments striped with violet-rose 
(154-IvV), the upper often suffused and penciled with violet-rose (154-1). A 
dainty color. In many localities it is one of the best whites, at least it is an excel- 
lent lilacy white. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 96 days. 

Spike — Tall (120-130 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), often branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant very well furnished with exceptionally broad, promi- 
nently veined foliage. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, prolific. 


PERFECTION. See Taconic. 


PHILADELPHIA Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1905. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 


Stock from Cowee 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments spotted red; anthers violet. Perianth Rose 
Neyron red (more salmony than 119-1) splashed with deeper rose. Large blotches 
of carmine-purple (156-IV) on lower segments. Bloom well open, of good sub- 
stance, much spotted. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 to go days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 6 on a secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 


PHLEGETON Originator — Brunelet-Vilmonn. Intro. 
IgIO 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1v) 
with a blotch of intermixed Tyrian rose (155-IV) tipped by a dash of white. A 
well-open, compact bloom of good substance. Eight to ten blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. | 
Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 


406 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


PIGEON. See Gaiety. 


PINK BEAUTY Originator — Von Thol, 1893. Intro. 
Vos, 1909 
Group — 
Stock from Vos 


Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, short, stout. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper as well as the lower have the edges gracefully 
reflexed, the lower but slightly narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers lavender with blue suture lines. Perianth purple-rose (150-Iv) 
with a blotch on the lower segments shading from ox blood red (94-1v) to blood 
red (93-111). Large number of blooms out at one time. Neat-looking bloom 
of good substance, but color is too bright for a commercial variety. 

Season — Very early; first to bloom in 1913 (July 14); 63 to 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes usually 
produced per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad, short, rigid leaves. 


Corms — Large; cormels, few. ‘‘ First size cormels are good for sale in a year ”’ (Vos). 
PINK LADY Originator — Hoeg 
Group — 


Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose (153-1) 
with a slight shading of mauve-rose (153-IV) in the lower segment. Compact, 
of excellent substance. A good pink. Two to four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 113 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. ’ 


PINK PERFECTION Originator — Hopman 
Group — 
Stock from Hopman 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers Perianth rosy pink (118-11) with an amber- 
white (12-1) throat lined with carmine-purple (156-11). A rather loose bloom 
of medium good substance. Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 


PIONEER Originator — Souchet. Intro. 1907 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Synonym — Spelled Pionier by the introducer. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers pinkish lilac. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-1), 
throat lemon-yellow speckled and penciled with French purple (161-1v). Good 
clear color, showy and bright. Wide-open, compact bloom:of excellent substance. 


GLADIOLUS StTuDIEs — III 407 


Season — Early to mid-season; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


PLEIADE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1go1 
Group — Precoces 
Stock from Lemoine 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers reddish violet. Perianth scarlet (85-111) 
with large lemon-yellow throat marked with French purple (161-1v), a lined 
blotch. A compact bloom of good substance. A good scarlet. Four blooms 
open at once. 

Season — Early; 66 days. 

Spike — Short (60 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 


POCAHONTAS Originator — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 
IQI5 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments creamy white; anthers violet. Perianth amaranth 
red (168-Iv) with a lemon-yellow throat, blotched with plum-violet (172-1v). 
Color excellent, deep, attractive. Compact bloom of excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late, early September; 121 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), usually not 
branched. Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


PORTLAND Originator — Childs. Intro. 1902. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsti 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth near 
carmine lake (121-11), throat amber-white (12-1) mottled and dotted with currant 
red (115-Iv). Compact bloom of good substance. Five blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Mid-season; 88 to go days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


PRECOCITE Originator — Lemoine, 1901 
Group — Precoces 
Stock from Lemoine 


Bloom — Small (6cm.). Tube much curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 


408 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


filaments reddish; anthers reddish gray. Perianth scarlet (85-Iv), throat pure 
lemon-yellow (21-1) spotted and marked with scarlet (85-111). Loose bloom, 
poor substance, not especially attractive except for earliness. 

Season — Extremely early; 44 days. : 

Spike — Dwarf (55 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant poorly furnished with narrow, short, inconspicuous 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


PRECURSEUR Originator — Krelage 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Krelage 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender-pink. Perianth flesh 
color (139-111) blotched with purple-garnet (165-1v) bordered with deep lemon- 
yellow. A rather good color; bloom compact, of good substance, and well arranged 


on spike. 
Season — ‘‘ The chief merit of this variety is its remarkable earliness’ (Krelage). 67 
days. 


Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


PREMIERE Originator — Kunderd 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.).. Tube curved, short, stout. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers pale lilac. Perianth creamy white (10-1) 
blotched with amaranth red (168-1v) with a slight feathering of Tyrian rose. 
This variety resembles Renown in color and shape of bloom, but the blotch of 
the latter is smaller. Buds rather yellowish. Bloom compact, of good substance. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 73 to 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (12-17), 
not branched. Bracts bronze. Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Exceptional; plant very well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


PRESCOTT Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IQI4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tbe nearly straight, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
often broader. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-1), throat with a large blotch of Tyrian rose (155). Color not clear, rather 
washy. 
Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GriapioLus Stupizs — III 400 


PRESIDENT TAFT” Originator —Stewart. Intro. rgto. 
: Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long.  Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-111), throat yellow-green blotched with carmine, medial lines lighter. Dainty 
pink, well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 8, 7, and 
3, on branches). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


PRIDE Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with the edges reflexed, the 
lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth 
carmine-red (113-IV) with a very large area of yellow-green (17-1) in the lower 
segments. A striking contrast in color. Interesting and odd. Excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 12 and 7 on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


PRIDE OF GOSHEN Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 
1QI4 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth light reddish salmon (73-1) 
blotched with ox blood red (94-11). Compact bloom of excellent substance. 

Season — Medium late; 111 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


PRIMULINUS HYBRID (1/2 Ruffled) Originator — 
Group — Ruffled primulinus 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, decidedly hooded, and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth salmon- 
pink (74-1v), yellowish green throat with solferino red (151-IV) lines. Almost 
the identical markings of G. primulinus. A real salmon color, very attractive. 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 92 days. 

Spike — Very tall (114 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), six branches. Four 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Exceptionally vigorous; plant well furnished with leaves six centimeters wide. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, very prolific. 


_ “Vilmorin catalogs a gandavensis variety by this name, originated by Brunelet and introduced 
in IQIt, 


410 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


PRINCE GEORGE Originator — White | 
Group — 
: Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long.  Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower 
straight and broader. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-1) with white blotches almost completely covered with dots and intermixtures 
of currant red (115-IV). Colors clear and attractive, bloom compact. 

Season — Mid-season; 76 to 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), inclined to be drooping, a fair number of blooms (18 on main, 
g ona branch). Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit -— Not very erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Not vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, few. 


PRINCE HENRY OF YORK Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1901 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Synonym — King of Scarlets. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower reflexed. One of the lower segments very 
small. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth bright fiery red (79-111), 
area of crimson-carmine (159-IV) on lower segment. Good, clear color. Excellent 
substance. 

Season — 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, large. 


PRINCE OF INDIA Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed 
and often broader. Stamen filaments salmony; anthers salmon-pink. Perianth 
madder carmine (141-11) feathered and splashed with violet-lilac (175-1v), blotched 
with carmine-purple (156-Iv). A rather loose bloom of good substance. Color 
not clear. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


PRINCEPINE Originator — Kirchhoff. Intro. 1910 
Group — Princeps hybrid 
Stock from Kirchhoff 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth vermilion-red 
(87-1v), throat cream-yellow blotched with geranium red (111-1v). Bright in 
appearance. Three blooms open at one time. ‘‘ Good keeper and long dis- 
tance shipper.” 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, spreading. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, medium size. 


GuaDIOLus StupiEs — III AII 


PRINCEPS Originator — Van Fleet. Bloomed 1897. 
Intro. by Vaughan, 1903 
Group — Cruentus X Childsii 
Stock from Vaughan; Teas 
Bloom — Large (12-16 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and often broader. 
Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1v) with yellow- 
green medial lines and throat, throat penciled and dotted a deep shade of scarlet. 
Good clear color; bloom well open and flat; usually only two blooms are out at 
one time; excellent substance. Called the amary!lis-flowered gladiolus. 
Season — Late; 111 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, often crooked, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 7 on a secondary). 
Habit — Often drooping, medium tall, very spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 


DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PARENTAGE OF PRINCEPS 
G. oppositiflorus hybrids X G. psittacinus 
{a — 


= 
G. Saundersit x G. gandavensts 
a ee eee 
G. cruentus x G. Childsit 
(Mrs. Beecher) 
ae ee 8 Fe eee Ese 
Princeps 
PRINCESS OF ORANGE Originator — Kunderd 
Group — 


Stock from Brown 
(Described from cut spike.) 

Synonym — Formerly Kunderd’s Orange. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white, reddish tips; anthers dark violet. Perianth 
russet-orange (82-IV, really brighter than color given in color chart), throat lemon- 
yellow, rounded with a pointed dart foreward and bordered with a carmine-like 
coloration. A good bright-colored variety. Good substance, ships well. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


PRINCESS SANDERSONI. See Snowbank. 


PRINZESSIN VIKTORIA LUISE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1910 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth light carthamin red 
(88-1) with a lemon-yellow spot in throat edged by crimson-purple shading. 
Often feathered in outer edges of segments; slightly ruffled. A well-arranged 
spike of bloom. Twelve blooms open at one time. A compact bloom of 
extraordinary substance. 

Season — Medium late; 111 days. 

Spike — Very tall (120 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


A412 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY VAUGHAN’S SEED STORE 


Fic. 63. PRINCEPS 


GLaADIOLUs Stupbies — III 413 


PROFESSOR FLEISCHER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1911 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper decidedly hooded, causing it to separate from 
the others, the lower segment reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white 
with red tips: anthers lavender. Perianth tomato red (81-111) blotched with blood 
red (93-1V) with fine lines of yellow-green through the blotch, base of throat 
whitish. Shape extraordinary, good color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 95 days. 

Spike — Short (63 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 


PROMETHEUS } Originator — Krelage ° 
Group — 
Stock from Krelage 


Bloom — Very large (13.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers white mottled with lavender. Perianth 
poppy color (84-111); throat amber-white (12-1) penciled thickly so-as to form 
a blotch of French purple (161-1v), the color becomes lighter at the base of the 
throat; the segments usually strongly feathered with poppy. Bloom well open, 
of good substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early; 67 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, slender, graceful, a fair number of blooms (11), usually 
not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


PURITY (Stewart). See Meadowvale. 


QUEEN ESTHER Originator — Mellinger 
Group — 
Stock from Mellinger 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broader than the lower, which is also reflexed. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth Tyrian rose (155-I-11, the two 
shades are intermixed) blotched with deep Tyrian rose (155-1v). Bloom very 
compact, well shaped. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), ae a fair number of blooms (16 on main, Io and 7 on sec- 
ondaries). Three spikes frequently developed per corm. Spike is often weak 
at the tip. 

Haitnt — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium bibed leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


QUEENLY Originator — Groff 
Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy white with blotches 
of solferino red (157-1v) bordered by yellow-green. Featherings of solferino red 
often develop. Bloom circular in outline, and of good shape, color, and sub- 
stance; seems a commercial color. 

Season — Medium early; 72 to 75 days. 


414 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Spike — Medium tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), usually two 
branches. Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves.- 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 


QUEEN OF SHEBA Originator — May 
' Group — 
Stock from May 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. » Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth vermilion-red (87-1) 
with penciled blotch of geranium lake (89-Iv) on an amber-white (12-1) throat, 
segments often feathered. Bloom well open, of good shape, attractive color, 
and excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad.leaves. 

Corms — Large, red; cormels, prolific. 


RADIANCE Originator — Miller 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments bluish; anthers violet. Perianth crushed strawberry (109-IVv), 
throat amber-white (12-1) dotted with crushed strawberry, segments frequently 
feathered. Nine blooms open at one time. 
Season — Late; 110 days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


RAY Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight, though slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers lavender. 
Perianth carmine lake (121-11), the color becoming lighter toward the base of 
the segments; medial lines of upper segments white; the three lower segments 
blotched with carmine (112-1); within the carmine blotch and extending forward 
the medial lines are yellow-green. Segments rather thin, making them rather 
dainty though they do not lack substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, blooms freely (12), branched. Spikes rather weak 
when opened indoors. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, many. 


RED CANNA. See Mrs. W. E. Fryer. 


RED LION Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper vertical and broad, the lower reflexed and often 
broader. Stamen filaments white with vermilion tips; anthers violet. Perianth 


GLADIOLUs StubIEs — III 415 


fiery red (near 79-11) blotched with crimson-carmine (159-IV), a dash of yellow- 
green on the medial line runs into the blotch. Bloom rather laterally depressed; 
good colors. 

Season — Medium early; 78 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22 on main, 12 and 4 
on branches). Two spikes often per corm. 

Hatit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


RED, WHITE CENTER Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth cochineal red (83-11), color becom- 
ing lighter in the throat, the lower segments with a large area of lemon-yellow 
(21-1) finely and sparsely dotted with crimson-carmine. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 to go days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (24 on main, Io and g on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, small. 


REINE BLANCHE. See Reine de l’Anjou. 


REINE DE L’ANJOU# Originator — 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Ketcham; Velthuys (White 
Excelsior) 


Synonyms — Reine Blanche; Le Radium; Jeanne d’Arc; White Excelsior; Schnee- 
wittschen. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth pure white 
except deep in throat, where there is an area of Tyrian rose. A good white. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21 on main, 13 and II on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with excellent broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few or none. 


RENOWN Originatcr — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments lavender; anthers thin, a delicate violet. Perianth amber-white 
(12-11) often with slight Tyrian rose (155) markings (not found in spikes that have 
been opened indoors), lined blotch of Tyrian rose (155-111). The color though 
not clear, is good; the blotch is well defined; good substance. Three blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Medium early; 75 to 80 days. ; 

Spike — Tall (109-em:), erect, a largé number of blooms (21 on main, 12, 8, and 10 
on branches). . 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

_ 8 Lemoine catalogs a nanceianus variety of the name of Reine d'’Anjou, introduced in 1906, which 

4s carmuine. 


416 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad stiff leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


REUBEN H. WARDER. See America. 


REXFORD Originator — Crawford 
Group — 
Stock from Mallory & Brown; Craw- 
ford 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers deep lilac. Perianth rose-pink (118) thickly 
feathered with carmine (116-1v), white medial lines extend to the tips of the 
segments, throat amber-white (12-1) with Tyrian rose penciling and intermixtures. 

Season — Mlid-season; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 


RICHARD MILNER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Medium size. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and not broad, the lower reflexed and narrower, the lower 
inferior segment small, narrow. Stamen filaments lilacy white; styles yellowish. 

« Perianth white thickly splashed and feathered with crimson-carmine, yellow 
throat penciled with reddish along the medial lines. 

Season — August 30, 1911. 

Spike — Short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves promi- 
nently veined. 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 


RICHARD STRAUSS Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 
Group —- Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white, blue sutures. Perianth pure white with 
an amber-white (12-11) throat penciled with lilac (176-1). Good light color; 
blooms sometimes double, compact, and of good substance. Seven blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


RICHMOND RED. See Velvet King. 


ROCHESTER WHITE Originator —- Thomann 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Thomann 
Synonym — White Queen. By many this variety is said to be a synonym of Weisse 
_ Dame, or White Lady. 


GLapIoLus Stupies — III 417 


Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium 
long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers creamy white. 
Perianth pure white with a slight tinge of lemon-yellow on the three lower segments. 
This description also applies to Weisse Dame. Bloom compact, of good substance. 
As grown by Thomann it is unsurpassed by any other white, but it seems rather 
difficult for others to grow. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. Seems a little earlier than Weisse Dame. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — More vigorous than Weisse Dame; plant well furnished with broad bright 


green foliage. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few, small. 


ROMANCE Originator — Burchett 
Group — 
Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream-white; anthers cream, sutures lavender. Perianth yellowish 
white (13-Iv) with deep Tyrian rose (155-Iv) markings to form a blotch surrounded 
by yellow-green. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few or none. 


ROSEANN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 
IQI4 
Group — Childsii _ 
; Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1), throat lemon- 
yellow penciled and blotched with blood red (93-1v). A clear color. 

Season — Mid-season; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


ROSEDALE Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1896. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, often somewhat twisted, medium slender, 
medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, 
the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments red; anthers red-violet. 
Perianth deep lilac-rose (151), striped blotch of blood red (93-Iv) on amber-white 
(12-1) throat. Segments rather pointed in appearance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 
Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 
Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large: cormels, few or none. 


418 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


ROSELLA Originator — Cowee, 1904. Reg. A. 
G. S., 1914 

Group — Lemoinei (Gage); nanceianus 
(Woodruff) 


Stock from Cowee 

Synonym — Kathryn. 

Bloom —Very large (13 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pink; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-purple (156-11), large blotch of French 
purple (161-111) on a yellow-green throat. Color clear, bloom well open, compact. 
An excellent variety. The color might be described as a bright, deep rose. 

Mrs. Francis King, speaking of the use of this variety in the garden, says: 

“Rosella above Ageratum Stella Gurney cannot fail to be a success in color 
paintings; Rosella below Salvia Azurea, with the annual pink mallow near by; 
and last, Rosella with Baron Hulot, that small-flowered but ever-needed Gladiolus 
of the color known as Bishop’s violet. I am myself minded to grow Baron Hulot 
in the midst of Ageratum Stella Gurney — precisely as one lets a colony of Tulips 
appear above Forget-me-not; and Baron Hulot would be also most perfect among 
the fine, creamy flowers of Chrysanthemum Garza.”’ é 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, prolific. 


ROSE QUEEN * Originator — Christy. Intro. 1903 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 


Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink tipped; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1), 
throat lemon-yellow, segments thickly feathered and splashed with cardinal-red 
(112-11). Good open appearance, color mottled, lower segments often folded 
laterally, substance not extra. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (97 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, few. 


ROSE RED Originator — Auten 
Group — 
Stock from Auten . 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white. Perianth 
nearly carmine lake (121-11) blotched with crimson-carmine. Bloom wide open, 
nearly round, well arranged. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific. 


ROSE SALMON EXTRA Originator — Auten 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Auten 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium iong. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 


82 Franken Brothers catalog a variety by this name. 


GLADIOLUS STubIEs — III 419 


and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth salmony 
poppy red (more salmony than 84-1), large blotch of carmine lake (121-1v), which 
is rather inconspicuous, making the bloom almost a self color. Color good, bright; 
substance good. Few blooms open at one time. 

Season — Usually early September; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


ROSE WELLS Originator — Austin. Reg. A. G. S., 
Igi4 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Synonym — Austin No. 55. 

Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white, pinkish tips; anthers gray. Perianth light mauve-rose (153-1) 
with a blotch of Tyrian rose (155—-Iv shading to 155-11) bordered by deep yellow- 
green. Bloom is large, substance rather poor, colors clear and attractive. 

Season — Early September; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (111 cm.), erect, blooms freely (17 on main, with 5 and 6 on two 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


ROSY SPRAY Originator —Chiids. Intro. 1g1o. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
, Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments white, red flecked; anthers purple. Perianth lilacy white 
feathered and mottled with crimson-carmine, the lower segments striped with 
a broad penciling of crimson-carmine. The segments are reflexed so as to appear 
pointed. The splashing in the segments is so pronounced that the bloom should 
be called variegated. 
Season — Late; 115 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


ROUGE TORCH Originator — Groff. Intro. Tracy, 
I9I4 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers cream. Perianth amber-white (12-1) thickly 
suffused with salmon-carmine (125-1) blotched with deep carmine-red (114-IV). 
A compact bloom of good color and substance, well arranged on spike. Four 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, prolific. 


420 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


ROYALE Originator — Tracy 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Tracy ; 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender; short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-IV), 
blotched with Tyrian rose (deeper than 155-Iv). Compact bloom of good sub- 
stance. 

Season — Medium early; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


ROYALTY* Originator — Christy. Seedling of 
1907 
Group — 
Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth French purple (near 161-1), 
throat lemon-yellow bordered by lilac-purple (160-1v), medial lines whitish. Wide- 
open bloom with rounded segments, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late: 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


RUFFLED BIG FACE Originator — Kunderd 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers lilac, sutures violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) 
but so thickly splashed and veined with Tyrian rose (155-111) that the color appears 
different, throat stippled and marbled with Tyrian rose (155-1v), medial lines 
deep Tyrian rose, an intermixture of yellow in the throat. An attractive sort, 
compact, excellent substance, ruffled. 

Season — Medium late; 110 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


RUFFLED SALMON Originator — Kunderd 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 


Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers with violet sutures. Perianth 
Lincoln red (near 88-1) blotched with cardinal-red (112-111). Compact bloom 
of excellent substance, good shape, wide open, ruffled. a: 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of hlooms (8-9). 

Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


&% Kelway introduced a variety by this name in I9QII. 


GiapioLus StupiEes — III 421 


Fic. 64. RUFFLED SALMON 


422 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN II 


RUFFLED YELLOW 


Originator — Ikunderd 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 


Fic. 65. RUFFLED YELLOW 


vent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish 
white; anthers white, 
sutures blue. Perianth 
cream-yellow (30-11), 
throat splashed with Tyr- 
ian rose (155-Iv). Com- 
pact bloom of good sub- 
stance. Excellently 
arranged spike. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 
103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), 
erect, a fair number of 
blooms (18). 

Talit — Erect, medium tall, 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with medium 
broad Jeaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, 
large. 


RUTH 
Originator — Stewart. 
Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube very curved, medium 
slender, rather short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper reflexed and 
broad, the lower also re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
bright rose (128-1v), which 
in the throat blends into 
Tyrian rose (155-1), set- 
ting off a yellow-green 
throat dashed with deep 
Tyrian rose. Dainty 
color, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 
103, days. 


Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 and 8 


on secondaries). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 


Growth —Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 


Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


GiapioLus Stupies — III 423 


RUTHONY LONGSIDE Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-IV), throat 
lemon-yellow marked deep carmine-red (113 deeper than Iv). Very good bloom 
of velvety texture. 

Season — Not so early as 
the term July Flowering 
would imply; 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), 
erect, a fair number of 
blooms (14). 

Halit — Erect, tall, very 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms —Medium size; 
cormels, few. 


SAFRANO 
Originator— Souchet. 
Intro. 1899 
Group—Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 
em.). Tube curved, 
medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 
cream; anthers cream 
with violet sutures. 
Perianth near Naples 
yellow (29-111), called 
by Childs Nankeen 
yellow, with very pale 
violet-old-rose (145- 
wi?) markings in the 
throat. A trifle ruffled, 
dainty shape. Segments 
thick but brittle. 

Season — Mid-season, mid- 
August to late August; 
go to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 
em.), erect, a fair 
number of blooms (16), 
branched. Fic. 66. SAFRANO 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few but large. 


ST. LOUIS Originator —Childs. Reg. A.G.5., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. _Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 


424 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN It 


and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers yellow. Perianth scarlet (87-1v), — 
the inner segments more rosy than 87-Iv, medial lines and throat a lighter shade. 
Outer segments slightly ruffled and rather pointed. Spike not very well arranged. 

Season — Medium late; 108 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Halit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SALEM Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, reddish tinge; anthers violet. Perianth 
madder lake (122-1) blotched with carmine-red (133-111). 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms ( II). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage, silver-green in 
color. 
Corms — Large; cormels, small. 


SALMON Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1v but more 
yellowish), the throat striped with deep crimson-carmine (159-IV) on a white 
background. A good color. Childs calls the color salmon-pink. 
Season — Rather late; 110 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium-tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SALMONIA # Originator —Childs. Intro. 1904. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1974 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments yellowish; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-pink (74-1), lower inner 
segments pure aureoline yellow (22-1) with crimson-carmine medial lines, upper 
segments with yellowish green medial lines. A distinct color. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Halit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. | 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SALMON QUEEN (Woodruff). See Baltimore. 


3% Another Salmonia was introduced in 1864 by McTear. 


| 
‘ 


GLADIOLUS StupIEs — III 425 


SALMON RED NO. 16 Originator — Banning. Intro. Per- 
kins-King Company 
Group — 


Stock from Perkins-King Company 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-11) thickly 
feathered deeper, lemon-yellow throat speckled and penciled with carthamin 
red (88-1v). A rather loose bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (111 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), often two branches. Two 
spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Not vigorous; medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


SANDERSONI. See Snowbank. 


SANGUINE Originator — Cataloged 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Tracy 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth poppy color (84-1v) 
with a stippled throat of crimson-red (114-1v) dots on amber-white (12-1). Good 
color, attractive throat. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 80 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. Two spikes 
per corm. 
Hatit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


SANS PAREIL*® Originator — Vilmorin. Intro. 1902 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth scarlet 
(87-11) becoming lighter toward the center, throat and medial lines amber-white. 
A compact bloom of good substance. Childs describes the color thus: ‘‘ Very 
bright orange-rose, slightly striped vermilion with a large white spot.” 

Season — 80 days. . 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — The great susceptibility to disease almost limits its culture. Medium 
vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SARA. See Jean Dieulafoy. 


SARATOGA Originator —C hilds. Intro. 1898. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 4 
Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 


% Krelage, 1905, catalogs an early, dwarf variety of this name. 


426 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


and narrower. Stamen filaments white, scarlety tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth 
scarlet (87-11, considerable more orange than real scarlet), an amber-white throat 
marked with deeper scarlet. A rather poor-shaped bloom. 

Season — Mid-season to late. 

Spike — Tall (106 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SCARLET LETTER Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.).. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed laterally and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers violet. Perianth darkest scarlet (87-1v) with 
a large blotch of dark plum-violet (172-1v). Segments somewhat feathered with 
slatish scarlet. An excellent color. Five blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-August to late August; 95 to 97 days. 
Spike — Tall (119 cm.), erect, but often needs support, blooms freely (21 on main, 10 
and II on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


SCARLET VELVET Originator — Groff 
Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-1vV), throat amber-white (12-1) blotched with blood red (g2-Iv). A good 
color. Well open. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SCARSDALE Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1903. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 


Stock from Cowee 

Synonym — Cedar Acres Mauve. 

Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth a little lighter than rosy 
magenta (169-1), splashed throughout the segments with deeper rosy magenta, 
the throat penciled with the same color. Bloom large and showy, but under 
certain conditions the splashings make the bloom very mixed in color. The 
color is not very popular with some persons. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Very tall (135 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Very erect, but falls over badly when not staked, it being one ef the few 
varieties on the trial grounds that absolutely need staking. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, medium large size. 


SCHNEEWITTSCHEN. See Reine de 1’Anjou. 


GLADIOLUS StupiEs — III 427 


SCHWABEN Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short, Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments amber-white; anthers amber, violet sutures. Perianth amber-yellow 
(28-1) blotched in the throat with amaranth red (168-111) and shaded with lemon- 
yellow. A compact bloom of excellent substance. Six to eight blooms open at 
one time. Spike a little too thickly set with blooms 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20-22), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with rather broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


SCRIBE Originator — Childs. Intro. 1906 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Large (11-13 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, red tips; anthers white. Perianth lilac-rose (lighter than 152-1), 
throat with light solferino fine lines and intermixed area making a blotch. Segments 
often lightly feathered with carmine. A dainty color. A good shape. Nine blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21 on main, 7 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


SEPTEMBER Originator — White 
Group — 
Stock from White 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed 
segment. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) 
with a crimson-carmine (159-i) stippled throat blotch and a dash of lemon-yellow 
at the medial line of the blotch. White calls it ‘‘ Cattleya orchid color,—no 
better gladiolus on earth for commercial use.’? Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Early September; 110 to 115 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Hatt — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow grass-like foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


SHAKESPEARE (Cowee) Originator — Souchet. Cataloged 1877, 
Vilmorin 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Cowee 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white 
with crimson-carmine dash in the throat. Bloom a good light color, a standard 
commercial variety. Differs from Michell’s Shakespeare in that the latter is 
more angular, gandavensis-like, and the edges of the segments are regularly suffused 
and splashed, besides more blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-season; 87 to 89 days. 


428 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 ~ 


Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium to dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Good; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


SHAKESPEARE (Michell and others) Originator — Souchet. Cataloged 1877, 
Vilmorin 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Crawford; Michell 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth white 
suffused and feathered with carmine-purple (156-1), with a large crimson-carmine 
(159-1V) blotch. Nine blooms open at one time. The bracts surrounding the 
bloom are often very long. 

There are several Shakespeares, but, so far as those observed, they would all fit 
the description given, the main differences being in the shape and the degree of the 
feathering of the petals. 

Season — Medium early; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SHIRLY Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1910 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Small (6.5-7 cm.). Tube straight, very stout, very short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers faintest lilac. Perianth pale rosy pink (129-11) 
slightly feathered with deeper pink. Large French purple (161-1v) blotch on lower 
segments surrounded by lemon-yellow (21-11), a faint greenish white medial line 
on each segment. Striking bloom. Good substance. 
Season — Mid-season: 85 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), rather erect but often curved, a fair number of blooms 
(15 on main, and 11 and 7 on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. ~ 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SIDNEY GRANT (Ruff). See Velvet King. 


SIEGER Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (84) with a lemon-yellow throat 
penciled with Tyrian rose. A bloom of excellent color, leathery substance, well 
open, and compact: 
Season — Mid-season; about 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size, prolific; cormels, few. 


ee. ee 


GLADIOLUS StTupIEs — III 429 


SILVER STATE Originator — Wilmore 
Group — 
Stock from Wilmore 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-11) with a 
white throat marked with French purple (161-111). A rather loose bloom of medium 
good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Short (30 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, usually not branched. — 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, prolific. 


SIR H. D. WOLFF Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1898 
: Group — Kelwavi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers white. Perianth cardinal-red, white medial lines, lower part of 
small segments white with red penciling and striping. 
Season — August 9, I9II. 
Spike — Medium tall, erect, a large number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves prominently 
veined. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 


SIR JOHN CRAGLE Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Synonym — John Churchill Cragle. 

Bloom — Large (10-11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1) 
with pure amber-white throat, no markings. <A good color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 110 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, small, few. 


SIR MARCUS SAMUEL Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
nearly as broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth bright 
rosy scarlet (124-1), wide feathering or splashes of vermilion extending deep 
into the throat. A finely speckled throat of carmine-purple (156-Iv). A fine 
looking bloom. 
Season — Mid-season; 95 to 100 days. 
Spike — Very tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Halt — Rather drooping because of the great height, spreading, long branches. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


430 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


SIR THOMAS DEWAR Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Synonym — Also cataloged as Sir Thomas Drew. 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly 


straight and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers blue-violet. Peri- | 


anth Lincoln red (88-1), edges of segments splashed with dull purple lake, the 
lower segment with a lemon-yellow (21-11) spot penciled with ox blood red (94-1). 
Color not clear, splashing seems rather objectionable. 

Season — 82 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20 on main, 9 on a 
branch). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


SIR THOMAS DREW. See Sir Thomas Dewar. 


SIR WILLIAM INGRAM Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 
Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from Kelway 


Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers darkest violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-1) splashed with vermilion-red (87-1v); same marking in throat as Princeps 
has, but the markings are not so thick. Compared with Princeps, the color is 
less clear, it is earlier, and the throat markings more decided. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. 
‘Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


SMOKY VIOLET. See Evaline. 


SNOWBANK Originator — Cowee. 1900. Reg. A. 
G.'S:, 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Cowee 


Synonyms — Sandersoni or Princess Sandersoni. Much like Alice Carey (Teas) and 
Snowcrest. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
sometimes narrower. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure 
white, throat penciled and shaded laterally with solferino red (157-Iv), with an 
area of yellow at the side of the solferino red. Compact. Medium good substance. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.); erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SNOWCREST. See Snowbank and Alice Carey. 


GLaADIOLus Stupies — III] 431 


S. PARNELL Originator — Childs. Intro. 1908. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1v), 
the lower segments with dashes of deep crimson-carmine. Good substance. 
The specimens from the two corms in the plots for 1912 were so arranged that 
the main spikes and laterals were fused so that the blooms apparentiy came out 
from all sides of the spike in a whorl. Twenty-nine blooms occurred in the space 
of 30 centimeters. 

Season — Medium late; 111 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (29). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size. 


SPILLER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, slightly hooded, and broad, the 
lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers lilac. 
Perianth rosy pink (118-1v), fades lighter at the base. Each upper segment has 
a white medial line. Lower segments have carmine-purple (156-I1v) pencilings 
on a canary-yellow throat (17-1). Medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, and Io 
and II on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 


SPLENDOR Originator — Childs. Intro. 1893. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
broad. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) 
blotched with strawberry red (110-Iv). Excellent substance, good color. Childs 
calls the color ‘‘ soft rose, large magenta stain.” 
Season — Mid-season; 100 days. 
Spike — Short (61 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; rather poor narrow foliage, perhaps abnormal. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SPOT Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 


1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth _lilacy white 
splashed with Tyrian rose, throat mottled with Tyrian rose, making an attractive 
lined blotch. Medium substance. Well open. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — 92 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 


432 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


SPRING SONG Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. 
S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) with deep canary-yellow 
throat marked and feathered with Tyrian rose (155-1). A slight feathering 
throughout the segments. Bloom compact and of rather good substance. Four 
to seven blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-August. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


STERLING. See Minnesota. 
STEWART NO. 11. See Evaline. 


STEWART NO. 30 Originator — Stewart 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed, 
also broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth a little pinker 
than yellowish salmon sparsely feathered with deep rose-pink (120-11), throat 
marked by Tyrian rose (155-Iv and lighter). A delicate color. 
Season — Mid-season; 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 on 
secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, often drooping 
leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 


STEWART NO. 74 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower narrower and 
reflexed. Stamen filaments yellowish; anthers violet. Perianth light pure pink 
(134) splashed with deep rose-pink (120-1) with a lined blotch of crimson-carmine 
on a pale yellow throat. Bloom neat in shape; the color marbled; flowers show 
a strong oppositiflorus tendency. 
Season — Mid-season to medium Jate; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (17), two branches. Two 
spikes or three shoots often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 


GLADIOLUS STubIEs — III 433 


STEWART NO. 98 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
; Group — 
Stock from Stewart 
‘ Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and also 
5 broad. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-1v) but 
with a drab tinge, throat lined, with carmine-red (113-I1v). Seems a dainty color; 
well open; a rather compact bloom of good substance. 
Season — Rather late; Io1 to 105 days. 
Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


STEWART NO. 99 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
Groub — 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth reddish purple (161-1v) with a lemon- 
yellow throat, finely and sparsely dotted with reddish purple. Lemon-yellow 
medial lines in all segments. Would be called a good deep red. A compact bloom 
of medium good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


STEWART NO. 102 Originator — Stewart 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart : 


Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1v) speckled and lined with 
scarlet, throat amber-white (12-1). Good deep color. Six blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. __ 

Spike — Medium tall (74 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 


STEWART NO. 103 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; style white. Perianth scarlet (87-1) 
fading to crushed strawberry (109-1), medial line and faint streaks of raspberry 
red (117-IV) on a yellowish pink throat. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


434 CoRNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN 11 


STEWART NO. 108 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red- violet. Perianth purple-garnet (165-1) 
becoming much lighter at the edges, the amber throat thickly dotted with 
purple-garnet. Compact bloom of medium substance. Six blooms open at one _ 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes often 
borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, prolific. 


STEWART NO. 113 Originator — Stewart 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-Iv) splashed 
with deeper cerise, blotch of raspberry red (117-1v) bordered with lemon-yellow. 
A good pink. Bloom well open and of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 


SULPHUR KING Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. Reg. 
A. G.5S., 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 

Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium long, medium slender. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy 
white (10-IV), yellow-green blotch on lower segments, edges of segments marked 
with crimson-carmine. Bloom not very well open. 

Season — Early to later August; 102 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SULPHUR QUEEN Originator — Stewart. Intro. IgII. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 


Stock from Stewart 


Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. 'Perianth light canary-yellow 
(17-1), touch of Tyrian rose deep in the throat, no blotch. A good Clear color. 
Bloom possesses good substance. Four biooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-August; 93 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely (23 on main, 11 and 9 on scouneneon 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


GLADIOLUS StTUDIEs — III 43 


UI 


SULTANE Originator — Krela age 
Grou | ars Lemoinei hy brid 
Stock f: rom Kr elage 


Bloom — Med be curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 


TOWEer. 


CO ompac 

dium subst 
Season — Mec 

days. 
Spike — aioe tall (go 


branched. Two spikes 
per corm. 
Habit— Erect, medium 
tall, s 
Growth — 
well fur 


ak 
me 
= (1Q 
Lo} 
¢ 


Corms 


‘Armelc 
COITTICIS, 


SUNBEAM 


Originator — 
Peg 23 — Primulinus 
seec i 
Stock | from tain 
Bloom — Medium si 
em.). Tube curved, 
slend der, long. § 
ments unequal, 
vent; the upper |! 
and broa : 
teflexed a 
Stamen filament 
low; anthers yell 
with violet sutu 
Perianth near 
cadmium yellow 
I), medial line of 1 
segment ox blood red 
(94-Iv) not blotched, Fic. 67. SULTANE 
the outer segments 
faintly feathered. A compact bloom of good substance and good clear color. 
Season — Early August; 63 days. 
Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, graceful, a fair number of blooms (13 on main, 7 ona 
branch), the branches long. 
Hatit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with good broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 


436 CORNELL EXTENSION BULLETIN I1 


SUNSET * Originator — 
' Group — 
Stock from Tracy 


Bloom — Large (11-12 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, rather short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly 
straight and broad. Stamen filaments dirty white; anthers lavender; style 
yellow. Perianth nearly madder lake (122-11). Good color, good substance, well 
open, attractive blotch. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


SUNSHINE * Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 


Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers cream with lilac sutures. 
Perianth lemon-vellow (21), throat dashed with Tyrian rose (155-1). Much 
resembles Victory, Isaac Buchanan, and others. Flowers have a tendency to 
double. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Medium late; 111 days. < 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Tall, erect, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


SURPRISE*® Originator — Childs 
Group — 
Stock from Cavers 


Bloom — Small (5.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers gray. Perianth outer segments geranium red (111-1), 
inner segments rosy pink (118-1), blotches of carmine-purple (156-Iv) cut by 
medial line of amber-white. Not a good color. Not a very attractive variety. 
Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 


TACONIC Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1900 
Group — 
Stock from Cowee 


Synonyms — Perfection; Gertrude. George Betscher said to be a synonym. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth rosy pink (118-1v) flecked 

-with Rose Neyron red (119-11I-Iv), throat lighter in color. On the lower segments 
is a blotch of strawberry red (110-1) deeper at the medial line, the blotch tipped 
by a dash of lemon-yellow. - A good color, well-arranged spike, medium substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 


% Childs catalogs a pink variety of this name. 
31 Kelway originated a variety by this name in 1902. : 
33 Lemoine and Vilmorin have each originated varieties by this name. 


7. 


GLADIOLUS StTupIEs — IJI 437 


Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (17-22). Two spikes per corm. 
Hatit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with prominently veined leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 


TALLEST YELLOW. See El Capitan. 


TALLYHO Originator — Austin 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 


Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nearly as broad 
as the upper. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth lilacy white 
(7-1) blotched with Tyrian rose (155) bordered by a slight shading of yellow. 
Flowers face various directions; the segments have a tendency to roll; a rather 
loose bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Hatit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 


TAVISTOCK Originator — Gage 
Group — Princeps hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
— ; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-111), throat amber-white 
(12-1) penciled with crimson-carmine (114-I1v). Mr. Gage writes: ‘‘ The 
red is not quite so bright, and the light blotch is less conspicuous than in Princeps